Unit 4 Book 3 Health I. Difficult Sentences
  1. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. (
  1) What does “in this respect” refer to? (=It refers to choosing one’s ancestors carefully. It is naturally humorous of Russell to say he has done well in choosing his ancestors because in reality no one can choose his or her own ancestors. ) (
  2) Translate this sentence (=虽然我的父母皆属早逝,但是考虑到我其他的祖先,我的选择尚好。)
  2. A great grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last day remained a terror to all her descendants. Why did the author’s great grandmother remain a “terror” to all her descendants? (=She was in such good health that she was held in awe by her children and grandchildren right up until the day of her death.)
  3. If you have wide and keen interests and activities in which you can still be effective, you will have no reason to think about the merely statistical fact of the number of years you have already lived, still less of the probable brevity of your future. What does the author suggest in this sentence? (=He suggests that you should cultivate wide and keen interests and do activities in which you can be effective.)
  4. I never do anything whatever on the ground that it is good for health, though in actual fact the things I like doing are mostly wholesome. Do you think the author would do things harmful to his health?What is the implied meaning of this sentence? (=The author would be unlikely to do anything that is harmful to his health.) What can we infer from this sentence? (=When he does something, he never bothers about whether it does any good to his health, but in reality, the things he likes to do are mostly good for his health.)
  5. It does not do to live in memories, in regrets for the good old days, or in sadness about friends who are dead. What do we learn from this sentence? (=Undue absorption in the past does not benefit one at all.)
  6. It is easy to think to oneself that one’s emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and one’s mind more keen.
1
(
  1) Paraphrase this sentence (=People tend to believe their emotions used to be more active and their minds used to be quicker than it is now.) (
  2) Translate this sentence (=人们很容易以为过去的情感比现在强烈,过去的头脑也比现在敏锐。)
  7. If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it is forgotten it will probably not be true. What is the implied meaning of this sentence? (=In this paradox the author intends to say that people of old age should not live in memories. They should try to think of what is coming in the future and do something meaningful. Only in this way will their mind and emotions remain as keen and active as they used to be. )
  8. But if you are one of those who are incapable of impersonal interests, you may find that your life will be empty unless you concern yourself with your children and grandchildren. Translate this sentence (=但是,如果你的兴趣无法摆脱个人感情的支配,你也许会发现,假如不 关注子孙,生活就会空虚无望。)
  9. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer. Why does the author say young men have reason to fear death? (=Because it would be a great pity if their lives have been cut short unjustly before they have had a chance to enjoy all the best things that life has to offer. )
  10. The best way to overcome it?so at least it seems to me?is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. Paraphrase this sentence (=As your interests gradually get wider and more impersonal, the sense of your value and importance as an individual gradually disappears and you will identify yourself more and more with human life in general. )
II. Words and Expressions
  1. respect: n. a particular point or detail Grace was a fine woman?perfect in almost every respect. APEC has made a very commendable attempt in this respect.
2
(=Is China going to continue its measures in this respect for further improvement?) 在这方面中国可与任何国家竞争。 (=China can compete with any other country in this respect.) Collocations: in this respect in every respect in some respects in any respect in no respect
在这个方面 在各个方面 在有些方面 在任何方面 绝不

  2. as regards: on the subject of; concerning *All citizens are equal as regards their capacity for civil rights. *Could you elaborate on your government policy as regards environmental protection? (=As regards vegetables for the large cities, there is a big contradiction between supply and demand at present.) *至于应该穿什么衣服, 并没有硬性规定。 (=There are no special rules as regards what clothes you should wear.)
  3. cut off: (
  1) to cause sb. to die sooner than is normal (
  2) to remove sth. (from sth. larger) by cutting (
  3) to stop, interrupt or isolate (
  4) to separate sth. by cutting it away from the main part (Directions:) Match the above definitions with the sentences below. (
  1) We were cut off half way through the conversation. (=
  3) (
  2) He cut off a metre of cloth from the roll. (=
  2) (
  3) Disease cut Smith off in the best part of his life. (=
  1) (
  4) Several villages have been cut off by the snow. (=
  3) (
  5) Don’t cut your fingers off! (=
  4)

