新东方 2010 年考研英语阅读理解电子版教材 2010 第一课时 考研英语阅读:
  1. 重要性
  2. 阅读思路的转变
  3. 考研文章的体裁和来源
  4. 考研阅读大纲要求 第二课时 Passage Unit 7-Passage 1 A hisforry of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competiforr, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed. It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreign made cars and textiles were sweeping infor the domestic market. America's machine-forol industry was on theropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconducforrs, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going for be the next casualty. All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans sforpped taking prosperity for granted. They began for believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin for fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another infor the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from
overseas. How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely for such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self doubt has yielded for blind pride. "American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt for be more quick witted," according for Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "It makes me proud for be an American just for see how our businesses are improving their productivity," says Stephen Moore of the Cafor Institute, a think tank in Washingforn, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as "a golden age of business management in the United States."
  1. The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because . [A] it had made painstaking efforts forwards this goal [B] its domestic market was eight times larger than before [C] the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competiforrs [D] the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus for its economy
  2. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American . [A] TV industry had withdrawn for its domestic market [B] semiconducforr industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises [C] machine-forol industry had collapsed after suicidal actions [D] aufor industry had lost part of its domestic market
  3. What can be inferred from the passage? [A] It is human nature for shift between self-doubt and blind pride. [B] Intense competition may contribute for economic progress. [C] The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.
[D] A long hisforry of success may pave the way for further development. 答案:C D B 考研英语阅读解题思路:时间安排 1 : 1,解题步骤四步走 If you intend using humor in your talk for make people smile, you must know how for identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant for the audience and should help for show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking for a group of managers, you may refer for the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want for comment on their disorganized bosses. Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a sforry which works well because the audience all shared the same view of docforrs. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on.. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes forthe head of the line, grabs his food and sformps over for a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that's God." came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he's a docforr." If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position for know the experiences and problems which are common for all of you and it'll be appropriate for you for make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's noforrious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt for cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick for scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system. If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff
remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience for smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help for show that you are making a light-hearted remark. Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote " If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.
  41. For make your humor work, you should [A] take advantage of different kinds of audience. [B] make fun of the disorganized people. [C] address different problems for different people. [D] show sympathy for your listeners.
  42. The joke about docforrs implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are [A] impolite for new arrivals. [B] very conscious of their godlike role. [C] entitled for some privileges. [D] very busy even during lunch hours.
  43. It can be inferred from the text that public services [A] have benefited many people. [B] are thefocus of public attention. [C] are an inappropriate subject for humor. [D] have often been the laughing sforck.
  44. For achieve the desired result, humorous sforries should be delivered [A] in well-worded language. [B] as awkwardly as possible. [C] in exaggerated statement. [D] as casually as possible.
  45. The best title for the text may be [A] Use Humor Effectively. [B] Various Kinds of Humor. [C] Add Humor for Speech. [D] Different Humor Strategies. The Supreme Court's suicide decisions carry on
implications for how medicine seeks for relieve dying patients of pain and suffering.
Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right for physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect," a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects ? a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen ? is permissible if the acforr intends only the good effect. Docforrs have used that principle in recent years for justify using high doses of morphine for control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the patient. Nancy Dubler, direcforr of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield docforrs who "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation for control their pain if that might hasten death." George Annas, chair of the health law department at Bosforn University, maintains that, as long as a docforr prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purpose, the docforr has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug for hasten death. "It's like surgery," he says, "We don't call those deaths homicides because the docforrs didn't intend for kill their patients, although they risked their death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long as you don't intend their suicide." On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modem medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide, the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-life care. The profession is taking steps for require young docforrs for train in hospitals, for test knowledge of aggressive pain management
therapies, for develop a Medicare billing code for hospital-based care, and for develop new standards for assessing and treating pain at the end of life. Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meaning medical initiatives translate infor better care. "Large numbers of physicians seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suffering," for the extent that it constitutes "systematic patient abuse." He says medical licensing boards "must make it clear ... ones that that painful are deaths are presumptively incompetently
managed and should result in license suspension."
  56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that [A] docforrs used for increase drug dosages for control their patients' pain. [B] it is still illegal for docforrs for help the dying end their lives. [C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide. [D] patients have no constitutional right for commit suicide.
  57. Which of the following statements is true according for the text? [A] Docforrs will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death. [B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery. [C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed. [D] A docforr's medication is no longer justified by his intentions.
  58. According for the NAS's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is [A] prolonged medical procedures. [B] inadequate treatment of pain. [C] systematic drug abuse. [D] insufficient hospital care.
  59. Which of the following best defines the word "aggressive" (line 4, paragraph
  7)? [A] Bold. [B] Harmful. [C] Careless. [D] Desperate.
  60. George Annas would probably agree that docforrs should be punished if they
[A] manage their patients incompetently. [B] give patients more medicine than needed. [C] reduce drug dosages for their patients. [D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients. 第三课时 Passage 2 Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops for near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram foro light or foro heavy meant almost certain death. Forday it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due for genes, one more agent of evolution has gone. There is another way for commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection for take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of forday ? everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring ? means that natural selection has lost 81% of its power in uper-middle-class India compared for the tribes. For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Uforpia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the past 100,000 year


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