新东方考研英语作文笔记(个人整理精华版) 新东方考研英语作文笔记(个人整理精华版) 第一部分 考研写作中的各类问题 一、写作中的十大困境
  1、滔滔不绝意识流 意识流创作有两种表现: (
  1) 自由分段 (
  2) 语言杂乱 注意:要控制语言;语句控制(第一段写三到四句;第二段写七到八句;第三段写五到六句) 原则:紧扣提纲、紧扣要求
  2、无话可说真难受 值得考虑的话题: (
  1) 大型宏观话题如:城乡差异、代沟、友谊、爱心、健康、实干精神、 生态平衡、文化等 (
  2) 小型微观话题如:WTO、中国足球、克隆现象、安乐死、海归派、考研热等 训练方法: (
  1) 例证法如:沉溺于上网(web addiction)、青少年犯罪、TV ads (win-win deal 双赢)、 It pays to be honest 等 (
  2) 平时的思维拓展练习 长文章的五要素:利与弊、不同的观点、寻找原因及后果、解决措施、未来趋势
  3、真情流露没必要 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 2 写作的三个角度:语言第一位;结构第二位;内容第三位 要求:结构简单,而语言卓越,但在内容上只要相关即可
  4、思维跳跃断层多 英语中启、承、转、合的设置 启:启动观点,开篇点题 Nowadays, there is growing concern over …; When it comes to …, people hold different opinions. It is generally believed that … 承:涉及文章第二段(拓展段) ,原因一、二、三,方面一、二、三要有层次感 In the first place…; above all; To begin with; For one thing; On the one hand; In the second place…; In addition; Further more; More over; What’s more; For another ; On the other hand; Last but not least; More importantly; Even worse; 转:表示转折的方法如下: However; On the contrary; Conversely; Whereas; Instead; Nevertheless; 合:表示合并总结: As a result; As a consequence; consequently; Accordingly; Therefore; Thus; Hence; In conclusion; To sum up; In brief; In sort; On the whole; By and large; Generally speaking; As somebody put(puts) it; As the saying goes; 句与句之间要衔接,段与段之间要过渡
  5、英语表达憋得慌 解决的方法:要靠日常的积累,大量的积累。积累优秀的写作语言,积累各类主题相关词。 Non-government-run school 民办私立学校;entry 加入(中国加入世贸) ;
沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 3 protect intellectual property rights 保护知识产权;pirated software 盗版软件; pirated video products/materials 盗版音像制品;advance with times 与时俱进; sustainable developments 可持续发展;to get online 上网;forward an email 发邮件 to get offline 下网;mobile phone 手机;bring sth. into full play 充分发挥;
  6、盲目动笔凑字数 考研写作要求字数大约 200 字左右,评分有五个档次:
  1、17~20 分:思维丰富,语言非常漂亮,运用了相当多得好词语等;
  2、13~16 分:语言比较通畅,有些闪光点,但也有一些小错误等;
  3、9~12 分:没什么闪光点,语言简单乏味,数字够了;
  4、5~8 分:语言错误太明显,且比较多;
  5、0~4 分:跑题,不符合题目的要求,语言太差; 在考试中不要盲目动笔凑字数,而是要集中火力写好前三句,写好第一段和第二段。
  7、低级错误常出现 要去检查自己的作文,语言方面可以从以下七个角度去检查:
  2、检查时态(议论文的事态尽量统一成现在时。包括一般现在时、现在进 行时、现在完成时、一般将来时、现在完成进行时等等。 )
  3、检查冠词的用法(原则是: 特指的名词加 the,泛指的单词不加 the)
  6、检查拼 写错误
  7、检查中文思维 a. 用词不当 acquire /gain knowledge; eliminate illiteracy 扫除文盲; be entitled to/have access to free medical care 享受公费医疗; b. 句法差异 according to sb. It is impossible.. c. 冗赘现象 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 4 d. 逻辑错误 e. 常见的语法错误
  9、语言单调没变化 写作要求 40 分钟写 200 字的文章 一、表明 indicate; reveal; reflect; demonstrate; convey; suggest; illustrate; 二、认为 believe; suppose; argue; convince; reckon; assume; insist; maintain; in my opinion; I am of the opinion that…; I hold the view that…; as far as I am concerned…; as far as I can see; in my eyes; increasely;
  10、龙飞凤舞笔迹乱 第二部分: 第二部分:图画作文 写作的训练:
  1) 英汉互译(
  2) 模仿法-imitation 2002 年写作真题 Study the following picture carefully and write an essay entitled "Cultures--National and International". In the essay you should

  1) describe the picture and interpret its meaning, and
