语法讲解 He is the man. He came here last week. who He is the man who came here last week. She is the woman. I served the woman yesterday. who/whom She is the woman who I served yesterday. He likes the house which has many windows. 当先行词是物时,后边是 which。which 后有两种情况。 1 主语 + 及物动词。 2 主语 + 不及物动词 + 介词。 This is the letter. I received the letter yesterday. the letter/ which This is the letter which I received yesterday. I like the house. He lives in the house. the house/ which I like the house which he lives in. (which 可以省略) I like the house in which he lives. (which 不可以省略) That is the boy. I talked about the boy last week. the boy/who/whom That is the boy who/whom I talked about/told you about last week. That is the boy about whom I told you last week. 当先行词是人时,后边是 who/that 当先行词是人且人做宾语时,后边是 who/whom/that 1 在从句的情况下,人作主语,后边是及物动词或不及物动词加介词,这样的情况下,关系 代词可以省略。 2 如果介词提前了,介词后只能加 whom 当先行词是物时, 后边是 which/that, 如果从句是进行时态, which 和 be 动词都可以省略。 当先行词是物时,关系代词是 which/that,后边是人或物都可,后边接及物动词或不及物 动词加介词,which/that 作宾语,则可以省略 如果是不及物动词加介词情况下,把介词提前,只能用 which. 当先行词是人和动词时,后边是 that I saw a boy. The boy and his dog were walking in the park. I saw a boy and his dog that were walking in the park. 当先行词前由序数词、最高级以及 the only, the very, the same, all 所修饰,或先行词为 nothing, anything, everything 等不定代词时,后边的关系代词只能是 that. 以 who/what/which 开头的疑问句,后边的关系代词只能是 that. 补充材料 P33 II. 9 that 10 that 3 which 4 who/that 5 who/whom/that 6 which/that 7 which/that 8 who/whom/that Lesson 122 Who(whom), which and that Who served you? The man (who/ that is) standing behind the counter. The man (who/ that is) standing behind the counter served me. Who served you? The woman who/that is standing behind the counter. Who is making all that noise? The men (who/that are) repairing the road (are making all that noise).
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I served him yesterday. He is the man who(m)/that I served yesterday. I served her yesterday. She is the woman who(m)/that I served yesterday. I saw them yesterday. They are the men who(m)/that I saw yesterday. Which book did you buy? The book which/that is on the counter. I bought the book which … Which books did you buy? The books which/that are on the counter. I bought the books which … Which dog is yours? The dog (which/that is) carrying that basket (is mine). [词汇] road n. 路 Exercises P248 Examples: 1 This is the car (which) the mechanic repaired yesterday. 2 He is the man (who/whom) I invited to the party. 3 These are the things (which) I bought yesterday. 4 He is the man who came here last week. 5 He is the policeman who caught the thieves. 6 She is the nurse who looked after me. 7 She is the woman (who/whom) I met at the party. 8 I am the person who wrote to you. B Example 1 Who met him? That woman? Yes, she is the woman who met him. 2 Who sat there? That man? Yes, he is the man who sat there. 3 Who made it? That woman? Yes, she is the woman who made it. 4 Who read it? That man? Yes, he is the man who read it. 5 Who shut it? That man? Yes, he is the man who shut it. 8 Who saw me? That woman? Yes, she is the woman who saw me. C Example 1 Who(m) did you see? That man? Yes, he is the man whom I saw. 2 Whom did you telephone? That girl? Yes, she is the girl whom I telephoned. 3 Whom did you invite? That boy? Yes, he is the boy whom I invited. 4 Whom did you take to the cinema? That old man? Yes, he is the old man whom I took to the cinema. 5 Who did you find in the garden? That boy? Yes, he is the boy whom I found in the garden. 6 Whom did you drive to London? That girl? Yes, she is the girl whom I drove to London.