  4. inquire: v. to ask for information *She inquired of me most politely whether I wished to continue. *I will inquire (of him) about the schedule. *Learn widely, inquire earnestly, and reflect on what is at hand. (=博学,切问,近思。) Collocations: inquire about inquire after
查问; 查明 问候;问安
3
inquire for inquire into
查询(货物); 求见 查究;调查
CF: ask, demand, inquire & question 这些动词均含有“问,询问”之意。 ask 最为普通, 可与 demand, inquire 和 question 换用, ask 用于口语中, 但 指提出问题让人回答。例如:I think I’d better ask him who he is. demand 指根据自己的权利、职责或身份认为有必要弄清情况而正式发问, 常隐含命令对方回答的意味。例如:The police demanded his name and address. inquire 比较正式,指为得到真实情况而详细询问或调查了解。例如:They inquired whether he would attend the meeting. question 指因感到可疑或为了解情况,弄清究竟而发问,有时指一连串的发 问。例如:She questioned him about his past.
  5. part: v. to separate or divide *The policemen parted the crowd. *She has parted from her husband. *如果我们必须分手,我希望我们分了手还是朋友。 (=If we must part, I hope we can be friends.) *The clouds parted and the sun shone through. (=云开日出。)
  6. exclaim: v. to cry out suddenly and loudly for pain, anger, surprise, etc. *He exclaimed that it was untrue. *She exclaimed with delight when she saw the present. (=He could not help exclaiming at how much his son has grown.) CF: cry, shout, exclaim & scream 这些动词的均有“喊”、“叫”之意。 cry 一般指因恐惧、痛苦、惊奇等而喊叫。 shout 指有意识地高声喊叫,常用于提出警告、不满、发命令或唤起注意 等。 exclaim 多指因高兴、愤怒、痛苦、惊讶等突发感情而高声喊叫。 scream 指因恐惧、快乐或痛苦而发出尖叫声。 (Directions:) Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. (
  1) She was hysterically. (=screaming) (
  2) The police out a warning. (=shouted) (
  3) A baby can as soon as it is born. (=cry) (
  4) The newspaper against the government’s action. (=exclaimed)
4
(
  5) The crowd
slogans and threw stones at the police. (=shouted)

  7. keen: adj. (
  1) sharp, active, sensitive *Dogs have a keen sense of smell. *He bought a knife with a keen blade. (
  2) intense, strong, deep *He has a keen interest in his work. *退休后,他有一种强烈的失落感。 (=After retirement, he had a keen sense of loss.) (
  3) eager, enthusiastic *She was not very keen on football. (=After he had dreamed his birthplace many times, he was very keen to go back.) CF: sharp, acute & keen 这些形容词均有“锐利的”、“敏锐的”、“机敏的”之意。 sharp 指思路、视觉、听觉等方面的灵敏、敏锐。例如:It’s very sharp of you to have answered such a question. 你真够机敏的,能回答这个问题。 acute 指五官、感觉、心智等方面的敏锐、深刻,一般可与 sharp 换用。例 如:Rabbits have an acute sense of hearing. 兔子有敏锐的听觉。 keen 和 sharp, acute 一样,都可表示心智、感觉等方面的敏锐。例如:The old man has a keen sight. 这个老人目光锐利。

  8. on the grounds that …: for the reason that … *I had to retire on the grounds that I was ill. *Her claims were disallowed on the grounds that she had not paid her premium. *他没有因犯罪而受到严厉惩罚,主要是因为他年纪小。 (=He was not severely punished for his crime on the grounds that he was young.)
  9. guard against: to prevent sth. from happening * In these circumstances he must guard against pessimism. * We should take measures to guard against accidents. *暗箭难防。 (=Hidden arrows are difficult to guard against. ) (=Her way to guard against being attacked is never to go out alone at night. ) Collocations: guard against disease guard against bad habits
预防疾病 杜绝陋习
5
guard against suspicion
避免嫌疑

