ew in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today ? everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring ? means that natural selection has lost 81% of its power in uper-middle-class India compared to the tribes. For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the past 100,000 year ? even the past 100 years ? our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they "look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension." No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.
  5. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph? [A] A lack of mates. 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -6 - [B] A fierce competition. [C] A lower survival rate. [D] A defective gene.
  6. What does the example of India illustrate? [A] Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people. [B] Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor. [C] The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes. [D] India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.
  7. The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because . [A] life has been improved by technological advance [B] the number of female babies has been declining [C] our species has reached the highest stage of evolution
[D] the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing
  8. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? [A] Sex Ratio Changes in Human Evolution [B] Ways of Continuing Man's Evolution [C] the Evolutionary Future of Nature [D] Human Evolution Going Nowhere 考研文章的难点
  1. 单词量不大,但是句型结构复杂
  2. 作者的态度导出具有隐蔽性 第四课时
  3. 选项的设计具有迷惑性 微观阅读技巧之一:标点的运用 Unit 1 Passage 1 The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen. striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -7 - relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller producers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers. which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system. The important factor in a private-enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property), and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
  51. In Line 7, Para. 1, "the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes" means . [A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes [B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes [C] Americans want to have their incomes increased
[D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes
  52. The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that . [A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production [B] consumers can express their demands through producers [C] producers decide the prices of products [D] supply and demand regulate prices
  53. According tothe passage, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by . [A] private property and rights concerned [B] manpower and natural resources control [C] ownership of productive resources [D] free contracts and prices
  54. The passageis mainly about . [A] how American goods are produced [B] how American consumers buy their goods [C] how American economic system works [D] how American businessmen make their profits Passage 5 Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher's pipelines. A few have already appeared. The goal of all will be to try to explain to a confused and often unenlightened citizenry that there are not two equally valid scientific theories for the origin and evolution of universe and life. Cosmology, geology, and biology have provided a consistent, unified, and constantly improving account of what happened. "Scientific" creationism, which is being pushed by some for "equal time" in the classrooms whenever the scientific accounts of evolution are given, is based on religion, not science. Virtually all scientists and the majority of nonfunda mentalist religious leaders have come to regard "scientific" creationism as bad science 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -8 - and bad religion. The first four chapters of Kitcher's book give a very brief introduction to evolution. At appropriate places, he introduces the criticisms of the creationists and provides answers. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programmes and tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. When their basic motivation is religious, one might have expected more Christian behavior. Kitcher is a philosopher, and this may account, in part, for the clarity and effectiveness of his arguments. The nonspecialist will be able to obtain at least a notion of the sorts of data and argument that support evolutionary theory. The final chapter on the creationists will be extremely clear to all. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself." And so it does ? and all would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
  17. "Creationism" in the passage refers to . (A) evolution in its true sense as to the origin of the universe (B) a notion of the creation of religion (C) the scientific explanation of the earth formation (D) the deceptive theory about the origin of the universe

  18. Kitcher's book is intended to . (A) recommend the views of the evolutionists (B) expose the true features of creationists (C) curse bitterly at his opponents (D) launcha surprise attack on creationists
  19. From the passage we can infer that . (A) reasoning has played a decisive role in the debate (B) creationists do not base their argument on reasoning (C) evolutionary theory is too difficult for non-specialists (D) creationism is supported by scientific findings
  20. This passage appears to be a digest of . (A) a book review (B) a scientific paper (C) a magazine feature (D) a newspaper editorial Passage 3 Technically, any substance other than food that alters our bodily or mental functioning is a drug. Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. They don't realize that familiar substances such as alcohol and tobacco are also drugs. This is why the more neutral term substance is now used by many physicians and psychologists. The phrase "substance abuse" is often used instead of "drug abuse" to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -9 - cigarette for the nerves. When do these socially acceptable and apparently constructive uses of a substance become misuses? First of all, most substances taken in excess will produce negative effects such as poisoning or intense perceptual distortions. Repeated use of a substance can also lead to physical addiction or substance dependence. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued. Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. Psychoactive substances are commonly grouped according to whether they are stimulants, depressants, or hallucinogens. Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. Hallucinogens have their primary effect on perception, distorting and altering it in a variety of ways including producing, hallucinations. These are the substances often called psychedelic (from the Greek word meaning "mind-manifesting") because they seemed to radically alter one's state of consciousness.
  9. "Substances abuse" (Line 4, Paragraph
  1) is preferable to "drug abuse" in that . [A] substances can alter our bodily or mental functioning if illegally used [B] "drug abuse" is only related to a limited number of drug takers [C] alcohol andtobacco are as fatal as heroin and cocaine [D] many substances other than heroin or cocaine can also be poisonous
  10. The word "pervasive" (Line 1, Paragraph
  2) might mean .
[A] widespread [B] overwhelming [C] piercing [D] fashionable
  11. Physical dependence on certain substances results from . [A] uncontrolled consumption of them over long periods of time. [B] exclusive use of them for social purposes [C] quantitative application of them to the treatment of diseases [D] careless employment of them for unpleasant symptoms
  12. From the last paragraph we can infer that . [A] stimulants function positively on the mind [B] hallucinogens are in themselves harmful to health [C] depressants are the worst type of psychoactive substances [D] the three types of psychoactive substances are commonly used in groups Text 4 It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional. Small wonder. Americans' life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30minuts surgical procedure. Such advances offer the aging population a quality of life that was unimaginable when I entered medicine 50 years ago. But not even a great healthcare system can cure death-and our failure to confront that reality now threatens this greatness of ours. Death is normal; we are genetically programmed to disintegrate and perish, even under ideal conditions. We all understand that at some level, yet as medical consumers we treat death as a problem to be solved. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it's useless. The most obvious example is 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -10 - late-stage cancer care. Physicians-frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient-too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified. In 1950, the U.S. spent $
  12.7 billion on health care. In 2002, the cost will be $1540 billion. Anyone can see this trend is unsustainable. Yet few seem willing to try to reverse it. Some scholars conclude that a government with finite resources should simply stop paying for medical care that sustains life beyond a certain age ? say 83 or so. Former Colorado governor Richard Lamm has been quoted as saying that the old and infirm "have a duty to die and get out of the way", so that younger, healthier people can realize their potential. I would not go that far. Energetic people now routinely work through their 60s and beyond, and remain dazzlingly productive. At 78, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone jokingly claims to be
  53. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor is in he


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