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drive/drove/driven hear/heard/heard 7 Whom did you hear? That woman? Yes, she is the woman whom I heard. 8 Whom did you remember? That boy? Yes, he is the boy whom I remembered. Lesson 124 (Who)/(whom), (which) and (that) Who serve you? The man (who is) standing behind the counter (served me). Who served you? The woman (who is) standing behind the counter. Who is making all that noise? The men (who are) repairing the road (are making all that noise). I served him yesterday. He is the man who(m)/that I served yesterday. Exercises P252 Examples This is the ship on which I travelled. 1 She is the woman I drove to London. 2 That's the film I saw. 3 That's the man I spoke to. That's the man to whom I spoke. 4 They are the thieves the police caught. 5 These are the letters I typed. 6 These are the people you ask me about. These are the people about whom you ask me. B Examples 1 Which man? That man? Yes, that's the man I saw yesterday. 2 Which car? That car? Yes, that's the car I repaired yesterday. 3 Which woman? That woman? Yes, that's the woman I drove to London yesterday. 4 Which umbrella? That umbrella? Yes, that's the umbrella I bought yesterday. 5 Which medicine? That medicine? Yes, that's the medicine I took yesterday. 6 Which man? That man? Yes, that's the man I invited to my house yesterday. C Examples This is the film about which you told me. 1 This is the village I wrote to you about. This is the village about which I wrote to you. 2 He is the person I have heard about. He is the person about whom I have heard. 3 This is the test I spoke to you about. This is the test about which I spoke to you. 4 She is the woman I read about. She is the woman about whom I read. 5 This is something new I haven't thought about. This is something new about which I haven't thought.
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一般情况下,形容词修饰名词是放在名词的前边,而修饰不定代词时,则放在不定代词的后 边。 6 This is something I must decide about. This is something about which I must decide. Lesson 123 A trip to Australia [词汇] during prep. 在…期间 trip n. 旅行 travel v. 旅行 offer v. 提供 job n. 工作 guess v. 猜 grow(grew/grown) v. 长,让…生长 beard n. (下巴上的)胡子,络腮胡子 tourist tour 观光旅行 trip 短途旅行 travel 旅行,泛指 journey 行程 a trip to Australia a trip to Paris I want to travel. travel (a)around the world/China If I have some money, I'll travel round the world. If I win the match, I'll buy a big house for you. see the world If I have some money, I'll see the world. travel (a)round the world during my trip to Paris during my father's trip to H.K. take a photograph take/took/taken I took some photographs last week. I took some photographs during my trip to Paris. I took some photographs during my trip to Australia. This is a photograph which I took during my trip to Australia. this is a photograph which my father took during his trip to H.K. These are the photographs (which) I took last week. traveled offered Can you offer me a job? offer sb. sth. The man offered me a job last year. The man offered me a job in Australia last year. He is the man. The man offered me a job in Australia. He is the man who offered me a job in Australia. traveled I traveled on this ship last year. This is a ship. This is the ship (which) I traveled on last year. This is the ship on which I traveled last year. grow a beard
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I like to grow a beard, but my wife doesn't like. I grew a beard last year. I traveled around China last year. I grew a beard during my trip, but I shaved it off when I came back because my wife didn't like. shave … up shaved it up Listen to the tape Who is Mike taking to now? Scott. What is Mike showing to Scott? Some photographs? What are the photographs? Did the man get a job in Australia? Did Mike take a photograph with the man who offered him a job? Yes. Why did the man shave his beard after he came back? Because his wife didn't like it. This is a photograph which Mike took during his trip to Australia. He is showing the photograph to Scott. This is a good photograph. These are the people (who) Mike met during the trip. This is a beautiful ship. What a beautiful ship (it is)! How beautiful (the ship is)! This is the ship (which) they traveled on last year. This is the ship on which they traveled last year. This is the man (who/whom/that) I told you about. This is the man about whom I told you. This is the man who offered me a job in Australia. I grew a beard during my trip, but I shaved it off when I came home, because my wife didn't like it. [课文] Look, Scott. This is a photograph I took during my trip to Australia. Let me see it, Mike. This is a good photograph. Who are these people? They're people I met during the trip. That's the ship we traveled on. What a beautiful ship! Who's this? That's the man I told you about. Remember? Ah yes. The one who offered you a job in Australia. That's right. Who's this? Guess! It's not you, is it? That's right. I grew a beard during the trip, but I shaved it off when I came home.
