The Creative Personality Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  1) I have devoted 30 years of research to how creative people live and work. If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an "individual", each of them is a "multitude".
  2) Here are some traits that are often found in creative people. These traits are integrated with each other in a dialectical manner.
  3) Creative people have a great deal of physical energy, but they are also often quiet and at rest. They can work long hours with great concentration while remaining fresh and enthusiastic all the time. This does not mean that creative people are always active. In fact, they rest often and sleep a lot. The important thing is that they know how to control their energy, which is not ruled by the calendar, the clock or an externalschedule. When necessary, they can focus it like a laser beam; when not, creative types immediately recharge their batteries. This is not a biorhythm inherited with their genes; it was learned by trial and error as a strategy for achieving their goals.
  4) Creative people tend to be smart yet naive at the same time. Another way of expressing this dialectic is the contrasting poles of wisdom andchildishness. As Howard Gardner reveals in his study of the major creative geniuses of the 20th century, a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights.
  5) Earlier studies on superior mental abilities show that children with very high IQs do well in life, but after a certain point, IQ does not seem to be correlated any longer with superior performance in real life. Later studies suggest that it might be difficult to do creative work with a lower IQ, but an IQ beyond 120 does not necessarily imply higher creativity.
  6) Furthermore, creative people seem able to use well two opposite ways of thinking: the convergentand the divergent. Convergent thinking is measured by IQ tests, and it involves solving well-defined, rational problems that have one correct answer. Divergent thinking leads to no agreed-upon solution. It involves the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas;flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. Yet divergent thinking is not much use without the ability to tell a good idea from a bad one, and for this, we must rely on convergent thinking.
  7)
  3. Creative people alternate between imagination and a deeply-rooted sense of reality. Great art and great science involve a leap of imagination into a world that is different from the present. In fact, the whole point of art and science is to go beyond what we
now consider real and create a new reality.
  8)
  4. Creative people tend to be both extroverted and introverted. We're usually one or the other, either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show. In fact, incurrent psychological research, extroversion and introversion are considered to be the most stable personality traits that distinguishpeople from each other. Creative individuals seem to exhibit both traits at the same time.
  9)
  5. Creative people are humble and proud at the same time. These individuals stand "on the shoulders of giants". Their respect for the area in which they work makes them aware of the long line of previous contributions to it. And they're usually so focused on future projects and current challenges that past accomplishments, no matter how outstanding, are no longer very interesting to them.
  10)
  6. Creative people are both rebellious andconservative. Being only traditional leaves an area unchanged; constantly taking chances without regard to tradition rarely leads tonovelty. But the willingness to take risks is absolutely necessary. The economist George Stigler is very emphatic in this regard, "I'd say one of the most common failures of able people is a lack of nerve. They just play safe games. In innovation, you have to play a less safe game, if it's going to be interesting. It's not predictable that it'll go well."
  11)
  7. Most creative people are very passionateabout their work, yet they can be extremely objective about it as well. Without the passion, we soon lose interest in a difficult task. Yet without being objective about it, our work is not very good and lacks credibility.
  12)
  8. Creative people's openness and sensitivity often exposes them to suffering and pain, yet also to a great deal of enjoyment. Inventors have a low threshold of pain.Things bother them. A badly designed machine causes pain to an inventive engineer, just as the creative writer is hurt when reading bad prose.
  13) Being alone at the forefront of a discipline also leaves you exposed and vulnerable. Eminence invites criticism and oftenvicious attacks. When an artist has invested years in making a sculpture, or a scientist in developing a theory, it is devastating if nobody cares.
  14) Perhaps the most difficult thing for creative individuals to bear is the sense of loss and emptiness they experience when, for some reason, they cannot work. This is especially painful when a person feels his or her creativity drying out.
  15) Yet when a person is working in the area of his or her expertise, worries and cares fall away, replaced by a sense of happiness. Perhaps the most important quality, the one that is most consistently present in all creative individuals, is the ability to enjoy the process of creation for its own sake. Without this trait, poets would give
up striving for perfection and would write commercial jingles; economists would work for banks where they would earn at least twice as much as they do at universities; and physicists would stop doing basic research and join industrial laboratories where the conditions are better and the expectations more predictable.
 

相关内容

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文6翻译

   |创意性格| 米哈伊?奇克森特米海伊 1) 我花了 30 年的时间研究富有创意的人是如何生活和工作的。如果要用一个词来概括他们的性格与常人 的差别所在, 那就是“复杂”。 他们身上有着极其矛盾的特征, 他们不是“个体”, 每个有创意的人都是“复 合体”。 2) 下面就是富有创意的人身上常会具备的一些特征。这些特征有机组合、辩证统一。 3) 1. 富有创意的人精力充沛,但也经常安静地休息。他们可以注意力高度集中地工作很长时间,而始终 神采奕奕、兴致勃勃。这并不是说富有创意的人超级亢奋。事实上, ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文2

   Three Days to See 1) All of us have read thrilling stories in which the hero had only a limited and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year; sometimes as short as twenty-four hours. But always we were interested in discovering ju ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文4

   Choose Optimism Rich DeVos 1) If you expect something to turn out bad, it probably will. Pessimism is seldom disappointed. But the same principle also works in reverse. If you expect good things to happen, they usually do! There seems to be a natur ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2答案

   Unit 1 P20 1、 1) tackle 2) alternative 3) initial 4) universal 5) crippled 6) genuine 7) construct 8) impressive 9) shallow P21 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) react generate entitled contact constant rough captured 17) 18) 2、 move put 1) In any case 2 ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2答案

   Unit 1 P20 1、 1)??? tackle 2)??? alternative 3)??? initial 4)??? universal 5)??? crippled 6)??? genuine 7)??? construct 8)??? impressive 9)??? shallow P21 10)???????????? react 11)???????????? generate 12)???????????? entitled 13)???????????? contac ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课文8

   Did You Have a Tough Childhood? Jill Ammon-Wexler 1) Many claim unhappy and terrible childhood experiences "damage" people in their adult years. But is this necessarily true? Actually, just the opposite seems to be true. Intense difficult ...

