The Creative Personality Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  1) I have devoted 30 years of research to how creative people live and work. If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an "individual", each of them is a "multitude".
  2) Here are some traits that are often found in creative people. These traits are integrated with each other in a dialectical manner.
  3) Creative people have a great deal of physical energy, but they are also often quiet and at rest. They can work long hours with great concentration while remaining fresh and enthusiastic all the time. This does not mean that creative people are always active. In fact, they rest often and sleep a lot. The important thing is that they know how to control their energy, which is not ruled by the calendar, the clock or an externalschedule. When necessary, they can focus it like a laser beam; when not, creative types immediately recharge their batteries. This is not a biorhythm inherited with their genes; it was learned by trial and error as a strategy for achieving their goals.
  4) Creative people tend to be smart yet naive at the same time. Another way of expressing this dialectic is the contrasting poles of wisdom andchildishness. As Howard Gardner reveals in his study of the major creative geniuses of the 20th century, a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights.
  5) Earlier studies on superior mental abilities show that children with very high IQs do well in life, but after a certain point, IQ does not seem to be correlated any longer with superior performance in real life. Later studies suggest that it might be difficult to do creative work with a lower IQ, but an IQ beyond 120 does not necessarily imply higher creativity.
  6) Furthermore, creative people seem able to use well two opposite ways of thinking: the convergentand the divergent. Convergent thinking is measured by IQ tests, and it involves solving well-defined, rational problems that have one correct answer. Divergent thinking leads to no agreed-upon solution. It involves the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas;flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. Yet divergent thinking is not much use without the ability to tell a good idea from a bad one, and for this, we must rely on convergent thinking.
  7)
  3. Creative people alternate between imagination and a deeply-rooted sense of reality. Great art and great science involve a leap of imagination into a world that is different from the present. In fact, the whole point of art and science is to go beyond what we
now consider real and create a new reality.
  8)
  4. Creative people tend to be both extroverted and introverted. We're usually one or the other, either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show. In fact, incurrent psychological research, extroversion and introversion are considered to be the most stable personality traits that distinguishpeople from each other. Creative individuals seem to exhibit both traits at the same time.
  9)
  5. Creative people are humble and proud at the same time. These individuals stand "on the shoulders of giants". Their respect for the area in which they work makes them aware of the long line of previous contributions to it. And they're usually so focused on future projects and current challenges that past accomplishments, no matter how outstanding, are no longer very interesting to them.
  10)
  6. Creative people are both rebellious andconservative. Being only traditional leaves an area unchanged; constantly taking chances without regard to tradition rarely leads tonovelty. But the willingness to take risks is absolutely necessary. The economist George Stigler is very emphatic in this regard, "I'd say one of the most common failures of able people is a lack of nerve. They just play safe games. In innovation, you have to play a less safe game, if it's going to be interesting. It's not predictable that it'll go well."
  11)
  7. Most creative people are very passionateabout their work, yet they can be extremely objective about it as well. Without the passion, we soon lose interest in a difficult task. Yet without being objective about it, our work is not very good and lacks credibility.
  12)
  8. Creative people's openness and sensitivity often exposes them to suffering and pain, yet also to a great deal of enjoyment. Inventors have a low threshold of pain.Things bother them. A badly designed machine causes pain to an inventive engineer, just as the creative writer is hurt when reading bad prose.
  13) Being alone at the forefront of a discipline also leaves you exposed and vulnerable. Eminence invites criticism and oftenvicious attacks. When an artist has invested years in making a sculpture, or a scientist in developing a theory, it is devastating if nobody cares.
  14) Perhaps the most difficult thing for creative individuals to bear is the sense of loss and emptiness they experience when, for some reason, they cannot work. This is especially painful when a person feels his or her creativity drying out.
  15) Yet when a person is working in the area of his or her expertise, worries and cares fall away, replaced by a sense of happiness. Perhaps the most important quality, the one that is most consistently present in all creative individuals, is the ability to enjoy the process of creation for its own sake. Without this trait, poets would give
up striving for perfection and would write commercial jingles; economists would work for banks where they would earn at least twice as much as they do at universities; and physicists would stop doing basic research and join industrial laboratories where the conditions are better and the expectations more predictable.
 

相关内容

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文2

   Three Days to See 1) All of us have read thrilling stories in which the hero had only a limited and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year; sometimes as short as twenty-four hours. But always we were interested in discovering ju ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文6

   The Creative Personality Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 1) I have devoted 30 years of research to how creative people live and work. If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity. They contain contra ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文4

   Choose Optimism Rich DeVos 1) If you expect something to turn out bad, it probably will. Pessimism is seldom disappointed. But the same principle also works in reverse. If you expect good things to happen, they usually do! There seems to be a natur ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2答案

   Unit 1 P20 1、 1)??? tackle 2)??? alternative 3)??? initial 4)??? universal 5)??? crippled 6)??? genuine 7)??? construct 8)??? impressive 9)??? shallow P21 10)???????????? react 11)???????????? generate 12)???????????? entitled 13)???????????? contac ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文8

   Did You Have a Tough Childhood? Jill Ammon-Wexler 1) Many claim unhappy and terrible childhood experiences "damage" people in their adult years. But is this necessarily true? Actually, just the opposite seems to be true. Intense difficult ...

