新起点大学基础英语教程
读写教程
BOOK TWO 教学课件
Unit One
Text B
Polite and Rude
Pre-reading Tasks New Words Text-related Exercises (I) Text Main Ideas Text-related Exercises (II) Detailed Understanding
Pre-reading Tasks
Discuss the following questions in class.
HOME

  1.

  2.
Do you think that there are differences between the Chinese culture and Western cultures? If yes, can you give one or two examples? Have you ever talked with a foreigner? Have you had any problems when talking with a foreigner? If yes, what are the problems?
New Words and Expressions
polite rude fluent fluently embarrass embarrassing grammar grammatical structure context culture euphemism depend upon specific behavio(u)r customary impression
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wonder social occasion chew behave target awkward communication
polite
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adj.
  1. having or showing good manners, consideration for others, and/or correct social behavior 礼貌的 e.g. It's not polite to talk with your mouth full.
  2. having or showing fineness of feeling, high development in the arts, manners, etc 有教养的 e.g. You can't use words like that in polite society. [扩展 [近] well-mannered [反] rude; impolite 扩展] 近 反 扩展
rude
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adj.

  1. speaking or behaving in a way that is not polite and is likely to offend or annoy people 粗鲁的 e.g. Don't be so rude to your father!
  2. simple and roughly made 粗糙的 e.g. a rude wooden hut [扩展 [近] impolite; unrefined 扩展] 近 扩展
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fluent
adj. able to speak a language very well 流利的 e.g. a fluent speaker speak fluent English "Can he speak French?" "Yes, he is fluent."
fluently adv. 流利地
embarrass
vt.
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to make someone feel anxious, ashamed, or uncomfortable, esp. in a social situation 使某人尴尬 e.g. She was embarrassed when they asked about her age. He does't like making speeches in public; it's so embarrassing. adj. making you feel ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable窘迫的 窘迫的 e.g. some embarrassing questions n. the feeling you have when you are embarrassed 窘迫 e.g. She could not hide her embarrassment at her child's rudeness.
embarrassing
embarrassment
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grammar
n.
  1. rules for forming words and combining them into sentences 语法,语法学 语法, e.g. a good command of grammar
  2. person's knowledge and use of a language个人对语言的掌 个人对语言的掌 握 e.g. use bad grammar 遣词造句不当
grammatical
adj. 语法的
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structure
n.

  1. the way in which parts are formed into a whole 结构 e.g. the structure of the brain the structure of a sentence
  2. a large building, bridge, etc., esp. one that has many parts 建筑物 e.g. a tall structure a ten-story concrete structure
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context
n.