  2) give your comment on the phenomenon. 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 5 You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET
  2. (20 points) 关于 comment 的三个写作角度:
  1、提建议 your suggestions, your solutions;
  2、考虑背景及原因 background and reasons;
  3、描述未来、预测未来; 三个经典跑题现象 (审题构思时应注意:以小见大、把握象征寓意) 描述图画的单词: 发带 ribbon;耳环 earrings;项链 necklace; 少数民族 minority group;妇女服饰 accessories 范文再现: This picture vividly depicts a lovely American girl in traditional Chinese costume with a sweet smile on her face. She wears ribbons, earrings, necklaces and other accessories, that are characteristic of the clothes of a certain Chinese minority group. Undoubtedly, this costume has added oriental charm to her beautiful look. What the picture conveys goes far beyond only a fashion trend. Instead it carries cultural meanings. The fact that people from different countries are attracted to the mysterious Chinese culture, indicates that to some extent a culture can be accepted, respected, appreciated, and shared internationally. In other words, a nation's unique culture can become international(走向世界) through worldwide economic and 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 6 cultural exchanges. Since the trend of globalization seems increasingly irresistible ( 不可抵挡) , cultural communications will effectively improve mutual understanding and friendship. In my opinion, national culture as a priceless spiritual treasure should be preserved and cherished. Yet there are good reasons to advocate international culture. For those ideas from the other cultures, controversial(有争议的、格格不入的)or even absurd at first sight, can provide a different perspective for us to observe the world. However, when we are confronted with a different culture, we should be sensible enough to absorb its essence and to resist its dark side(取其精华、去其糟粕). Only in this way can we promote cultural development positively, and make our world dimensional, colorful and vigorous. 写作题型总结: 写作题型总结:
  1、提纲式作文(91 年--96 年)
  2、图表作文(97 年、99 年)
  3、图画作文(98 年、00 年、01 年、02 年、03 年)
  5、简单应用文(新增加,尚未考过) 着重研究事务信函(分为建议信、求职信、申请信、表扬信、投诉信等)
四大类主题题型总结: 四大类主题题型总结: 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 7
  1、观点对比选择题 eg.(91 年) Where to live, in the city or the country? 提纲:
  3、我的看法,我的选择 (四、六级 99 年)Reading selectively or extensively? (四、六级 97 年)My view on job-hopping (四、六级 00 年)大学英语口语考试是否必要? 推荐题目:(
  1) Which to celebrate, western festivals or the Chinese? (
  2) Cyber-bars' advantages and disadvantages(网吧的利与弊) (
  3) My view on private cars
  2、现象阐释题 eg. (93 年) TV advertisements 提纲: (
  1) present states (
  2) reasons (
  3) my comments (94 年) On making friends 阐释: (
  1) the need for friend (
  2) true friendship (
  3) my principle 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 8 (96 年) good health 阐释: (
  1) importance of good health (
  2) ways to keep fit (
  3) my own practice 新概念:亚健康状态、全民补钙、关爱老年人健康、绿色食品、全民健身、爱滋病的蔓延、 精神抑郁症、保龄秋热、瑜珈功热、健身操热、疯牛病的威胁... 第二段:对 keep fit 的错误理解; 三种可行的观点: (
  1)锻炼身体及方式; (
