新概念英语 4 必背 16 篇文章
新概念四 Lesson 1 Finding fossil man 发现化石人
We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagaslegends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago. But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first‘modern men’ came from. Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds. They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away. Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
我们从书籍中可以读到 5,000 年前近东发生的事情,那里的人最早学会了写字。但直到现在,世界上仍然有些地方,人们还不会书 写。他们保存历史的唯一办法是将历史当作传说讲述,由讲述人一代接一代地将史实描述为传奇故事口传下来。这些传说是很有用的, 因为它们能告诉我们以往人们迁居的情况。但是;没有人能把他们当时做的事情记载下来。人类学家过去不清楚如今生活在太平洋诸 岛上的波利尼西亚人的祖先来自何方,当地人的传说却告诉了人们:其中有一部分是约在 2,000 年前从印度尼西亚迁来的。 但是,和我们相似的原始人生活的年代太久远了;因此,有关他们的传说即使有如今也失传了。于是,考古学家们既缺乏历史记 载,又无口头传说来帮助他们弄清最早的“现代人”是从哪里来的。 然而,幸运的是,远古人用石头制作了工具,特别是用燧石,因力燧石较之其他石头更易成形。他们也可能用过木头和兽皮,但 这类东西早已腐烂殆尽。石头是不会腐烂的。因此,尽管制造这些工具的人的骨头早已荡然无存;但远古时代的石头工具却保存了下 来。 recount [ri'kaunt] vt. 叙述;重新计算 saga ['s?:??]n. 冒险故事;传说;英雄事迹 flint [flint]n. 燧石;打火石;极硬的东西
Lesson 2 Spare that spider 不要伤害蜘蛛
Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends? Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race.Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them put together kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders.Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings. Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them.One can tell the difference almost at a glance, for a spider always has eight legs and an insect never more than six. How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf? One authority on spiders made a census of the spiders in a grass field in the south of England, and he estimated that there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre; that is something like 6,000,000 spiders of different kinds on a football pitch.Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killing insects.It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day.It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.
你可能会觉得奇怪,蜘蛛怎么会是我们的朋友呢?因为它们能消灭那么多的昆虫,其中包括一些人类的大敌。要不是人类受一些 食虫动物的保护,昆虫就会使我们无法在地球上生活下去,昆虫会吞食我们的全部庄稼,杀死我们的成群的牛羊。我们要十分感谢那 些吃昆虫的鸟和兽,然而把它们所杀死的昆虫全部加在一起也只相当于蜘蛛所消灭的一小部分。此外,蜘蛛不同于其他食虫动物,它 们丝毫不危害我们和我们的财物。 许多人认为蜘蛛是昆虫,但它们不是昆虫,甚至与昆虫毫无关系。人们几乎一眼就能看出二者的差异,因为蜘蛛都是 8 条腿,而 昆虫的腿从不超过 6 条。 有多少蜘蛛在为我们效力呢?一位研究蜘蛛的权威对英国南部一块草坪上的蜘蛛作了一次调查。他估计每英亩草坪里有 225 万多 只蜘蛛。这就是说,在一个足球场上约有 600 万只不同种类的蜘蛛。蜘蛛至少有半年忙于吃昆虫。它们一年中消灭了多少昆虫,我们 简直无法猜测,它们是吃不饱的动物,不满意一日三餐。据估计,在英国蜘蛛一年里所消灭昆虫的重量超过了这个国家人口的总重量。 spare [spε?] vt. 节约,吝惜;饶恕;分出,分让 flock [fl?k] n. 群;vi. 聚集;成群而行 herd [h?:d] n. 兽群,畜群;放牧人 vt. 放牧;使成群 owe [?u] vt. 感激;欠 behalf [bi'h?:f] n. 利益;代表 wild [waild] adj. 野生的;野蛮的;狂热的;荒凉的
Lesson 3 Matterhorn man 马特霍恩山区人
Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.n the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all. early climbers were looking for I The the easiest way to the top, because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before.It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, I equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way
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to court such excitement.They had a single aim, a solitary goalthe top! T It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers. xcept for one or two places such as Zermatt E and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains.Such inns as there were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine.Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they couldsometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers.Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable.For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.
