I. Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Our culture has caused most Americans to assume not only that our language is universal but that the gestures we use are understood by everyone. We do not realize that waving good-bye is the way to summon a person from the Philippines to one’s side, or that in Italy and some Latin-American countries, curling the finger to oneself is a sign of farewell. Those private eitizens who sent packages to our troops occupying Germany after World War II and marked them GIFT to escape duty payments did not bother to find out that “Gift” means poison in German. Moreover, we like to think of ourselves as friendly, yet we prefer to be at least 3 feet or an arm’s length away from others. Latins and Middle Easterners like to come closer and touch, which makes Americans uncomfortable. Our linguistic and cultural blindness and the casualness with which we take notice of the developed tastes, gestures, customs and languages of other countries, are losing us friends, business and respect in the world. Even here in the United States, we make few concessions to the needs of foreign visitors. There are no information signs in four languages on our public buildings or monuments; we do not have multilingual guided tours. Very few restaurant menus have translations, and multilingual waiters, bank clerks and policemen are rare. Our transportation systems have maps in English only and often we ourselves have difficulty understanding them. When we go abroad, we tend to cluster in hotels and restaurants where English is spoken. The attitudes and information we pick up are conditioned by those natives ? usually the richer ? who speak English. Our business dealings, as well as the nation’s diplomacy, are conducted through interpreters. For many years, America and Americans could get by with cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance. After all, America was the most powerful country of the free world, the distributor of needed funds and goods. But all that is past. America dollars no longer buy all good things, and we are slowly beginning to realize that our proper role in the world is changing. A 1979 Harris poll reported that 55 percent of Americans want this country to play a more significant role in world affairs; we want to have a hand in the important decisions of the next century, even though it may not always be the upper hand.
  1. It can be inferred that Americans being approached too closely by Middle Easterners would most probably . A) stand still B) jump aside C) step forward D) draw back
  2. The author gives many examples to criticize Americans for their . A) cultural self-centeredness B) casual manners C) indifference towards foreign visitors D) arrogance towards other cultures
  3. In countries other than their own most Americans . A) are isolated by the local people
B) are not well informed due to the language barrier C) tend to get along well with the natives D) need interpreters in hotels and restaurants
  4. According to the author, Americans’ cultural blindness and linguistic ignorance will . A) affect their image in the new era B) cut themselves of from the outside world C) limit their role in world affairs D) weaken the position of the US dollar
  5. The author’s intention in writing this article is to make Americans realize that . A) it is dangerous to ignore their foreign friends B) it is important to maintain their leading role in world affairs C) it is necessary to use several languages in public places D) it is time to get acquainted with other cultures Passage 2 To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money. Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase. This concept does not imply that business is benevolent (慈善的) or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction ? the firm and the customer ? and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new King Customer ruled!
  6. The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, . A) the practice of turning goods into money B) making goods available for purchase C) the customer-centred approach D) a form of persuasive salesmanship

  7. What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted? A) The needs of the market. B) The efficiency of production. C) The satisfaction of the user. D) The preferences of the dealer.
  8. According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3-4, Para.
  1) means “ ”. A) to sell the largest possible amount of goods B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible C) to dispose of these goods in large quantities D) to redesign these goods for large-scale production
  9. What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate? A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people. B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public. C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please. D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer.
  10. In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on . A) its main characteristic B) its social impact C) its possible consequence D) its theoretical basis II. Cloze It is the policy of keeping Africans inferior, and separate from Europeans. They are to be kept separate by not being allowed to live as citizens with rights in 11 towns. They may go to European towns to work, but they may not have their families 12 ; they must live in “Bantustans”, the native areas. They are not to 13 with Europeans by sitting in the 14 cafes, waiting-rooms, compartments of train, seats in parks. They are not to __15__ from the same beaches, go to the same cinema, play __16__ the same game field or in the same 17 . Twelve percent of the land is 18 for the Africans to live and farm on, and this is mostly dry, 19 , mountainous land. Yet the Africans are three-quarter of the people. They are 20__ to go and work for the Europeans, not only because their lands do not __21__ enough food to keep them, but also 22 they must earn money to pay their taxes. Each 23 African man has to pay ?1 a year poll-tax, and ten shillings a year tax for his hut. 24 they go into European areas to work they are not 25 to do skilled work; they are hewers of wood and drawers of water, and their wage is about one-seventh of 26 a European would earn for the same kind of work. If a European 27 an African to do skilled work of the same kind 28 for Europeans, such as carpentry, both the European and his African employee may be 29 ?1
  00. Any African who takes part in a strike may be fined ?500, and/or sent to 30 for three years.
  11. A. European
  12. A. working B. British B. there C. African C. at home D. American D. Either

