hy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end, that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this, of course, some of which are that ambition is driven underground, or made sly. Such, then, is the way things stand: on the left angry critics, on the right stupid supporters, and in the middle, as usual, the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.
  17. It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if . [A] its returns well compensate for the sacrifices [B] it is rewarded with money, fame and power [C] its goals are spiritual rather than material [D] it is shared by the rich and the famous
  18. The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is . [A] customary of the educated to discard ambition in words [B] too late to check ambition once it has been let out [C] dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal [D] impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition
  19. Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because . [A] they think of it as immoral [B] their pursuits are not fame or wealth [C] ambition is not closely related to material benefits [D] they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible
  20. From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained . [A] secretly and vigorously [B] openly and enthusiastically [C] easily and momentarily [D] verbally and spiritually Passage 1
14
The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen. striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -16 - mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by sellerproducers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers. which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system. The important factor in a private-enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property), and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
  51. In Line 7, Para. 1, "the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes" means . [A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes [B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes [C] Americans want to have their incomes increased [D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes
  52. The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that . [A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production [B] consumers can express their demands through producers [C] producers decide the prices of products [D] supply and demand regulate prices
  53. According to the passage, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by . [A] private property and rights concerned [B] manpower and natural resources control [C] ownership of productive resources [D] free contracts and prices
  54. The passage is mainly about . [A] how American goods are produced [B] how American consumers buy their goods
15
[C] how American economic system works [D] how American businessmen make their profits Passage 4 What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America ? breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine? Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country's excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological. Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -17 - especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry. Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman." A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives. In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance. Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process … The designer and the inventor … are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist." This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea." When all these shaping forces ? schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking ? interacted with one another on the rich U.S. mainland, they produced that American characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.
  13. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to . (A) elementary schools (B) enthusiastic workers (C) the attractive premium system (D) a special way of thinking
  14. It is implied that adaptiveness and inventiveness of the early American mechanics . (A) benefited a lot from their mathematical knowledge
16
(B) shed light on disciplined school management (C) was brought about by privileged home training (D) owed a lot to the technological development
  15. A technologist can be compared to an artist because . (A) they are both winners of awards (B) they are both experts in spatial thinking (C) they both abandon verbal description (D) they both use various instruments
  16. The best title for this passage might be . (A) Inventive Mind (B) Effective Schooling (C) Ways of Thinking (D) Outpouring of Inventions 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -18 - Passage 1 It was 3:45 in the morning when the vote was finally taken. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. The measure passed by the convincing vote of 15 to
  10. Almost immediately word flashed on the Internet and was picked up, half a world away, by John Hofsess, executive director of the Right to Die Society of Canada. He sent it on via the group's on-line service, Death NET. Says Hofsess: "We posted bulletins all day long, because of course this isn't just something that happened in Australia. It's world history." The full import may take a while to sink in. The NT Rights of the Terminally Ill law has left physicians and citizens alike trying to deal with its moral and practical implications. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. In Australia ? where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part ? other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. In the US and Canada, where the right-to-die movement is gathering strength, observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling. Under the new Northern Territory law, and adult patient can request death ? probably by a deadly injection or pill ? to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a "cooling off" period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. "I'm not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I'd go, because I've watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks," he says.
  1. From the second paragraph we learn that . [A] the objection to euthanasia is slow to come in other countries [B] physicians and citizens share the same view on euthanasia [C] changing technology is chiefly responsible for the hasty passage of the law [D] it takes time to realize the significance of the law's passage
  2. When the author says that observers are waiting for the dominoes to start falling, he means
17
. [A] observers are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the future of euthanasia [B] similar bills are likely to be passed in the US, Canada andother countries [C] observers are waiting to see the result of the game of dominoes [D] the effect-taking process of the passed bill may finally come to a stop
  3. When Lloyd Nickson dies, he will . [A] face his death with calm characteristic of euthanasia [B] experience the suffering of a lung cancer patient [C] have an intense fear of terrible suffering 新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com/ www.TOL
  24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 -19 - [D] undergo a cooling off period of seven days
  4. The author's attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of . [A] opposition [B] suspicion [C] approval [D] indifference 第八课时 Passage 5 Discoveries in science and technology are thought by "untaught minds" to come in blinding flasher or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of laborious trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score. They point is that the players who score most are the ones who take the most shots at the goal?and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovators and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities. "Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that there's no particular virtue in doing things the way they have always been done," wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction so seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient: "How come nobody thought of that before?" The creative approach begins with th
 

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