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考研英语写作分册
考研强化班网络课堂写作
北京新东方学校 王江涛
第一节 考研写作总论
一、课程安排:
  1、考研写作总论:复习计划、学习方法、大纲解读
  2、段落写作:框架结构、启承转合
  3、图画作文:大纲样题、
  05-10 真题
  4、应用文:书信、备忘录/报告、摘要、告示 二、复习计划: (一)考前冲刺:
  1、攻克词汇:
  2、精研真题:
  94-10 共 15 年真题
  1)词汇:没有一个词汇不认识
  2)选项:没有一个选项不了解
  3)句子结构:没有一个句子结构不清楚
  4)背诵:考研阅读经典文章
  5)英译汉:
  3、适当模考:11 年 1 月 (二)时间分配:
  1、
  14:
  00-
  14:15 写作 A 节
  2、
  14:
  15-
  14:50 写作 B 节
  3、
  14:
  50-
  16:00 阅读 A 节
  4、
  16:
  00-
  16:20 阅读 B 节(新题型)
  5、
  16:
  20-
  16:40 阅读 C 节(翻译)
  6、
  16:
  40-
  17:00 完型填空 三、学习方法: (一) 提高实力:
  1、 背诵:滚瓜烂熟、脱口而出、多多益善(20 大必背范文见附录)
  2、 默写:发现写作弱点
  3、 中译英:提高写作实力
  4、 写作:模仿 (二)掌握技巧:万能框架 四、大纲解读:考研写作两大黄金原则 (一)印象原则:书写工整、卷面整洁、字迹清晰 2008 真题: Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
  1) describe the drawing briefly,
  2) explain its intended meaning, and then
  3) give your comments.
1
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考研英语写作分册
Cooperation, team work, team spirit, help each other (二)语言第一位、结构第二位、内容第三位:
  1、语言:
  1)基本正确
  2)丰富多变(词汇+句型)
  2、结构:
  1)段落结构:总分总结构 (
  1)主题句:1 句,改写提纲 (
  2)描述或论证:
  2-3 句 (
  3)小结:1 句
  2)评分标准: (
  1)关联词:小作文
  3-5 个、大作文
  5-7 个 (
  2)同义替换:词汇+句型 (
  3)代词替换:it, that, they
  3、内容:观点/思维 附:考研写作大纲要求 (一)评价目标: 考生应能写不同类型的应用文,包括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等,以及一 般描述性、叙述性和说明或议论性的文章。短文写作时,考生应能:
  1) 做到语法、拼写、标点正确,用词恰当;
  2) 遵循文章的特定文体格式;
  3) 合理组织文章结构,使其内容统一、连贯;
  4) 根据写作目的和特定读者,恰当使用语域。 (二)考试内容: 该部分由 A、B 两节组成,考查考生的书面表达能力。总分 30 分。 A 节:考生根据所给情景写出一篇约 100 词(标点符号不计算在内)的应用性短文,包 括私人和公务信函、备忘录、摘要、报告等。考生在答题卡 2 上作答。总分 10 分。
2
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考研英语写作分册
B 节:考生根据提示信息写出一篇 1
  60-200 词的短文(标点符号不计算在内) 。提示信 息的形式有主题句、写作提纲、规定情景、图、表等。考生在答题卡 2 上作答。总分 20 分。 (三)评分原则和方法:
  1、虽然 A、B 两节的考查要点有所不同,但对考生写作能力的基本要求是相同的,所 以一般评分标准对两节都适用。但根据两节的不同考查要点,评分是会有不同的侧重点。 A 节应用文的评分侧重点在于信息点的覆盖和内容的组织、语言的准确性、格式和语域 (指在书面和口语表达中根据不同的交际对象,所采用的话语方式,即正式、一般、非正式 的话语)的恰当。对语法结构和词汇多样性的要求将根据具体试题作调整。允许在作文中使 用提示语中出现过的关键词,但使用提示语中出现过的词组或句子将被扣分。 B 节作文的评分重点在于内容的完整性、文章的连贯组织性、语法结构和词汇的多样性 及语言的准确性。
  2、评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言确定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来给分。 评分人员在档内有
  1-3 分的调节分。
  3、A 节作文的字数要求是 100 词左右。B 节作文的字数要求是 1
  60-200 词。文章长度 不符合要求的,酌情扣分。
  4、拼写与标点符号是语言准确性的一个方面。评分时,视其对交际的影响程度予以考 虑。英、美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。
  5、如书写较差,以致影响读者理解,将分数降低一个档次。
第二节 段落写作
一、考研论说文框架结构:3 段,12 句左右,1
  60-250 词,
  5-7 个关联词(适可而止) ,5 -7 个从句(多多益善) (一) 第一段:图画/表描述,3 句
  1、 总体描述:人物/动物/事物+动作+环境,1 句 2008 真题: Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
  1) describe the drawing briefly,
  2) explain its intended meaning, and then
  3) give your comments.
3
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考研英语写作分册
Two disabled/handicapped young men are running/walking/striding forward/continuing their new journey on the ground/in the fields.
  2、 挖掘细节词、串连成句:
  1-2 句 08: Their tools/cruthces are left behind. Two of their legs are bound together. They are supporting each other with their firm hands. Crutches 独立主格结构:Crutches left behind and legs bound together, they are supporting each other with their firm hands.
  3、 文字说明/象征寓意:1 句
  1) The caption reads, “…”.