  13. A. deal
  14. A. other
  15. A. walk
  16. A. with
  17. A. teams
  18. A. amounted
  19. A. rich
  20. A. determined
  21. A. rise
  22. A. for
  23. A. adult
  24. A. since
  25. A. allowed
  26. A. which
  27. A. employs
  28. A. checked
  29. A. wasted
  30. A. countryside
B. combine B. black B. bathe B. on B. sports B. counted B. cultivated B. about B. possess B. as B. young B. when B. assumed B. how B. hire B. reserved B. lost B. army
C. cope D. Mix C. same D. Luxurious C. drink D. Cook C. in D. Around C. activity D. Rights C. left D. Utilized C. well-design D. Poor C. expected D. Forced C. store D. Grow C. because D. Perhaps C. old D. Child C. unless D. After C. encouraged D. Returned C. what D. That C. forces D. Obliged C. done D. Decided C. contributed D. Fined C. prison D. isolation
III. Vocabulary and Structure
  31. The quicksilver sniper felled victim after victim with a single, long-distance shot, then quickly as a mist in a morning breeze. A. faded out B. vanished C. blinked D. orbit
  32. The waitress said that she noticed the man because he was not only in dress but in expenditure. A. sophisticated B. dizzy C. racial D. extravagant
  33. He has spent all his life working with mentally people. A. diverged B. disabled C. naked D. abolished
  34. The plan for a new office tower went ahead local opposition. A. in connection with B. without so much as C. regardless of D. on account of
  35. “I would that the most dangerous and difficult days are still ahead of us," he said. A. suspect B. bless C. impose D. capture
  36. The waste water vent, which is under the shuttle cabin, in front of the left wing, is used to expel into space both urine and surplus water from the shuttle's fuel cell power system. A. transported B. wandered C. disposed D. generated
  37. Though faced with many difficulties, he would not online learning. A. give up B. get through C. get by D. give in

  38. We’re searching for a couple of from the young offenders’ institution. A. runaways B. pursuer C. watchmen D. suspects
  39. We’ve spent so much money on our new house, we can’t afford to it. A. scrawl B. furnish C. retail D. criticize
  40. forward a little while a person is talking shows your interest and shows you are listening to what the person is saying. By doing this, you are saying: I hear what you're saying, and I'm interested ? keep talking! A. Migrating B. Scrawling C. Leaning D. Exposing
  41. In our culture, honesty has always been considered an important of a person’s character. A. element B. role C. share D. practice
  42. The machine equipped with an automatic control system has an enormous advantage . A. than the previous ones B. to the previous ones C. over the previous ones D. on the previous ones
  43. They decided to in a visit to their relations when they were on holiday. A. fill B. fit C. put D. manage
  44. A good composition should be well-organize; , its language should flow smoothly. A. nevertheless B. moreover C. occasionally D. eventually
  45. One of the of the training programme is that it enables the young people to be better candidates for employment. A. adventures B. measures C. viewpoints D. virtues
  46. This year the company almost twice as many as it did last year. A. turned out B. turned to C. turned in D. turned down
  47. Scientific discoveries and inventions do not always influence the language their importance. A. in the name of B. in proportion to C. on top of D. with regard to
  48. in an exciting novel or film, the passage of time is easily forgotten. A. While absorbed B. When absorbed C. Absorbed D. When you are absorbed
  49. The fish tasted so unpleasant that Jane threw it away . A. with pleasure B. in disgust C. in despair D. in great disappointment

  50. With a bigger family income, they will be better . A. up B. off C. too D. On
  51. He is so kind and easy-going that the kids go him in a big way. A. for B. to C. with D. off
  52. Your work will though it needs some improvement. A. get through B. get along C. get by D. get round
  53. He was warned to at chasing married woman, or he was likely to be given a punch in jaw. A. draw fire B. draw the line C. draw to an end D. draw away
  54. As National Day is round the corner, Shanghai is a festive atmosphere. A. looked on B. involved in C. bathed in D. surrounded with
  55. Everyone in the city has to the large collection of books on various subjects in the city’s public library. A. alternative B. procedure C. access D. process
  56. Seeing their teacher left the classroom a praise for their hard work, the pupils felt very disappointed A. with so much as B. without so much as C. so much so that D. as much as that
  57. The occupants of the apartment used a small and walked along one wall of the studio to reach the stairs to the apartment. A. mall B. vine C. loudspeaker D. entryway
  58. Joan rummaged (到处翻寻) in her drawer and came up with a(n) of newspaper clippings (剪报). A. oven B. kettle C. fistful D. carton
  59. The old women herself the stairs with difficulty, holding on to the rail. A. took / up B. sat / up C. kicked /
 

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