  10. undue: adj. more than is reasonable, suitable or necessary *Many schools place undue emphasis on the proportion of students entering schools of a higher level. *He tried to exercise an undue influence upon his colleagues. (=Mr. Smith pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules.) *不要过急地处理那个问题。 (=Don't treat the matter with undue haste.)
  11. cling: vi. to hold tightly; refuse to give up *Small children cling to their mothers. *As a people the Chinese cling strongly to tradition. *她坚定地抱着获救的希望。 (=She clung to the hope of being rescued.) *Cling to life and be scared of death. (=贪生怕死。) Pattern: cling to …
  12. suck: v. (
  1) to draw (liquid or air, etc.) into the mouth by using the lip muscles * Bees suck honey from flowers. *The old man was sucking at his pipe. *蚊子会吸我们的血。更糟的是,它会把毒注入我们的体内。 (=The mosquito will suck our blood. What's even worse, it will inject poison into our bodies.) *Do not teach your grandmother to suck eggs. (=用不着教你的祖母如何吸食鸡蛋。/不要班门弄斧。 (
  2) to absorb *Plants suck up moisture from the soil *The cleverest students can suck up as much knowledge as teachers can give them. (
  3) to pull sb. or sth. with great power and force it into or out of a particular place *He was sucked into a life of crime. *I don’t want to get sucked into the conflict.
  13. indifferent: adj. (
  1) not caring about or noticing; not interested in *How can you be indifferent to the sufferings of starving people? *It is quite indifferent to me whether you go or stay.
6
*探险家们将征途上的危险置之度外。 (=The explorers were indifferent to dangers of the expedition.) (
  2) not particularly good; mediocre; fairly bad *an indifferent book (=质量较差的一本书) *an indifferent cook (=手艺平平的厨师) Pattern: be indifferent to/towards
  14. render: vt. (
  1) to give, present or offer *We call on you to render assistance. *Many companies come to the customer's house to render service. *Render good for evil. (=以德报怨。) (
  2) to cause to be in a particular condition *He was rendered helpless by the accident. *“Trips to China's five great mountains render trips to other mountains unnecessary, and a trip to Huangshan renders the trip to the five great mountains unnecessary.” *他身体肥胖到摸不到自己的脚趾。 (=His fatness renders him unable to touch his toe.)
  15. oppress: vt. (
  1) to rule unjustly or cruelly *Women are often oppressed by men in the past. (=The rich oppress the masses by their control of the political systems.) (
  2) to cause sb. to feel worried, uncomfortable *The heat oppressed him and made him ill. *战争的威胁使我们忧心忡忡。 (=The threat of war oppressed us all.)
  16. cheat: v. (
  1) to deceive or trick *They were caught cheating in the exam. *The company cheated taxman in order to get more profits. *考试作弊是不道德的。 (=It's immoral to cheat in a test.) (
  2) to take sth. from (sb.) deceitfully *He was cheated (out) of his rightful heritage. *They were cheated of victory. (=他们的胜利之果被别人骗走了。) Pattern:
7
cheat sb. (out) of sth. N.B. 注意该词的词性变化,它的名词为:cheat 。 CF: cheat, deceive, trick & fool 这些动词均含有“欺骗”之意。 cheat 较为普通,指用蒙蔽他人的手段取得所需之物,尤多指在赢利的买卖 中骗人。例如: *He cheated the old woman out of her money. 他骗了老妇人的钱。 deceive 指用虚假外表使人信以为真,或蓄意歪曲事实,或造成错误印象使 人上当受骗。例如: *We were deceived into believing he could he
 

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