新概念英语第一册全部语法
一. 时态: 时态: 一般现在时,现在进行时,一般过去时,现在完成时,一般将来时,过去进行时, 一般现在时,现在进行时,一般过去时,现在完成时,一般将来时,过去进行时,过去完 成时, 成时,过去将来时
  1. 一般现在时 表示一般性,经常性的动作或一般性事实。 表示一般性,经常性的动作或一般性事实。 u 含有 be 动词的句子 He is a teacher. The girl is very beautiful. Tim and Jack are students. ★变疑问句将 be 动词移到句首 Is he a teacher? Is the girl very beautiful? Are Tim and Jack students? ★变否定句在 be 动词后面加 not He is not a teacher. The girl is not very beautiful. Tim and Jack are not students. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, he is. No, he is not. Yes, she is. No, she is not. Yes, they are. No, they are not. u 不含有动词的句子, 不含有动词的句子,即含有一般动词的句子 第三人称单数及单数名词 He likes books. She likes him. The dog likes bones. ★变疑问句在句首加 does, 动词变为原型 Does he like books? Does she like him? Does the dog like bones? ★变否定句在主语及动词之间加 doesn’t, 动词变为原型 He doesn’t like books. She doesn’t like him. The dog doesn’t like bones. 肯定回答及否定回答: ★肯定回答及否定回答: Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t.
注意: 注意:第三人称单数形式一般在动词后面加 S,不要和名词复数混淆,变否定句或疑问句时 ,不要和名词复数混淆, 名词复数没有任何变化。 名词复数没有任何变化。 其他人称及复数名词 I want to have a bath. We have some meat. The students like smart teachers. ★变疑问句在句首加 do Do you want to have a bath? Do we have any meat? Do the students like smart teachers? ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加 don’t. You don’t want to have a bath. We don’t have any meat. The students don’t like smart teachers. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Yes, we do. No, we don’t Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
  2. 现在进行时 表示现在正在进行的动作。 表示现在正在进行的动作。 构成:主语+ 动词+动词的现在分词+其它成分(现在分词的构成见附录) 构成:主语+be 动词+动词的现在分词+其它成分(现在分词的构成见附录) We are having lunch. He is reading a book. The dog is running after a cat. The boys are swimming across the river. ★变疑问句将 be 动词移到句首 Are we having lunch? Is he reading a book? Is the dog running after a cat? Are the boys swimming across the river? ★变否定句在 be 动词后面加 not We are not having lunch. He is not reading a book. The dog is not running after a cat. The boys are swimming across the river. 特殊疑问句: ★特殊疑问句:what, which, how, where, who, etc. 疑问词+动词+主语+ 疑问词+动词+主语+现在分词 What are you doing? What is she doing? What is the dog doing? (必背 必背) 必背 没有进行时的动词 表示状态,思想, 表示状态,思想,感情和感觉的动词不能表示正在进行的动作
  1. 表示感觉,感官的词 表示感觉,
see, hear, like, love, want,
  2. have, has 当”拥有 讲时没有进行时 拥有”讲时没有进行时 拥有
  3. 一般过去时 表示过去发生的动作或事件,常和表示过去的时间状语连用, 表示过去发生的动作或事件,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如 yesterday, last night, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago, 动词的句子, 将动词变为过去式, am, is 的过去式为 was, are 的过去式为 were 含有 be 动词的句子, 将动词变为过去式, , I was at the butcher’s. You were a student a year ago. The teacher was very beautiful ten years ago. ★变疑问句将 be 动词移动到句首 Were you at the butcher’s? Were you a student a year ago? Was the teacher very beautiful ten years ago? ★变否定句在 be 动词后面加 not I was not at the butcher’s. You were not a student a year ago. The teacher was not very beautiful ten years ago. ★肯定回答否定回答 Yes, I was. No, I was not. Yes, you were. No, you were not. Yes, he/she was. No, he/she was not. 特殊疑问句: ★特殊疑问句: What did you do? (必背 必背) 必背 动词的句子,将动词变为过去式, 不含有 be 动词的句子,将动词变为过去式,动词过去式构成见附录 I finished my homework yesterday. The boy went to a restaurant. The Sawyers lived at King Street a year ago. ★变疑问句在句首加 did, 动词变为原型 , Did you finish your homework yesterday? Did the boy go to a restaurant? Did the Sawyers live at King Street a year ago? ★变否定句在主语和动词之间加 did not I did not finish my homework yesterday. The boy did not go to a restaurant. The Sawyers did not live at King Street a year ago. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Yes, he did. No, he didn’t. Yes, they did. No, they did not.
  4. 现在完成时 构成:主语+助动词 构成:主语 助动词 have, has+过去分词 过去分词 用法: 用法:
  1)表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和 just, usually, already, since 等时间 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作, 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作
副词连用 I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了 饱了, 饱了 不用再吃了) He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝) (不渴了,不用再喝) They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了) 不能再度假了) The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了) 已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了)
  2)询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时: 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时: 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时 Have you finished your homework? Have you been to Beijing? Have he seen the film?
  3)表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作 I have lived in Beijing for twenty years. I have worked for this school for 1 year.
