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【专题七】非谓语动词
【考情分析】

  1.不定式的时态和语态;
  2.不定式的功能:不定式的形容词性功能、不定式的副词性功能、不定式的名词性功能;
  3.不定式的省略;
  4.不定式的否定形式;
  5.不定式的搭配形式;
  6.独立主格结构;
  7.v-ing 分词名词性功能;
  8.v-ing 分词形容词性功能;
  9.v-ing 分词副词性功能;
  10.过去分词与现在分词一般式的区别;
  11.过去分词与现在分词主动完成式的区别;
  12.过去分词与现在分词一般被动式的区别;
【知识点归纳】
I.概述
  1.基本形式的变化: 不定式: 时态 一般式 进行式 完成式 主动态 to do to be doing to have built to have been built 被动态 to be done
John said that he had run in order to catch the bus. (一般式的主动态) He hated to be misunderstood by others. (一般式的被动态) He pretended to be listening attentively. (进行式) He intended to have told you that. (完成式主动态) This work of art seemed to have been created several centuries ago. (完成式的被动态) v-ing 形式: 时态 一般式 完成式 主动态 doing having done 被 动 态
being done having been done
注意: 注意:不及物动词没有被动式
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动名词 I am sure of his coming in time. (一般式主动态) (= I am sure that he will come in time) He is proud of being selected as monitor. (一般式被动态) (= He is proud that he is selected as monitor.) I’m confident of his having passed the exam. (完成式主动态) (= I am confident that he have passed the exam.) He complained of having been cheated by others. (完成式被动态) 现在分词 He sat in a chair,reading a novel. (一般式主动态) Being exhausted by work, he fell asleep quickly. (一般式被动态) Having finished his homework, he went playing. (完成式主动态) All this having been settled, he went home. (完成式被动态)
  2.所做成分 项目/成分 现在分词 动词的 ing 形式 动名词 不定式 过去分词 △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ △ 主语 表语 △ 宾语 宾补 △ 定语 △ 状语 △
注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分。 现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分。 II.基本知识
  1.动词不定式在句中充当的成分 动词不定式在句中充当的成分 ①作主语。 To see once is better than to hear a hundred times. To make money is not the only purpose of our life.赚钱不是我们生活的唯一目的 在很多情况下,常用 it 来充当动词不定式的形式主语。 It is important for us to learn English very well.对我们来说学好英语是非常重要的。 ②作动词的宾语,常用在以下动词后: help,hope,ask,refuse,decide,promise,wish,pretend,expect,arrange,learn,plan, demand,dare, manage,agree,prepare,fail,determine,offer,choose,desire,elect,long,(happen, seem) He managed to pass the exam.他成功地通过了考试。 He promised to be here at nine.他答应 9 点钟到这儿。
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I didn’t expect to see you here.我没有料到在这儿见到你。 在某些复合宾语中,用 it 做形式宾语,而把不定式放到后面去。 He considered it better to leave now.他认为最好现在就离开。 I found it impossible to finish the work on time.我发现准时完成这项工作是不可能的。 ③作定语(常置于名词之后) 。 由 only, last, next 序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式做定语; 不定式还可用作名 词 代词的的宾语 (ability, anything, attempt, chance, curiosity, desire, decision, determination, effort, failure, intention, need, nothing, opportunity, place, plan, promise, reason, right, something) She is always the first student to arrive at school. He is always the last one to leave the office.他总是最后一个离开办公室。 I don’t think he is the best man to do the job.我想他不是做这项工作的最佳人选。 I have no desire to travel. You’ll find something to interest you here. 注:动词不定式 to 后所接动词若是不及物动词,而不定式与其修饰的动词之间有动宾关 系,这个不定式后就应有必要的介词。 I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at. I found no one to play with. ④作状语 I walked slowly on the ice in order not to fall down.(不至于跌倒) (表目的) They lifted a rock only to drop it on their own feet. (表结果) He tried only to fail. (结果没有成功) She was happy to hear the news. (表原因) 不定式常用于修饰下列形容词: able,afraid,angry, anxious, apt, careful, careless, certain, clever, considerate, delighted, difficult,eager, easy, fit, frightened , happy, interesting, likely, lucky, quick, ready, reluctant , right, sorry, surprised, sure, thoughtful, thoughtless, unable, unwilling, wrong etc. French is difficult to learn. 法语难学。 I’m sorry to interrupt you, but I have to. ⑤作独立副词成分。 To speak frankly, I don’t like your attitude.
