The Creative Personality Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  1) I have devoted 30 years of research to how creative people live and work. If I had to express in one word what makes their personalities different from others, it's complexity. They contain contradictory extremes; instead of being an "individual", each of them is a "multitude".
  2) Here are some traits that are often found in creative people. These traits are integrated with each other in a dialectical manner.
  3) Creative people have a great deal of physical energy, but they are also often quiet and at rest. They can work long hours with great concentration while remaining fresh and enthusiastic all the time. This does not mean that creative people are always active. In fact, they rest often and sleep a lot. The important thing is that they know how to control their energy, which is not ruled by the calendar, the clock or an externalschedule. When necessary, they can focus it like a laser beam; when not, creative types immediately recharge their batteries. This is not a biorhythm inherited with their genes; it was learned by trial and error as a strategy for achieving their goals.
  4) Creative people tend to be smart yet naive at the same time. Another way of expressing this dialectic is the contrasting poles of wisdom andchildishness. As Howard Gardner reveals in his study of the major creative geniuses of the 20th century, a certain immaturity, both emotional and mental, can go hand in hand with deepest insights.
  5) Earlier studies on superior mental abilities show that children with very high IQs do well in life, but after a certain point, IQ does not seem to be correlated any longer with superior performance in real life. Later studies suggest that it might be difficult to do creative work with a lower IQ, but an IQ beyond 120 does not necessarily imply higher creativity.
  6) Furthermore, creative people seem able to use well two opposite ways of thinking: the convergentand the divergent. Convergent thinking is measured by IQ tests, and it involves solving well-defined, rational problems that have one correct answer. Divergent thinking leads to no agreed-upon solution. It involves the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas;flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. Yet divergent thinking is not much use without the ability to tell a good idea from a bad one, and for this, we must rely on convergent thinking.
  3. Creative people alternate between imagination and a deeply-rooted sense of reality. Great art and great science involve a leap of imagination into a world that is different from the present. In fact, the whole point of art and science is to go beyond what we
now consider real and create a new reality.
  4. Creative people tend to be both extroverted and introverted. We're usually one or the other, either preferring to be in the thick of crowds or sitting on the sidelines and observing the passing show. In fact, incurrent psychological research, extroversion and introversion are considered to be the most stable personality traits that distinguishpeople from each other. Creative individuals seem to exhibit both traits at the same time.
  5. Creative people are humble and proud at the same time. These individuals stand "on the shoulders of giants". Their respect for the area in which they work makes them aware of the long line of previous contributions to it. And they're usually so focused on future projects and current challenges that past accomplishments, no matter how outstanding, are no longer very interesting to them.
  6. Creative people are both rebellious andconservative. Being only traditional leaves an area unchanged; constantly taking chances without regard to tradition rarely leads tonovelty. But the willingness to take risks is absolutely necessary. The economist George Stigler is very emphatic in this regard, "I'd say one of the most common failures of able people is a lack of nerve. They just play safe games. In innovation, you have to play a less safe game, if it's going to be interesting. It's not predictable that it'll go well."
  7. Most creative people are very passionateabout their work, yet they can be extremely objective about it as well. Without the passion, we soon lose interest in a difficult task. Yet without being objective about it, our work is not very good and lacks credibility.
  8. Creative people's openness and sensitivity often exposes them to suffering and pain, yet also to a great deal of enjoyment. Inventors have a low threshold of pain.Things bother them. A badly designed machine causes pain to an inventive engineer, just as the creative writer is hurt when reading bad prose.
  13) Being alone at the forefront of a discipline also leaves you exposed and vulnerable. Eminence invites criticism and oftenvicious attacks. When an artist has invested years in making a sculpture, or a scientist in developing a theory, it is devastating if nobody cares.
  14) Perhaps the most difficult thing for creative individuals to bear is the sense of loss and emptiness they experience when, for some reason, they cannot work. This is especially painful when a person feels his or her creativity drying out.
  15) Yet when a person is working in the area of his or her expertise, worries and cares fall away, replaced by a sense of happiness. Perhaps the most important quality, the one that is most consistently present in all creative individuals, is the ability to enjoy the process of creation for its own sake. Without this trait, poets would give
up striving for perfection and would write commercial jingles; economists would work for banks where they would earn at least twice as much as they do at universities; and physicists would stop doing basic research and join industrial laboratories where the conditions are better and the expectations more predictable.



   |创意性格| 米哈伊?奇克森特米海伊 1) 我花了 30 年的时间研究富有创意的人是如何生活和工作的。如果要用一个词来概括他们的性格与常人 的差别所在, 那就是“复杂”。 他们身上有着极其矛盾的特征, 他们不是“个体”, 每个有创意的人都是“复 合体”。 2) 下面就是富有创意的人身上常会具备的一些特征。这些特征有机组合、辩证统一。 3) 1. 富有创意的人精力充沛,但也经常安静地休息。他们可以注意力高度集中地工作很长时间,而始终 神采奕奕、兴致勃勃。这并不是说富有创意的人超级亢奋。事实上, ...


   Choose Optimism Rich DeVos 1) If you expect something to turn out bad, it probably will. Pessimism is seldom disappointed. But the same principle also works in reverse. If you expect good things to happen, they usually do! There seems to be a natur ...


   Did You Have a Tough Childhood? Jill Ammon-Wexler 1) Many claim unhappy and terrible childhood experiences "damage" people in their adult years. But is this necessarily true? Actually, just the opposite seems to be true. Intense difficult ...