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Why did you shave it off? My wife didn't like it! Lesson 125 Tea for two [词汇] water v. 浇水 terribly adv. 非常 dry adj. 干燥的,干的 nuisance n. 讨厌的东西或人 mean(meant/meant) v. 意味着,意思是 surprise n. 惊奇,意外的事 waters 水域 / watermelon 西瓜 I'm afraid I must water the garden now. very / terribly / awfully I'm very happy. I'm very sorry. terribly/awful 表示负面的意思,very 可以表示负面的意思,也可以表示下面的意思。 It is cool today. It is a good day for picnic. It is very cool. It is terrible/awful cool. It's dry this year. It's very/terribly/awfully dry this year. It is a nuisance! The man is a nuisance. What a nuisance (it is)! mean person/small person That man is really very mean. / He is a small person. by all means 想尽办法,不择手段 I want to pass the band six exam by all means. You must go home. You must water the garden. What do you mean? What do you know? I know he is a good person. I mean you must go home. It's raining. It means (that) I needn't (don't need to) water the garden. I need to go home. I needn't (don't need to) go home. It's a surprise. pleasant It's a pleasant surprise. Listen to the story about a man and his wife. His wife wants the man to have a cup of tea with her in the living room. But it's dry. The man thinks that he must water the garden now. But the wife wants the man to come in and have a cup of tea with her. And the man doesn't want to come in. The lady is a little bit angry. So she wants to drink a cup of tea by herself. But later, it's raining/ it begins to rain. Then that is a good news for the man.
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That means the man needn't water the garden. And he can come in and have a cup of tea with his wife. have to/ has to/ will have to/had to/ have had to/ has had to must/ have to 必须 1 must 是情态动词;have to 是复合动词 2 must 没有时态变化;have to 有时态变化,have to 在变为否定和疑问形式时要根据不同 的助动词来变化(一般现在时 don't/doesn't;将来时后边直接变化;过去时 didn't;完成 时 have not had to) 3 have to 是客观需要,must 主观的必须 take a taxi I must take a taxi. I have to take a taxi. I don't have to take a taxi. Do you have to take a taxi? I have to take a taxi every day. I don't have to take a taxi every day. Do you have to take a taxi every day? She has to get up early tomorrow. She doesn't have to get up early tomorrow. Does she have to get up early tomorrow? I had to water the garden every day last year. I didn't have to water the garden every day last year. Did you have to water the garden every day last year? I have waited for you for two hours. I have had to wait for you for two hours. Lesson 126 Have to and to not need to Do you have to go now? Yes, I have to leave immediately. Do you have to get up early tomorrow morning? Yes, I'll have to get up at six o'clock. Did you have to take a taxi? I'm afraid I had to. I couldn't get a bus. Hasn't your friend arrived yet? How long have you had to wait? I've had to wait for two hours! Do you have to water the garden? No, I don't need to water it now. It's going to rain. Do we have to walk to the station? No, we don't need to. We can catch a bus. immediately adv. 立即地 Lesson 125 Tea for two [词汇?略] [课文] Can't you come in and have tea now, Peter? Not yet. I must water the garden first.
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Do you have to water it now? I'm afraid I must. Look at it! It's terribly dry. What a nuisance! Last summer it was very dry, too. Don't you remember? I had to water it every day. Well, I'll have tea by myself. That was quick! Have you finished already? Yes. Look out of the window. It's raining! That means you don't need to water the garden. That was a pleasant surprise. It means I can have tea, instead. Exercises 1 Does she have to decide immediately? She doesn't have to decide immediately. 2 She needn't decide immediately. Must she decide immediately? 3 We don't have to take a taxi. Do you have to take a taxi? 4 We needn't take a taxi. Must we take a taxi? B Examples 1 I have to telephone him, too. 2 She has to wait for him, too. 3 He has to meet her, too. 4 They have to travel by ship, too.
 

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