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⑥与疑问词连用。 疑问代词 who, what, which 和疑问副词 when, where, how 等后加动词不定式, 构成不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。 When to start has not been decided.什么时候出发还没有定。 The problem is how to get there on time.问题是怎样才能准时到达哪儿。 注意: 注意: 动词不定式的结构。 这类动词有: ① 在有些动词后常用疑问词 + 动词不定式的结构 。 这类动词有 : know, ask, tell, show, wonder,consider, understand, learn, instruct, guess, see, explain, discover, imagine, think, hear 等。 He didn’t know what to do next. I haven’t decided whether to go to Japan.我没有决定是否到日本去。 我没有决定是否到日本去。 我没有决定是否到日本去 ②不定式的复合结构 动词不定式构成的复合结构在句中可作主语、 表语、 宾语、 状语等。 由 for + 名词或代词 + 动词不定式构成的复合结构在句中可作主语、 表语、 宾语、 状语等。 It is necessary for you to finish the work before Friday.你们有必要在星期五前做完这项工 你们有必要在星期五前做完这项工 作。 His idea is for us to travel in different cars.他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游。 他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游。 他的主意是让我们乘不同的车去旅游 由 of 引 出 的 不 定 式 复 合 结 构 , 经 常 与 以 下 形 容 词 连 用 : brave, careless,,clever,courageous,foolish,good, honest,kind,nice,rash, right,rude,
stupid,silly,thoughtful,thoughtless,wrong, wise 等。 It’s kind of you to say so. It’s brave of you to go into the burning building to save the baby! 你真勇敢, 你真勇敢,冲进着火的大楼里救这个婴儿 ③不带 to 的动词不定式 ▲ 在 有 些 使 役 动 词 及 感 官 动 词 后 可 用 省 略 to 的 动 词 不 定 式 , 如 let,make,have, hear,see,feel,smell, hear,watch 等。 The teacher often makes me rewrite the composition.老师常常让我把作文重写。 老师常常让我把作文重写。 老师常常让我把作文重写 将该句转换成被动语态: 将该句转换成被动语态:I am often made by the teacher to rewrite the composition. I heard her say that she was fed up. 的动词不定式: had ▲在下列结构后常用不带 to 的动词不定式: better, would rather, can not but, cannot help but, do nothing but 等。 I’d better go now, or I’ll miss the train. They can not but accept his advice.我只好接受他的建议。 我只好接受他的建议。 我只好接受他的建议 作实义动词, 的动词不定式, ▲在 except, but 之前有动词 do 作实义动词, except, but 后一般接不带 to 的动词不定式, 则
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反之则接 的动词不定式。 带 to 的动词不定式。 We have no choice but to wait.我们除了等待别无选择(我们只好等待) 我们除了等待别无选择( 我们除了等待别无选择 我们只好等待) 。 There is no choice but to go there. There is nothing to do but to (to 可省略 read a book. 可省略) 结构中, ▲在 why, why not 结构中,紧接其后的动词不定式不带 to Why argue with him? Why not send those books back?为什么不把那些书送回去? 为什么不把那些书送回去? 为什么不把那些书送回去
  2.动名词在句中充当的成分 ①作主语 Asking for help is sometimes necessary. 请求帮助有时是必要的。 Eating too much is not good for your health.吃得太多对你的健康不利。 Teaching offers something besides money and power. ②作补语、表语 Seeing is believing. We call such an act cheating.我们称这样的行为为作弊/欺骗行为。 ③作以下及物动词及词组的的宾语 建议冒险去献身:advise, suggest, risk, devote oneself to 忍受期待不停顿:bear/stand(忍受), look forward to, stop 放弃延期悔失去:give up, delay, put off, regret, miss 坚持欣赏(想)要(实)践(完)成:keep (on)/insist on/stick to, enjoy/appreciate, feel like, practice, finish 注意原谅避反对:pay attention to, excuse, escape, avoid, object to 考虑要求不自禁:consider, require, cannot help 允许习惯不介意:forbid; permit, be/get used to/be accustomed to, mind 值得开始想动名:be worth, set about, imagine The mother did agree to let the boy risk swimming across the river.冒险游过河 His wife doesn't allow smoking inside the room but allows him to smoke outside the room. 他的妻子不允许在室内抽烟,但是允许他在室外抽。 All of them insisted on my staying with them a few days longer. 他们所有的人都坚持要我再跟他们多呆几天时间。 I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Being ill for a few days,she doesn't feel like eating anything.不想吃任何东西 另在 want, need, require 等动词后, 常用动名词的主动形式表示被动的意思 (主语与动名词
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之间存在逻 辑上的动宾关系) 。 My hair needs cutting. (= My hair needs to be cut.) ⑤作定语 它与被修饰词之间没有逻辑上的主谓关系,通常只表示用途或与所修饰的名词有关的动 作。 The factory built a swimming pool last year.游泳池 Our teacher uses a very good teaching method.教学方法 ⑥作同位语 His hobby, making model airplanes, is very interesting. 注意: 注意: ①动名词的复合结构 动名词的复合结构由物主代词或名词所有格 + 动名词构成。如果不是在句子开头,这种结 构常可以由名词的普通格或人称代词宾格 +动名词构成, 在句中可作主语、宾语等。例如:
Do you mind my closing the door? Do you mind me closing the door?
My closing the door made him angry. I can’t stand Lao Chang’s talking like that about other comrades. ②动名词的某些固定结构 ▲It is + no use, no good(fun,a great pleasure, a waste of time,a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。 It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。 It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。 ▲It is + useless+doing sth. It is useless speaking.光说没用。 。 ▲There is no + v-ing “…是不可能的” There is no knowing how old she is.(= I t is impossible to know how old she is.) There is no telling where she’s gone.(= It is impossible / difficult to know where she’s gone.) ▲make a point of + doing “认为…是必要的” Our family make a point of going to church every Sunday.(= Our family make it a rule to go to church every Sunday.) ▲be on the point of + doing “濒临,将要…” He was on the point of leaving. ▲on (upon) + doing “一…就…”
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On hearing the news, I changed my plans.(= As soon as I heard the news, I changed my plans.) ▲go + doing (大部分指运动和游戏) He went shopping / hiking / swimming / fishing etc. ▲动名词短语常用在以下结构中 have difficulty (in) + doing sth have trouble (in) + doing sth have fun (in) + doing sth/ have a good time (in) + doing sth/have a hard time (in) + doing sth ▲feel like + 名词“想要”=would like to +原形动词 Do you feel like going to a movie?你想看电影吗? I don't feel like reading tonight.今晚我不想读书。
  3.分词在句中充当的成分 分词在句中充当的成分 ①作定语。作定语的分词如果是单个分词,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语则放在 所修饰的名词后面。在用作定语时,分词在意思上接近一个定语从句。 The boring sn
 

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