   One Writer's Beginnings 作家起步时 我从两三岁起就知道,家中随便在哪个房间里,白天无论在什么时间,都可以念书 或听人念书。母亲念书给我听。上午她都在那间大卧室里给我念,两人一起坐在她那把摇 椅里,我们摇晃时,椅子发出有节奏的滴答声,好像有只唧唧鸣叫的蟋蟀在伴着读故事。 冬日午后,她常在餐厅里烧着煤炭的炉火前给我念,布谷鸟自鸣钟发出“咕咕”声时,故 事便结束了;晚上我在自己床上睡下后她也给我念。想必我是不让她有一刻清静。有时她 在厨房里一边坐着搅制黄油一边给我念, 故事 ...


   Appendix I Key to Exercises (Units 1-8) Unit 1 Part I Pre-Reading Task Script for the recording: Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stil ...


   参考译文 第一单元 学习方式 课文 A 哈佛大学教育学教授霍华德?加德纳回忆其中国之行,阐述他对中西方不同的学习方式 的看法。 中国式的学习风格 霍华德?加德纳 1987 年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们 18 个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住 了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中蓁教 育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店的大 堂。 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。 酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙, ...

全新版大学英语综合教程3 unit2 课文翻译

   Unit 2 给人以自由者 ??弗格斯?M?博得威奇 2004年,一个纪念“地下铁路”的中心将在辛辛那提市成立。这条铁路不同寻常,它不出售车票,也无火车行驶。然而,它将成千上方的乘客送往他们梦想中的目的地。 我步出这幢两层小屋,加拿大平原上轻风微拂。我身边是一位苗条的黑衣女子,把我带回到过去的向导。那时,安大略省得雷斯顿这一带住着美国历史上的一位英雄。我们前往一座普普通通的灰色教堂,芭芭拉?卡特自豪地谈论着其高祖乔赛亚?亨森。“他坚信上帝要所有人生来平等。他从来没有停止过争取这一自由权利的奋斗 ...

全新版大学英语综合教程2 unit2 课文翻译

   Unit Two 美国乡巴佬首富 阿特?哈里斯 他穿上餐服准备到美国首富的生日聚会上去担任侍者。在他的想象里,他定然会看到:豪宅,主人天天要坐的罗尔斯?罗伊斯轿车,戴着钻石颈圈的家犬,到处可见的仆人。 他动身前往那所宅邸,开着车穿过本顿维尔镇冷冷清清的市政广场。本顿维尔镇是阿肯色州一个人口仅有9,920的偏远小镇,萨姆?沃尔顿就在该镇从一个专卖廉价商品的小店起家,逐渐发展成为价值60亿美金资产的折扣连锁店沃尔玛公司。 侍者上了一条乡间车道,转过一个标着“萨姆和海伦?沃尔顿”的信箱,在一 ...


   今人不见古时月,今月曾经照古人。 天不老,情难绝。心似双丝网,中有千千结。-张先《千秋岁》 天不老,情难绝。心似双丝网,中有千千结。-张先《千秋岁》 。-张先 似此星辰非昨夜, 为谁风露立中宵。 黄景仁 绮怀诗二首其一》 -黄景仁 绮怀诗二首其一》 《 似此星辰非昨夜, 为谁风露立中宵。 - 直道相思了无益,未妨惆怅是清狂。-李商隐《无题六首其三》 直道相思了无益,未妨惆怅是清狂。-李商隐《无题六首其三》 。-李商隐 深知身在情长在,怅望江头江水声。-李商隐《暮秋独游曲江》 深知身在情长在, ...


   灿烂的语言,只能点缀感情,如果我沉默,代表我真的喜欢你 26、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 、自由代表的是内心永久的孤独。 27、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 、现实太假,还是自己太傻? 28、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 、一切因为寂寞,才开始了暧昧。 29、生活的真正意义是:生下来,活下去。 、生活的真正意义是: 生下来,活下去。 30、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 、年龄不是差距,身高不是距离。 31、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 、人生是一张单程车票,没有后退,没有返回! 3 ...



   Go ahead. 请,尽管(用、说、做) 尽管( A: May I use your cell phone ? B: Of course. Go ahead . A: 我可以借用你的手机吗? B: 当然。请用。 It’ s my pleasure. 我的荣 我的荣幸,乐意之至。 意之至。 A: Thanks for driving me to school . B: It’ s my pleasure . A: 谢谢你载我到学校。 B: 这是我的荣幸。 You`re welcome. R% ...


   初中英语语法 初中英语语法 一.名词 I. 名词的种类: 专有名词 普通名词 可数名词 不可数名词 国名.地名.人名, 团体.机构名称 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 物质名词 II. 名词的数: 1. 规则名词的复数形式: 名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es.现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下: 规则 例词 1 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days 一般情况在词尾加-s 2 class-classes, box-boxes, watch ...


   有很多学校的面试可能要求提供英文简历,准备一份精美的英文简历是很有必要的。 RESUME Personal Information: Name: **** Date of Birth: July 12, 1971 Birth Place: Beijing Sex: Male Marital Status: Unmarried Telephone: **** E-mail: Work Experience: : Nov. 1998- present CCIDE ...


   2009 年 高考英语?山东自主命题(真题+答案+听力原文 打印版) 2009 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试 山东卷 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(山东卷 山东卷) 英语 本试卷分第 I 卷和第Ⅱ卷两部分,共 12 页,满分 150 分.考试用时 120 分钟. 第 I 卷(共 105 分) 共 听力(共两节 共两节,满分 第一部分 听力 共两节 满分 30 分) 第一节(共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话.每段对话后一个小题,从题中所给的 A,B, ...


   开始上课) Beginning a class ( 开始上课) 1. Let's start class. =It's time for class. 上课 2. Hello, boys and girls / children.同学们好 3. Good morning /afternoon, boys and girls / teacher/同学们/老师 们,早晨好/下午好 4.Stand up / Sit down, please.起立/请坐 5. Who is on duty toda ...