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考研英语阅读?复习方法讲义 考研英语阅读?复习方法讲义 英语阅读
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阅读理解( 版基础) 阅读理解(2010 版基础)
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  1.时间分配
  2.具体步骤四步走 ①扫描题干划出关键词 ②通读全文,抓住中心 ⑴文章叙述的主要内容是什么 ⑵文中有无提到核心概念 ⑶作者的大致态度是什么 ③仔细审题,返回原文(两大定位原则) ⑴关键词定位原则:从题干出发,寻找题干中关键的信息 如:大写字母、人名、地名、数字、时间… ⑵自然段介定定位原则(出题的顺序与行文的顺序是大体一致的) ④重叠选项,得出答案
Passage 1 A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.
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It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreign made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. America's machine-tool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty. All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas. How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self doubt has yielded to blind pride. "American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity," says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as "a golden age of business management in the United States."

  1. The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because . [A] it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal [B] its domestic market was eight times larger than before [C] the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors [D] the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy
  2. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American . [A] TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market [B] semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
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[C] machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions [D] auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
  3. What can be inferred from the passage? [A] It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pride. [B] Intense competition may contribute to economic progress. [C] The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation. [D] A long history of success may pave the way for further development.
  4. The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the . [A] turning of the business cycle [B] restructuring of industry [C] improved business management [D] success in education
Text 4 The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect," a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects ? a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen ? is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect. Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient. Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctors who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death." George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, maintains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to hasten death. "It's like surgery," he says, "We don't call those deaths homicides because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked their death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide." On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide
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debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modem medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care. The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospitals, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life. Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives translate into better care. "Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering," to the extent that it constitutes "systematic patient abuse." He says medical licensing boards "must make it clear ... that painful deaths are presumptively ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension."

  56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that [A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain. [B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives. [C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide. [D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.
  57. Which of the following statements is true according to the text? [A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death. [B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery. [C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed. [D] A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions.
  58. According to the NAS's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is [A] prolonged medical procedures. [B] inadequate treatment of pain. [C] systematic drug abuse. [D] insufficient hospital care.
  59. Which of the following best defines the word "aggressive" (line 4, paragraph
  7)? [A] Bold.
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[B] Harmful. [C] Careless. [D] Desperate.
  60. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they [A] manage their patients incompetently. [B] give patients more medicine than needed. [C] reduce drug dosages for their patients. [D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients.
单词记忆
一、单词记忆
  1.词汇书(根据最新大纲编写的,有音标,有例句,带 MP3 或磁带) 大面积的看几遍 2005 开始删除 200 个旧单词,变成了 5500 个
  2.真题(1994?20
  06) 生词超纲率≤3% Passage 4 "I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we'll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. "But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur, he discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available." This year, 50 percent of the 910,000 people who suffer from cancer will survive at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates, that figure will be 75 percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90 percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging ? 13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas. With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes, are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous. The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. "Changes are a normal part of the evolutionary process," says oncologist William Hayward, Environmental
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factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out, "We can't prepare a medicine against cosmic rays." The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter. "First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself, Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are al-ways responsible for at least part of the trouble. If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action."

  63. The example of Pasteur in the passage is used to . [A] predict that the secret of cancer will be disclosed in a decade [B] indicate that the prospects for curing cancer are bright [C] prove that cancer will be cured in fifty to sixty years [D] warn that there is still a long way to go before cancer can be conquered
  64. The author implies that by the year 2000, . [A] there will be a drastic rise in the five-year survival rate of skin-cancer patients [B] 90 percent of he skin-cancer patients today will still be living [C] the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers [D] there won' t be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients
  65. Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes . [A] that are always in operation in a healthy person [B] which remain unharmful so long as they are not activated [C] that can be driven out of normal cells [D] which normal cell can't turn off
  66. The word "dormant" in the third paragraph most probably means . [A] dead [B] ever-present [C] inactive [D] potential
词汇题思路
词汇题思路 ①返回原文,找到该词汇出现的地方 ②充分利用上下文是解题的关键 ③词汇题的正确答经常蕴藏在原文该词汇出现的附近 如:定语从句,特殊的标点,同位语…… ④两种类型 ⑴超纲词汇的考察 ⑵考察熟词僻意,或是词汇在特定场合的含义
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Passage 4 "I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we'll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise," says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. "But," he cautions, "some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur, he discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available." This yea
 

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