全新版大学英语综合教程2课后翻译

   全新版大学英语综合教程 2 课后翻译 UNIT 1 我认为总结一下英语学习的经验是值得一试的。这里,我想谈谈三个相 关的问题。 首先,大量阅读应被视作学习过程中的重点,因为我们是通过阅读获取 最大量语言输入(language input)的。其次,尽可能多背一些好文章也十分重 要。一方面,死记硬背(rote learning)确实无甚裨益,但另一方面,在真正理 解基础上的熟记肯定对我们有好处。大脑中存储了大量很好的文章,我们在 用英语表达自己思想的时候,就会觉得容易多了。最后,我们应该把所学 ...

大学英语综合教程5课文翻译

   One Writer's Beginnings 作家起步时 我从两三岁起就知道,家中随便在哪个房间里,白天无论在什么时间,都可以念书 或听人念书。母亲念书给我听。上午她都在那间大卧室里给我念,两人一起坐在她那把摇 椅里,我们摇晃时,椅子发出有节奏的滴答声,好像有只唧唧鸣叫的蟋蟀在伴着读故事。 冬日午后,她常在餐厅里烧着煤炭的炉火前给我念,布谷鸟自鸣钟发出“咕咕”声时,故 事便结束了;晚上我在自己床上睡下后她也给我念。想必我是不让她有一刻清静。有时她 在厨房里一边坐着搅制黄油一边给我念, 故事 ...

大学英语综合教程2课文翻译

   Unit One 中国式的学习风格 霍华德加德纳 1987 年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们 18 个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住 了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况.然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中美教 育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大 堂. 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上. 酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙, 可 以交给服务员,也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱.由于口子狭小,你得留神将钥匙放准位置才 塞得进去. 本杰明爱拿着钥 ...

全新版大学英语综合教程2课文答案

   Appendix I Key to Exercises (Units 1-8) Unit 1 Part I Pre-Reading Task Script for the recording: Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stil ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程4课文翻译Unit6

   6A 1|人生的两条真理| 亚历山大?M?辛德勒 人生的艺术就是要懂得收与放。 而人生就是这样 一个矛盾: 尽管到头来注定一切都不能长久, 它还是令我们依恋于它所赋予的各种恩赐。 正如古人所言:“一个人出生时拳头紧握,过世时却松手而去。” 2 当然,我们应该紧紧把握人生,因为它既神奇,又美 丽。我们都懂得这个道理。可是 我们却常常在回首往事时才突然觉醒, 意识到其中之美, 可为时已晚, 一切都时过境 迁。 3 我们记起的是褪色的美、消逝的爱。但是这种记忆中却饱含了苦涩,我们痛惜没有在美 丽绽 ...

热门内容

江苏省平潮高级中学2009届高三上学期综合测试英语试题

   精品学习网高中频道 (http://www.51edu.com/gaozhong/) 海量同步课件、 , 同步备考、同步试题等资源免费下载! 江苏省平潮高级中学 2009 届高三上学期综合测试 英语 听力( 听力(略) 第一部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分 35 分) 第一节:语法和词汇知识(共 15 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 15 分) 1.-May I speak to Professor Black, please? 1 -Sorry, but he is busy conducti ...

高中英语课文教学的“导、读、练”??培养学生整体阅读能力初探

   taoti.tl100.com 社区 你的首选资源互助 高中英语课文教学的“ 高中英语课文教学的“导、读、练”??培养学生整体阅读能力初探 ??培养学生整体阅读能力初探 【摘 要】 高中英语课文教学是培养学生阅读能力的一个关键环节和重要手段,而英语阅读能 力的培养关键在于教师的“导”和学生的“读、练”。“导、读、练”式阅读教学,改 变了传统的课文教学模式,并充分体现了高中英语课堂教学的“多层次、快节奏、多信 息、高密度、重操练、勤反复”等一系列特征,极大地调动了学生学习英语的积极性和 主动性 ...

剑桥少儿英语一级演示文稿

   1 French fries 2chicken 3 carrot 4 tomato 5 potatoes 6 pea What’s for dinner ? Sausages .Do you like them? No,I like fish. chicken 鸡肉 rice 米饭 pea 豌豆 snack 点心 bean 豆子 carrot 胡萝卜 jam 果酱 breakfast 早饭 lunch 午饭 supper 晚饭 dinner 主餐 sandwich 三明治 ...

高考英语高频词汇表2

   1.alter v. 改变,改动,变更 2.burst vi.n. 突然发生,爆裂 3.dispose vi. 除掉;处置;解决;处理(of) 4.blast n. 爆炸;气流 vi. 炸,炸掉 5.consume v. 消耗,耗尽 6.split v. 劈开;割裂;分裂 a.裂开的 7.spit v. 吐(唾液等);唾弃 8.spill v. 溢出,溅出,倒出 9.slip v. 滑动,滑落;忽略 10.slide v. 滑动,滑落 n. 滑动;滑面;幻灯片 11.bacteria n. ...

2011高考英语必看之-高中英语基础写作

   基础写作 基础写作的命题特点: 基础写作的命题特点: 考生按所给的内容及要求, 考生按所给的内容及要求,用5个规范的英语句子描述所 个规范的英语句子描述所 给信息的全部内容,并组成连贯的短文。 给信息的全部内容,并组成连贯的短文。 简而言之,考查考生整理信息和组词造句成文的能力。 简而言之,考查考生整理信息和组词造句成文的能力。 题型 基础写作 题量 1 赋分 15 时间(分钟) 时间(分钟) 10 基础写作的评分标准? 完整性(Completeness) 完整性 1 句子内容的完整性 正确 ...