  2)保证饮食健康; have regular meals; go on a diet; (
  3)同样要保证精神健康; optimistic mentality 开朗乐观的心态 第三段:自己保持身体健康的各种方法。 (02 年) Cultures-- National and International
  3、问题解决题 关键:文章的第三段,如何解决问题 代表作:(98 年) Such promises 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 9 考题描述: 图片插入语: (
  1)本母鸡下蛋不见棱见角; (
  2)保证有蛋皮、蛋清、蛋黄;蛋清 egg white; 蛋皮 egg shell; 蛋黄 yolk; 都不必写。 打油诗:各行各业兴承诺,欢迎监督不委托; 原本皆为份内事,何须高唱文明歌。 图画作文做题原则:构思时,需要以小见大,把握象征寓意。 分析主题:抨击各行各业中对于完成自己职责的浮夸风; 提倡少说空话、多干实事的精神。 提建议的思路:先说国家、政府该怎么办,问题主要是由于国家的法律制度不健全,所以国 家政府应当制定法律法规;第二条思路,自己应提高个人觉悟;或者再加上具体做法。 建议:平时多注意这类事物,有意识的自我练习。 举例:(
  1) 讽刺中小学、大学的乱收费问题 overcharging; (
  2) 讽刺电视节目对儿童的不利影响; (
  3) 讽刺大城市的空气污染现象。 尤为重要:以小见大,把一个现象看作一个普遍现象。 (98 年) Such promises (03 年) 温室中的花朵经不起风雨 题目分析:温室 green house; 要锻炼自己的独立生活能力,在艰苦环境下磨练自己的毅力才有前途,才能发展。
  4、观点论证题(01 年出现) (文章第二段中)命题角度: 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 10
  3、数据论证段 代表作:(01 年) 爱心是一盏灯,在越黑暗的地方越明亮。 (助人为乐的主题) 2000 年考题 Study the following two pictures carefully and write and essay to
  1) describe the pictures,
  2) deduce(推理)the purpose of the drawer of the pictures, and
  3) suggest counter-measures(对策). You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET
  2. As is shown in the pictures, we can see clearly that with the rampancy of commercial fishing, the number of fishes considerably decreased. In one picture, there were various kinds of fish and only one fishing-boat in 19
  00. On the contrary, in 1995 there was only one fish, but many fishing-boats.
The purpose of this picture(修正为 the two pictures 或 the pictures 与第一段一致)is to show us that due attention has to be paid to the decrease (可换为 decline、 reduction、shrinkage、shrinking)of ocean resources. Owing to over-fishing the number of fishes has obviously decreased(可换为 declined、reduced、shrunk). If we let this situation go as it is, we won't know where fish is in the future. (一般说我 不知道,你不知道,他不知道用一般现在时就够了:I don't know 不管过去,现在,未 来都用这个形式,于是改为:will be in the future。 )By that time, our environment will 沪江网?? 沪江网?? 全民外语学习门户 http://www.yeshj.com/ 11 suffer a great destruction.(提示:By +未来时间:将来完成时对应结构是:will have done 即我们将已经……) Therefore, it is imperative for us to take drastic(firm)measures. For one thing, we should appeal to our authorities to make strict laws to control commercial fishing. For another, we should enhance(cultivate) the awareness of people that the ocean resources are very vital(重要的)to us. Only in this way can we protect our ocean resources. Also I believe that we humans can overcome this difficulty, and we will have a brilliant future. 模仿法举例:
  1、describe the picture
  2、deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture
  3、Suggest your countermeasures owing to 由于…原因 clear-cutting 砍伐森林 rampant 过度的 wildlife 野生动植物 If we let this situation go as it is, our environment will suffer a great destruction. It is imperative for us to take drastic measures. …we should appeal to our authorities to make strict laws to control clear-cutt



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