人教新课标必修四 unit1 知识点讲解

  1.
  1. achieve
重点词汇:
「课文原句」She has achieved everything she wanted to do… (P
  3) 「名师点拨」achieve v. 意为“完成;达到”,指经过长期努力而达到某目标、地位或 标准等。其名词形式为 achievement,意为“成就;功绩”,a sense of achievement 可指 “成就感”。 如:He had finally achieved success. Even a small success gives you a sense of achievement.
  2. condition 「课文原句」She helped improve prison conditions and gave prisoners work and education. (P
  1) 「名师点拨」condition 意为“环境;境况;条件”时,是可数名词,常用复数形式 conditions;意为“状态;状况”时,是不可数名词,be in good condition 表示“处于良 好的状态”,be out of condition 表示“健康状况不佳”。 如:We should pay more attention to the poor living under the bad conditions. The astronauts soon got used to the condition of weightlessness. My car is old but in good condition. He is overweight and out of condition. 「知识拓展」condition 意为“条件”时,常用短语 on condition that,表示“如果; 在……条件下”;在美国英语中,也经常用 under the condition that.如:I will come on condition that Peter is invited. They agreed under the condition that the matter be dealt with quickly.
  3. devote 「课文原句」 devoted all her life to medical work for Chinese women and children. She (P
  1)
「名师点拨」devote vt. 意为“投入于;献身”,其宾语后常与介词 to 搭配,to 后接 名词、代词或动名词。devote … to … 意为“献身;致力于”,指把自己、时间、精力等 奉献给某种工作或事业。 如:He has devoted his whole life to benefiting mankind. The girl, to whom he was devoted, died in a traffic accident by chance. After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening.
  4. behave 「课文原句」Jane has studied these animals for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans. (P
  2) 「名师点拨」behave vi & vt. 意为“举动;举止;行为表现”,如 behave well / badly 等。其名词形式为 behaviour,指“行为;态度;举止”。 如:The parents encouraged the children to behave well in front of the guests. My camera has been behaving well since it was repaired. Everyone praises the children's good behaviour.
  5. worthwhile 「课文原句」But the evening makes it all worthwhile. (P
  2) 「名师点拨」worthwhile adj.意为“值得做的;值得出力的”,可作表语或定语。be worthwhile to do / doing sth 表示“值得做……”,在动词-ing 形式的结构中,worthwhile 有时可以用来替代 worth,特别是在表示“值得花时间”这一概念时。 如:I think teaching school is always a worthwhile job. The book referred to by the professor is worthwhile / worth reading.
  6. observe 「课文原句」Jane spent many years observing and recording their daily activities. (P
  2) 「名师点拨」observe vt. 意为“观察;观测;遵守”,可用 observe sb do sth,observe + that 从句。其名词形式为 observation. 如:I observed the man who murdered the boy enter the shop. He observed that we should probably have rain. Most information was collected by direct observation of the animals‘ behaviour.
  7. argue
「课文原句」She has argued for them to be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements. (P
  2) 「名师点拨」argue 作动词时,意为“争论;争吵;争辩”。argue for 意为“为……辩 护”;argue with sb about / over sth 指“就某事和某人争论”;argue against 意为“据 理反对;争辩……”。 如:It is no use arguing for the plan because it has been rejected. We are always arguing with each other about money. Father argued fiercely against any increase in expenditure for the children‘s annual party. 「知识拓展」argue 的名词形式为 argument,意为“争论;争端;论证”,常构成短语 settle an argument 指“解决争端”。
  9. care for 「课文原句」It was a small book explaining how to cut the death rate from having and caring for babies by following some rules for keeping babies clean and healthy. (P
  6) 「名师点拨」care for 可以表示 look after 的意思,意为“照顾;照料”,且较正式; 也可表示“喜欢”的意思。 如:His son cared for him when he was ill. In fact, I don‘t really care for basketball. 另外,在上面的句子中,explain 意为“解释,说明”,后可接名词、代词、从句或 wh + to do 作宾语,可用 explain sth to sb 或 explain to sb sth. 如:Will you explain to us how we can finish the work as soon as possible? 「知识拓展」care about 意为“介意;在乎”,表示是否认为某事是重要的,某事是否 引起了某人的兴趣或使其忧虑。最常用于疑问句或否定句中。about 用在宾语前面,但是在连 词前面一般省掉。 I don‘t care about your opinion. I don’t care whether it rains ? I‘m happy.
  10. intend 「课文原句」I looked carefully at the text and realised that it was intended for women who lived in the countryside. (P
  6) 「名师点拨」intend v. 意为“打算;计划;想要”。intend to do sth 意为“想干某 事”;intend 后也可以接动词-ing 形式或 that 从句。intend for 表示“原打算给某人;准 备让……干……”。
如:I intended to come to your house last night but it rained. I intend coming / to come back soon. He hadn‘t really intended that they should be there. This gift is intended for you. 热点语法: 热点语法: 主谓一致用法难点小结: 一、集合名词作主语时的主谓一致。
  1. 集合名词有 family, team, group, party, class, public, club, crew, crowd, enemy, audience, company, committee, government, population 等,当被看作一个 整体时,表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式;如果这些集合名词指其中的每个成员,表示 复数意义, 谓语动词则用复数形式。 即谓语动词的单复数要与主语的含义相一致。 My class 如: is a big one, including thirty boys and thirty girls. My class are working hard for the coming exam.
  2. 有些集合名词作主语时,谓语只能用复数形式,如:people, the police, the military, mankind, cattle 等。如:The police are searching for the lost child. 二、不定代词作主语时的主谓一致。 不定代词 anyone, anybody, anything, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, no one, nobody, nothing, each, the other 等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如:Everything goes well with me. Each of the students in our class has an English-Chinese dictionary. 三、“名词+名词”作主语时的主谓一致。 当表示同一人物或观点时,谓语动词用单数。如:A novelist and playwright is coming to our school. 这里表示“一位小说家兼剧作家”,是同一个人,所以谓语动词用单数。 如果是 A novelist and a playwright 作主语,这时表示“一位小说家和一位剧作家”, 是两个人,所以谓语动词用复数,该句应改为:A novelist and a playwright are coming to our school.四、The + adj.作主语时的主谓一致。
当 The + adj.表示抽象的含义时,谓语动词用单数。如:The beautiful is the true.当 The + adj.表示该类全体的含义时,谓语动词用复数。如:The rich should help the poor.
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