大学体验英语综合教程2课后答案及课文翻译

   3. Elected Minimum Distinct Pursue Exploit Restrict Equip Granted Awarded 4 at large on the basis of in support of apply for is aiming at 7 Anyone over the age of 18 is eligible to vote. A form to apply for the scholarships is sent by the universit ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程4课文翻译Unit6

   6A 1|人生的两条真理| 亚历山大?M?辛德勒 人生的艺术就是要懂得收与放。 而人生就是这样 一个矛盾: 尽管到头来注定一切都不能长久, 它还是令我们依恋于它所赋予的各种恩赐。 正如古人所言:“一个人出生时拳头紧握,过世时却松手而去。” 2 当然,我们应该紧紧把握人生,因为它既神奇,又美 丽。我们都懂得这个道理。可是 我们却常常在回首往事时才突然觉醒, 意识到其中之美, 可为时已晚, 一切都时过境 迁。 3 我们记起的是褪色的美、消逝的爱。但是这种记忆中却饱含了苦涩,我们痛惜没有在美 丽绽 ...

全新版大学英语综合教程3 unit2 课文翻译

   Unit 2 给人以自由者 ??弗格斯?M?博得威奇 2004年,一个纪念“地下铁路”的中心将在辛辛那提市成立。这条铁路不同寻常,它不出售车票,也无火车行驶。然而,它将成千上方的乘客送往他们梦想中的目的地。 我步出这幢两层小屋,加拿大平原上轻风微拂。我身边是一位苗条的黑衣女子,把我带回到过去的向导。那时,安大略省得雷斯顿这一带住着美国历史上的一位英雄。我们前往一座普普通通的灰色教堂,芭芭拉?卡特自豪地谈论着其高祖乔赛亚?亨森。“他坚信上帝要所有人生来平等。他从来没有停止过争取这一自由权利的奋斗 ...

0GZZT往事追忆_大学体验英语综合教程2课文翻译

   灿烂的语言,只能点缀感情,如果我沉默,代表我真的喜欢你 26、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 27、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 28、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 29、生活的真正意义是:生下来,活下去。 、生活的真正意义是: 生下来,活下去。 30、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 31、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 3 ...

热门内容

初一英语试题

   一般现在时用法专练 一、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。 用括号内动词的适当形式填空。 (have) dinner at home. 1. He often 2. Daniel and Tommy (be) in Class One. 3. We (not watch) TV on Monday. (not go) to the zoo on Sunday. 4. Nick 5. they (like) the World Cup? 6. What they often (do) on Satu ...

英语专业四级测试(TEM4) 听写中的听力策略研究

   期 卷 翔 毕 节 学 院 学 报 NO.5,2 7 以) Vo. 2 l 5 《 n r N0 艳 已a 9 4 J UR O NA LOFB ] U I E 1 1Y l E N V 」51 , 英语专业四 试 ( M4 听写中的听力 级测 T ) E 策略研究 张 炼                ( 大学外国语学院, 贵州 贵州 贵阳 502) 5 5 摘 要:英语听写能全 面地反映一个人 的总体语 言水平,考察其 多方 面的语言能力和知识。 它既      足 重要 的综合性测试手 ...

个人简历英语词汇

   个人简历英语词汇 able 有才干的,能干的 active 主动的,活跃的 adaptable 适应性强的 adroit 灵巧的,机敏的 aggressive 有进取心的 alert 机灵的 ambitious 有雄心壮志的 amiable 和蔼可亲的 amicable 友好的 analytical 善于分析的 apprehensive 有理解力的 aspiring 有志气的,有抱负的 audacious 大胆的,有冒险精神的 capable 有能力的,有才能的 careful 办事仔细的 ...

新目标英语七年级下期中复习精选练习(1)

   七年级下期中复习精选练习 一.单项选择题 单项选择题 ( ( ( )1.What the women over there? A is , do B are ,doing C is , doing D. are do )2.--Are you playing basketball? --. A Yes, I am B No, you are C Yes, I do D No,you don’t )3.I want the room. Could you please me? A to cle ...

搞好英语

   《搞好英语》 A:大家晚上好吗?(很痛苦,很无助地打招呼,待观众响应后) 可我过得不咋的啊! B:哎!人活着真累,站着就想睡,去食堂还排队,吃饭没香味,学习啊,特疲惫! 为啥啊?四六级呗!不和你们聊了,我要去综合楼前的小树林里背英语单词了。 BYE BYE! (回头面朝观众)我还不想当电灯泡呢!得了,就在这儿背吧! A: (坐在地板上叽里呱啦背单词) B:日子过得好难,看到英语就烦,说是不想再考了那是扯淡,离我(扳手指数到 7 )第七次补考还剩三十二天了。 A:干(HA 念第二声)呀?没看到 ...