  2) We are informed that “…”. 08: The caption reads, “You have only/merely one leg and so do I. Helping each other, we can travel all around”. (二) 第二段:意义阐释,5 句
  1、 主题句:象征寓意,1 句
  2、 论证:3 句
  1) 因果论证:Cause and Effect Lack ability, lack experience, advantages and disadvantages, fierce competition, pressure/stress, face difficulties and challenges
  2) 举例论证:Exemplification successfully host the 29th Olympic Games the successful launch of Chang’e NO. 1 lunar probe Yao Ming, Liu Xiang
  3) 联系现实:图画作文创作原则(以小见大,把握象征寓意,个体想为 群体,具体想为抽象) 2002 20
  02:
4
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考研英语写作分册
Directions: Study the following picture carefully and write an essay entitled “CulturesNational and International” In the essay you should
  1. describe the picture and interpret its meaning, and
  2. give your comments on the phenomenon. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET II.
An American girl in traditional Chinese costume Represent, symbolize, epitomize, be naturally associated with
  3、 小结:1 句 (三) 第三段:建议措施,4 句
  1、 结论句:1 句
  2、 针对双方提建议:2 句
  3、 包装结尾、展望未来:1 句
  1) Only in this way can we solve the problem.
  2) It is high time that we solved the problem. 评卷实例:2001 年真题 Directions: Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone had his/her own understanding of it. There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to
  1) show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,
  2) give a specific example, and
  3) give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.
5
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考研英语写作分册

  1、范文一:18 分范文 It is generally believed that love is a hot topic which is most talked about. This is true not only in China but also in other countries. We live in different countries, speak different languages, but love is something common to us all. But how to show love may be different with different people in different countries. This is something we should give more thought to. As is shown in the picture, love is like a lamp which shines brightest in dark places. This tells us a simple truth: Love is like a lamp. It is most valuable when it is most needed. For example, once I saw a foreign lady get lost in the street. She could not speak Chinese and nobody seemed to be able to help her. Though my English is not very good and I am a shy person, I thought she needed help very much. I asked her what she wanted. She told me she lost her way, so I showed her the way to her hotel. It was a small thing but she thanked me very much because my help was needed very much. My help was like a lamp in dark places. I think we all should be like a lamp in a dark place, showing our love, giving our help to others, even to strangers. In this way, we can make this world a harmonious and peaceful world. 考研写作七大高分技巧:
  1)大量使用物称代词作主语
  2)大量使用被动语态
  3)大量使用定语状语
  4)大量使用精彩从句
  5)大量使用精彩句型
  6)大量使用主系表结构
  7)大量使用精彩词组
  2、范文二:20 分范文: Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest. It is of the utmost importance to the human beings. Everybody not only needs love, but also should give love. As is described in the picture, “love is a lamp which is brighter in darker places.” This is indeed true. People in darker places need more light than ordinary people. Maybe even a dim light can give them much hope for a better life and progress. Maybe even a dim light can give them much hope for a better life and progress. Maybe just a thread of light will call forth their strength and courage to step out of their difficulties. For instance when someone is starving to death, just a little food and water from you may save his life. Or when a little girl in a poor rural area drops out of school because of poverty, just a small sum of money from you may support her to finish her schooling and change her life, you have given love which is like a lamp in a dark place where light is most needed.
6
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考研英语写作分册
So to sum up, we should offer our help to all who are in need. We expect to get love from others and we also give love to others so when you see someone in difficulty or in distress and in need of help, don’t hesitate to give your love to him. I believe then the relationship between people will be harmonious and our society will be a better place for us to live in. 二、启承转合: (一) 启:启动观点、开篇点题 (二) 承:观点承接、正面论证
  1、 First(ly), In the first place, First and foremost, Above all, On the one hand, For one thing,
  2、 Second(ly), In the second place, Besides, In addition, What is more, Furthermore, Moreover, On the other hand, For another
  3、 Third(ly), (The) Last but not (the) least, More importantly, Even worse, (三) 转:观点转折、反面论证 conversely, nevertheless, unfortunately, whereas, yet, instead, in/by comparison/contrast, on the contrary (四) 合:文章结尾、合并归纳 As a result/consequence, Consequently, Accordingly, Thus, Hence, Generally/Briefly speaking,
第三节 图画作文
一、大纲样题(2000 年写作真题) : Directions: A. Study the following two pictures carefully and write an essay of 160-200 words. B. Your essay must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET
  2. C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
  1. Describe the pictures.
  2. Deduce the purpose of the painter of the pictures.
  3. Suggest counter measures. A Brief History of World Commercial Fishing
As is shown in the pictures, we can see that with the increase of commercial fishing the fishing,
number of fishes sharply decreased. In one picture, there were various kinds of fish and only one fishing-boat in 1900 On the contrary, in 1995 there was only one fish, but many fishing-boats 19
  00. fishing-boats. The purpose of this picture is to show us that due attention has to be paid to the decrease of
7
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考研英语写作分册
ocean resources Owing to over-fishing the number of fishes has obviously decreased. If we let resources. over-fishing, this situation go as it is, we won’t know where fish is in the future. By that time, our environment will suffer a great destruction. Therefore, it is imperative for us to take drastic measures. For one thing, we should appeal to our authorities to make strict laws to control commercial fishing For another, we should enhance fishing. the awareness of people that the ocean resources are vital to us. Only in this way can we protect our ocean resources Also I believe that we human beings can overcome this difficulty and we resources. difficulty, will have a bright future. 写作练习五步骤:
  1、读懂:十遍精读:
  1) 精彩词汇
  2) 精彩词组
  3) 精彩句型
  4) 句子结构:简单句(主干+修饰成分) 、从句、时态、冠词、主谓一致
  5) 段落结构:总分总,主题句+论证(+小结
 

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