1. There are
many different several a number or
causes factors
for the
dramatic marked significant
increase changes decrease problem

  2. There are several reasons for my
preference choice decision
First, …
  3. Why … ? For one thing, … One reason is…
Second, … For another,…
primary Finally / Perhaps the main most important
reason cause reason causes
is… complicated many profound

  4. The
for … are

  5. A number of factors could
explain result in account for contribute to
success change the choice decision

  6. Another
cause factor reason

  7. … also
is responsible for plays a part in contributes to
rise the problem

But Perhaps
most important primary root convincing compelling important
reason cause

  9. Among the most
reasons causes
given cited identified
by people for…, one should be
stressed considered mentioned

  10. The
change increase decrease
mainly largely partly
result/arise from is attributable/due to is because of
the fact that… several

  11. One may
attribute ascribe owe
increase the decrease change
back to…

  12. One may trace the
trend problem phenomenon
back to…

  13. … is not
the only answer by itself an adequate explanation the whole story

  14. But it doesn't
answer explain
question problem
why… / of…
  15. You may blame for attribute to
…, But the
causes roots
for the problem phenomenon
go far deeper.

  16. The fault is with
teenagers women

  17. Factor / We may look into every / The leading cause
factor possible reason
except the real one.

  18. It is no
easy simple
task job
find give
the reason for this
complicated phenomenon deep-seated tendency
which involves
many / several
According to As can be seen from As shown in It is clear / apparent form chart graph table diagram chart / graph table, diagram figure / statistics


  2. The
reveals shows suggests

  3. From the
statistics information
table given in the graph chart
, we can
estimate see conclude

  4. The
number figure percentage
nearly of … almost more than
doubled tripled
as compared with as against
those that
of last year. figure
  5. The number percentage increased dropped decreased more than almost about six times , compared with… twice two and a half times

  6. The
percentage number
twice 4 times half
as much as
that those
of 19

  7. The
rate number
was X percent,
less more
half a third quarter
of the 1998 total.

  8. By comparison with 1990, it
shot up jumped increased rose decreased dropped fell
by X percent from X to Y percent to X percent

  9. It has
reached approached risen to
something of plateau X percent an average of X percent
in the past few years in 1998

  10. It accounts for 15 percent of the total. less than more than almost about over as many as nearly

  11. By 1998,
three-quarters of X percent of one out of five one in four one half / third of
housewives graduates young couples the number of students

  12. A has
almost / nearly about / over
a quarter half / twice one third
as many students as as much money as

  13. A has
about / approximately exactly / precisely
number the same proportion amount
students money

During the period 1970-1999 From 1910 to 1974 Since 1980 Since the early 1980s
… there
was has been
sudden sharp dramatic a marked steady slight gradual fall
jump rise increase fluctuation decrease decline reduction drop
the number of people who personal income college population

  15. The number of…
increased jumped rose decreased declined dropped fell fluctuated
suddenly rapidly / slowly dramatically significantly slightly gradually sharply
from 1988 to 1990 during the five-year period.

  16. There
was has been
X accidents / suicides a X percent increase decrease
in since
an increase of 3 percent in a three-month period up from X percent for the same period last year

  17. that is the
second-highest third-lowest
rate in history.

  18. The
number percentage
steady stable unchanged
during the decade between 1990 and 1995 from 1990 to 1995
  19. The figure
  20. The figure reached picked reached
a peak a high point a low point the bottom
in March at 20%
90 percent, the highest level ever recorded since 1960

  1. First, … Second … Worse still… create lead to give rise to

  2. It may
host multitude
of problems

  3. It will
have exert a produce
considerable profound beneficial favorable undesirable negative
influence effect
on …

  4. It may
cause produce bring about
considerable marked / drastic sweeping favorable / undesirable dreadful serious pernicious
change rise

  5. This will
entail bring involve

  6. There are a number of
negative undesirable serious
effects on consequences of

  7. The
consequence influence effect
has not been
confined limited
to …

  8. The
immediate eventual
result it
produces brings about

  9. Just
think imagine
that what would happen
if …

Personal experience Examples I read of
show(s) that …

A good case in point Classic example
is …

  1. Personally, I'm
in favor of like / prefer

One Another The biggest
advantage benefit
is that…

It has They have
advantages strengths
disadvantages weaknesses

  4. The advantages of B
outweigh the benefit we gain from carry more weight than those of are much greater than those of

  5. The effect of
comparison contrast
is heightened by another advantage B enjoys
sounds ridiculous
  6. A's advantages means nothing when B's advantages are
mentioned considered taken into consideration

  7. When the advantages and disadvantages of … are carefully compared, the most striking finding conclusion is self-evident obvious has enjoys gains distinct enormous considerable

  8. Although A with B in …
advantage of…, it can't compete…

By contrast, On the contrary,

Despite these advantages, Like anything else, Good as A is
also has brings
its own disadvantages problems harmful effects

  1. Whether it has more advantages
or vice versa, does more harm than good
one thing is certain: …

  2. The great
problem trouble
with the
method way
is that …

True, To be sure, Admittedly,

this is not to say but it doesn't mean It doesn't follow
that …

  4. You may
argue say
that…, but…

  5. There is no
denying doubt question

  6. A good
case in point example

  7. I doubt whether the argument bear
close analysis much examination

As opposed Contrary
widely commonly generally
held accepted
ideas, belief, views,
I argue…

  9. Although the
popular nationwide commonly-accepted
belief idea assumption
is that …,
new recent
study survey poll
indicates reveals uncovers

  10. Although there is a tendency to think that…
  11. They may be right about…, but they seem to fail to mention take into account

Logic Valid Sound
as are these arguments, they appear
insignificant absurd
when… is taken into consideration account.

  13. The
problem flaw
with the
View argument

  14. There is an element of truth in the basic import ant fact/reason that…
view argumen
but they ignore a deeper and more

  15. What these people fail to understand is that… Take…for example, For example, … Suppose that…



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