现代登山运动员总想找一条能够给他们带来运动乐趣的路线来攀登山峰。他们认为,道路愈艰险愈带劲儿。然而,在登山运动的 初期,全然不是这种情况。早期登山者所寻找的是通往山顶的最方便的途径,因为顶峰??特别是前人未曾到过的顶峰??才是他们寻 求的目标。确实,在探险中他们经常遇到惊心动魄的困难和危险,而他们装备之简陋足以使现代登山者一想起来就胆战心惊。但是, 他们并非故意寻求这种刺激,他们只有一个目的,唯一的目标??顶峰! 我们今天很难想像昔日的登山先驱们是多么艰苦。除了泽曼特和夏蒙尼等一两个很快出了名的地方外,阿尔卑斯山山区的小村几 乎全是高山环抱、与世隔绝的穷乡僻壤。那里的小客栈一般都很肮脏,而且跳蚤猖獗。食物是当地的干酪和通常存放了一年之久的面 包,人们就着劣质酒吞下这种食物。山谷里常常没有小客栈,登山者只好随遇而安。有时同当地牧师(他通常和他的教民一样穷)住 在一起,有时同牧羊人或制乳酪的人住在一起。无论住在哪儿,情况都一样:肮脏、贫穷,极其不舒适。对于过惯了一顿饭吃 7 道菜、 睡亚麻细布床单的人来说,变换一下生活环境来到阿尔卑斯山山区,那一定是很艰难的。 alpinist [??lpinist] n. [常 Alpinist]登山运动员, 登山家 pioneering adj. 首创的;先驱的 perilous [?peril?s] a.危险的 shudder ['??d?] n. 震动;发抖;战栗 vi. 发抖;战栗 go out of one's way 球场 solitary [?s?lit?ri] a.独自的;唯一的;孤独的,隐居的 alpine ['?lpain] adj. 阿尔卑斯山的,高山的 impoverish [im'p?v?ri?] vt. 使贫穷;使枯竭 特地, 不怕麻烦, 故意 court [k?:t] vt. 设法获得;招致(失败、危险等)n. 法院;朝廷; flea [fli:] n. 跳蚤;生蚤的动物 ridden ['rid?n] adj. 充斥…的; 受虐待的 v. 骑 (ride 的过去分词) coarse [k?:s] adj. 粗糙的;下等的;粗俗的 boast [b?ust] vt. 自恃有;以有…而自豪;夸口说,自吹自擂说 parishioner 羊;指导 linen ['linin] n. 亚麻布,亚麻线;亚麻制品 sheet [?i:t] n. 床单;薄片,纸张;薄板 [p*6r!.*n+] n. 教民 shepherd ['?ep?d] n. 牧羊人;指导者;牧师 vt. 带领;看管;牧
Lesson 6 The sporting spirit 体育的精神
I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield.Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international E sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it from general principles. Nearly all the sports practiced nowadays are competitive.You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win.On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused.Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this.At the international level, sport is frankly mimic warfare.But the A significant thing is not the behavior of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators,(the attitude) of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe at any rate for short periods that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.
当我听人们说体育运动可创造国家之间的友谊,还说各国民众若在足球场或板球场上交锋,就不愿在战场上残杀的时候,我总是 惊愕不已。一个人即使不能从具体的事例(如 1936 年奥林匹克运动会)了解到国际运动比赛会导致疯狂的仇恨,也可以从常理中推断 出结论。 现在开展的体育运动几乎都是竞争性的。参加比赛就是为了取胜。如果不拚命去赢,比赛就没有什么意义了。在乡间的草坪上,当你 随意组成两个队,并且不涉及任何地方情绪时,那才有可能是单纯为了娱乐和锻炼而进行比赛。可是一旦涉及到荣誉问题,一旦你想 到你和某一团体会因你输了而丢脸时,那么最野蛮的争斗天性便会被激发起来。即使是仅仅参加过学校足球赛的人也有这种体会。在 国际比赛中,体育简直是一场模拟战争。但是,要紧的还不是运动员的行为,而是观众的态度,以及观众身后各个国家的态度。面对 着这些荒唐的比赛,参赛的各个国家会如痴如狂,甚至煞有介事地相信??至少在短期内如此??跑跑、跳跳、踢踢球是对一个民族品 德素质的检验。 goodwill ['?ud'wil] n. 好意;商誉;友好 cricket ['krikit] n. 蟋蟀;板球,板球运动 inclination [,inkli'nei??n] n. 意愿;倾向,爱好;斜坡 concrete [k?n'kri:t, 'k?nkri:t] adj. 具体的,实在的;有形的;混凝 土的 orgy ['?:d?i] n. 放荡,无节制;狂欢 hatred ['heitrid] n. 憎恨;怨恨;敌意 utmost ['?tm?ust] n. 极限;最大可能 adj. 极度的;最远的 patriotism ['p?tri?tiz?m] n. 爱国心,爱国精神;爱国主义 prestige [pre'sti:?, -'sti:d?, 'prestid?] n. 威望,声望;声誉 savage ['s?vid?] adj. 残酷的;野蛮的;狂怒的;荒凉的 mimic ['mimik] adj. 模仿的,模拟的;假装的 vt. 模仿,摹拟 2
spectator [spek'teit?, 'spekt-] n. 观众;旁观者
fury ['fju?
 

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