  4)表示一种经历,经验:去过 地方,做过 事情,经历过 事情 表示一种经历, 地方, 事情, 表示一种经历 经验:去过…地方 做过…事情 经历过…事情 I have never had a bath. I have never seen a film. I have never been to cinema. I have ever been to Paris. Have been to 表示去过,have gone to 表示去了 表示去过, I have been to London.(人已经回来 人已经回来) 人已经回来 He has gone to London.(人还在那里) (人还在那里)
  5)表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用 表示一种结果, 表示一种结果 I have lost my pen. I have hurt myself. He has become a teacher. She has broken my heart. 句型变化: 句型变化: 变疑问句将助动词移到句首, ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加 not. e.g. Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, I have. No, I have not. 特殊疑问句: ★特殊疑问句: What have you done? What has he done? 一般过去时与现在完成时的区别: 一般过去时与现在完成时的区别: 凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时 注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续, 注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用 错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days. 对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.
  5. 一般将来时 表示将来将要发生的动作, 表示将来将要发生的动作, 经常和 tomorrow, next year, the day after tomorrow, the year after the next, in five hours’ time, etc. 表示将来的词联用 结构: 主语+助动词 结构: 主语 助动词 will+动词原形 动词原形 I will go to America tomorrow. The pilot will fly to Japan the month after the next.
Jack will move into his new house tomorrow morning. ★变疑问句将助动词移到句首 Will you go to America tomorrow? Will the pilot fly to Japan the month after the next? Will Jack move into his new house tomorrow morning? ★变否定句在助动词后面加 not I will not go to America tomorrow. The pilot will not fly to Japan the month after the next. Jack will not move into his new house tomorrow morning ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, I will. No, I will not. Yes, he/she will. No, he/she will not. Yes, he will. No, he will not. 特殊疑问句: ★特殊疑问句: What will you do?
  6. 过去完成时: 过去完成时: 用法:在过去的时间里,两个动作中,发生在前的哪个动作要用过去完成时。 用法:在过去的时间里,两个动作中,发生在前的哪个动作要用过去完成时。 结构: 结构:had+过去分词 过去分词 After she had finished her homework, she went shopping. They had sold the car before I asked the price. The train had left before I arrived at the station. After/before 引导的时间状语从句放在句首要在句子后面加逗号, 引导的时间状语从句放在句首要在句子后面加逗号, 如果放在主句后则不用 加。 ★ 变疑问句将助动词移到句首 Had she finished her homework? ★ 变否定句在助动词后面加 not She hadn’t finished her homework. ★ 肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, she had. No, she hadn’t. ★ 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问句: What had she done?
  7. 过去进行时 表示过去正在进行的动作,经常用在 引导的状语从句中。 表示过去正在进行的动作 经常用在 when, while, as 引导的状语从句中。 结构: 结构:was/were+doing When my husband was going into the dining room this morning, he dropped some coins on the floor. While we were having dinner, my father was watching TV.
  8. . 过去将来时 结构: 结构:would do
She said she would go here the next morning. 二. 特殊句型: 句型, 特殊句型:there be 句型,be going to 结构
  1. Be going to 结构 表示打算,准备, 表示打算,准备,计划做某事 结构:主语+be 动词 动词+going to +动词原型 ★结构:主语 动词原型 I am going to make a bookcase. They are going to paint it. The father is going to give the bookcase to his daughter. ★变疑问句将 be 动词移到句首 Are you going to make a bookcase? Are they going to paint it? Is the father going to give the bookcase to his daughter? ★变否定句在 be 动词后面加 not I am not going to make a bookcase. They are going to paint it. The father is not going to give the bookcase to his daughter. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, I am. No, I am not. Yes, they are. No, they are not. Yes, he is. No, he is not. ★特殊疑问句 What are you going to do? What are they going to do? What is the father going to do? (必背 必背) 必背
  2. There be 句型 表示哪里有什么东西(某处有某物 某处有某物) 表示哪里有什么东西 某处有某物 u There is+单数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组) +单数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组) There is a book in this room. There is a pen on the table u There are+复数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组) +复数名词+表示场所的词(一般为介词词组) There are two pens on the table. There are three schools there. ★变疑问句将 be 动词移到句首 Is there a book in this room? Are there two pens on the table? ★变否定句在动词后面加 not There is not a book in this room.
There are not two pens on the table. ★肯定回答及否定回答 Yes, there is. No, there is not. Yes, there are. No, there are not. 三. 问句: 问句: 一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句,反意疑问句,选择疑问句, 一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句,反意疑问句,选择疑问句,否定疑问句 2 一般疑问句: 助动词/be 动词 主语 动词+主语 一般疑问句 助动词 Are you a teacher? Do you want to have a cup of tea? 2 特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词 一般疑问句 What is your name? 2 选择疑问句: 选择疑问句 or Do you want beef or lamb? 2 反意疑问句: 肯定陈述句+否定疑问部分 否定陈述部分+肯定疑问部分 否定疑问部分, 反意疑问句 肯定陈述句 否定疑问部分,否定陈述部分 肯定疑问部分 You don’t need that pen, do you? 2 否定疑问句: 一般疑问句 疑问句+否定词 否定疑问句 一般疑问句 否定词 Aren’t you lucky? Don’t you want have a rest? 四. 冠词用法: 冠词用法:a/an/the 的一般用法 详细见笔记 限定词: 五.限定词:some, any, many, much 2 some, any 修饰可数名词或不可数名词,some 用于肯定句,any 用于否定句和疑问句, 修饰可数名词或不可数名词, 用于肯定句, 用于否定句和疑问句, 注意, 注意,当期待对方的答案为肯定回答时用 some 2 many 修饰可数名
 

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