  1. the words and sentences that come before and after a particular word, and that help you understand the meaning of the word 上下文 e.g. In some contexts, "mad" means "foolish", in some "angry", and others "insane".
  2. the situation, events, or information that are related to something, and that help you to understand it better 某事物之间的关系 e.g. These changes must be seen in their historical and social context.
culture
n.
  1. 文化
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e.g. a society without culture 文化不发达的社会
  2. development through training, exercise, treatment, etc. 修养,教养 修养, e.g. The culture of the mind is vital. 修身养性是极其重要的. 修身养性是极其重要的.
euphemism n. 委婉语
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depend upon
依赖, 依赖, 依而定 而定 e.g. I am depending upon your coming. She is a woman who can be depended upon. Depend upon it, we won't give up. 可以打包票,我们绝对不会放弃. 可以打包票,我们绝对不会放弃. [扩展 dependable adj. 可以信赖的,可靠的 扩展] 可以信赖的, 扩展 e.g. a dependable friend / service
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specific
adj.
  1. particular 特有的 e.g. a specific tool for each job
  2. detailed and exact 具体的 [反] general 反 e.g. Could you be a bit more specific? The teacher gave us very specific instructions. [扩展 specify v. 使具体化 扩展] 扩展
behavior
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n.
the way that someone behaves 行为,举止 行为, e.g. Can TV violence cause aggressive behavior? She will not tolerate bad behaviors in class. 她不能容忍教室内的恶劣行为. 她不能容忍教室内的恶劣行为. [扩展 behave v. 行动,举动 扩展] 行动, 扩展
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customary
adj.
  1. commonly practiced, used, or encountered; usual 习惯 上的, 共同实施, 上的 共同实施,使用或遇到的 e.g. customary law 习惯法 be customary in trade 商业上通行的
  2. based on custom or tradition rather than written law or contract 按惯例的 基于习俗或传统而不是成文法或合同的 按惯例的; e.g. a customary rite or ceremony 一项习惯性的礼仪或 仪式
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impression
n.
  1. the opinion or feeling you have about someone or sth because of the way they seem 印象 e.g. What's your impression of Tom as a boss? Now he has a very different impression of New York.
  2. a mark left by pressing something into a soft surface [近] mark 压痕 近 e.g. An impression of a heel is left in the mud.
wonder
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v.
  1.to feel surprised and unable to believe something感到惊讶 感到惊讶 e.g. Sometimes I wonder about/at his behavior.
  2. to think about something that you are not sure about and try to guess what is true, what will happen, etc.想知道 想知道 e.g. I wonder how Alice is getting on. I wonder what they are going to do now. n.
  1. a feeling of surprise and admiration for sth. very beautiful or new to you 惊奇,惊异 惊奇, e.g. The sight of the Great Wall filled us with wonder.
  2. sth. that makes you feel surprise and admiration奇观 奇观 e.g. the Seven Wonders of the World 世界七大奇迹
social
adj.
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  1. related to the way you meet people and form relationships 社交的 e.g. College gives us an opportunity to develop our social skills. 大学给了我们发展社交能力的机会. 大学给了我们发展社交能力的机会. You seem to have a busy social life these days!
  2. concerning human society and its organization, or the quality of people's lives 社会的 e.g.They discussed various social issues, such as unemployment and education. social status / social background
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occasion
n.

  1. a time when something happens 场合,时刻 场合, e.g. On that occasion I could do nothing. A birthday is no occasion for tears.
  2. an important social event or ceremony 盛会 e.g. I'm saving this bottle of champagne for a special occasion. [扩展 [近] event 扩展] 近 扩展
chew
v.
  1. 牙齿咬及嚼碎;咀嚼 牙齿咬及嚼碎;
  2. to meditate on; ponder 深思;考虑 深思; e.g. chew a problem over 仔细思考问题 n.
  1. the act of chewing 咀嚼,咀嚼的动作 咀嚼,
  2. 咀嚼物 [扩展
  1. chew out 训斥;责怪 扩展] 训斥; 扩展
  2. chew the cud 对作思考;沉思 作思考; 作思考
  3. chew the fat 或 chew the rag 聊天
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behave
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v.

  1. (behave+ prep.) to do something in a particular way 举 止,表现 e.g. He behaved like a child. The boy is behaving well today.
  2. to act in a particular way 运转 e.g. My car has been behaving well since it was repaired. [扩展 behave oneself 举止规矩有利;检点 扩展] 举止规矩有利; 扩展 e.g. Did Peter behave himself while his mother was away? 妈妈不在时,Peter表现好吗? 妈妈不在时, 表现好吗? 表现好吗
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n.
  1. a result or object which one desires to reach 目标 e.g. I've set myself a target of saving $6 a week.
  2. a person or thing that is made the object of unfavorable remarks, jokes, etc. e.g. This plan will be the target of many opposition attacks.
  3. anything fired at, esp. a round card or board with circles on it, used in shooting practice [近] aim 近 e.g. a target for bombing / shooting
target
awkward adj.
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  1. not graceful; ungainly 不优雅的;难看的 不优雅的;
  2. difficult to handle or manage 不顺手的; 难处理或管理的 不顺手的 e.g. an awkward bundle to carry 携带不便的包裹
  3. difficult to effect; uncomfortable 难以实施的;不舒服的 难以实施的; e.g. an awkward pose
  4. marked by or causing embarrassment or discomfort 尴尬 的,以造成窘迫和不舒服为特征的 e.g. an awkward silence 令人尴尬的沉默
  5. requiring great tact, ingenuity, skill, and discretion 棘手 难处理的; 要求非常老练,机智, 的,难处理的 要求非常老练,机智,熟练和谨慎的 e.g. an awkward situation arose during the peace talks 在和平谈判中出现了棘手的情况
communication
n.
BACK
the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings 交流 e.g. Good communication is vital in a big organization. [扩展 communications [pl.] 扩展] 扩展
  1. ways of sending information, esp. using radios, telephones or computers 通讯系统 e.g. Modern communications enable more and more people to work at home.
  2. ways of traveling and sending goods, such as roads, railways, etc. 交通(工具) 交通(工具) e.g. The city has good communications with the towns nearby.
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Text B

  1.
Polite and Rude
You've probably already discovered that
learning a foreign language isn't just learning new words and grammar. In order to speak fluently ?? and to avoid some embarrassing situations ?? you must learn how to use the words and grammatical structures within the context of the culture. 译 文
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Text B (continued )

  2. Not only must you learn the vocabulary,
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but you must learn which words to choose in which situations. English speakers use a lot of euphemisms??polite, less direct words for things or ideas that may cause embarrassment. Sometimes words with the same meanings produce different feelings in the listeners, so you must choose words carefully depending upon the situation. 译 文
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Text B (continued
  2)
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  3. Every culture has specific rules for polite behavior and certain words for special situations. Different cultures also have customary ways to act and to look at and touch people. What are considered polite manners in one culture might be terribly rude in another. One of the difficulties of learning a foreign language is learning what is considered polite and rude in the culture of that language. The dictionary doesn't tell you this. 译 文
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Text B (continued
  3)
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  4. Do you remember your first impressions of North Americans (or people from other cultures as well)? Have you noticed that North Americans like to have a lot of personal space around them and feel very uncomfortable if they have to stand too close to others? Perhaps you wondered why they stood so far away from you. 译 文
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Text B (continued
  4)

  5. Were you surprised at the way North Americans eat? Different cultures not only have different foods, but people also eat in different ways. In the United States and Canada, eating is a social occasion, and people like to talk while they eat. North Americans don't make noise or talk while they have food in their mouths. One person chews while a second person talks, and then the second person talks while the first person chews! 译文
NEXT
HOME
Text B (continued
  5)

  6. Learning to behave as the people of the
target culture is almost like learning a new dance step. You may feel awkward at first. But once you pick up the rules, you can follow the tunes and enjoy the ease of communication. 译 文
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课文翻译
礼貌与无礼
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  1. 也许你已经发现,学习一门外语并非只是学学生词 也许你已经发现, 和语法而已.为了说得流利,为了避免窘境, 和语法而已.为了说得流利,为了避免窘境,你必须学 会怎样在特定文化背景下使用这些词语和语法结构. 会怎样在特定文化背景下使用这些词语和语法结构.
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课文翻译
你不仅要学习词汇, 你不仅要学习词汇,而且要学会在什么情景 下选择什么词.说英语的人使用许多委婉语, 下选择什么词.说英语的人使用许多委婉语,即礼貌 非直接的词语表达某些会令人尴尬的事物或想法. 的,非直接的词语表达某些会令人尴尬的事物或想法. 有时具有同样意义的词会使听者产生不同的感觉, 有时具有同样意义的词会使听者产生不同的感觉,因此 你必须根据场合来仔细选择用词. 你必须根据场合来仔细选择用词.
  2.
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课文翻译

  3. 每种文化都有关于礼貌举止的特定规则以及特定场 合中使用的特定词汇.不同文化也有其习惯的行为, 合中使用的特定词汇.不同文化也有其习惯的行为,目视 和触摸他人的方式. 和触摸他人的方式.在一种文化背景下被认为是礼貌的行 为到了另一种文化背景下可能会是非常无礼的行为. 为到了另一种文化背景下可能会是非常无礼的行为.学习 外语的困难之一是了解在特定语言所属的文化背景下, 外语的困难之一是了解在特定语言所属的文化背景下,什 么是礼貌的行为,什么是无礼的行为. 么是礼貌的行为,什么是无礼的行为.词典上是找不到 这些的. 这些的.
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课文翻译
你还记得对北美人(或是来自其他文化的人们) 你还记得对北美人(或是来自其他文化的人们) 的第一印象吗? 的第一印象吗?你有没有注意到北美人喜欢给自己留 出相当大
 

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