新世纪研究生英语听说学生用书(下 新世纪研究生英语听说学生用书 下) PART B
LESSON ONE Passage one
Population and Resources The population of the world has been increasing faster and faster. In 10,000 B.C., there were probably 10 million people. In A.D. 1, there were 300 million. It took 1750 years for the population to reach 625 million, a little more than double the A.D. 1 figure. In 1990, there were
  5.3 billion people. By the year 2000, the world's population was over 6 billion, and by 2050, it is expected to reach 10 billion. Does the earth have enough natural resources to support this many people? Different scientists give different answers to this question. Some say that there are enough resources to support more than 6 billion people. However, the richest countries, with a small percentage of the world's population, use most of the resources. If these resources could be distributed more equally around the world, there would be enough for everyone. Other scientists say that we must limit population growth because our resources are limited. Only 10 percent of the earth's land can be used for farming and another 20 percent for raising animals. It is possible to increase the amount of farmland, but only a little. Some land in developing countries could be more productive if people started using modern farming methods, but this would not increase worldwide production by much. We all know that there is a limited amount of petroleum. There are also limits to the amounts of metals. There is a limit to the amount of water we can use since most of the earth's water is salt water, and most of the fresh water is frozen at the North and South Poles. It is difficult to say how many people the earth can support, but it will help everyone if we can limit population growth before serious shortages develop. The problem is how to do it.
Passage Two
The Middle East's Water Resource Crisis Fresh water, life itself, has never come easy in the Middle East. Ever since the Old Testament when God punished man with 40 days and 40 nights of rain, water supplies here have been dwindling. The rainfall only comes in winter and drains
quickly through the semiarid land, leaving the soil to bake and to thirst for next November. The region's accelerating population growth, expanding agriculture, industrialization, and higher living standards demand more fresh water. Drought and pollution limit its availability. War and mismanagement squander it. Nations like Israel and Jordan are swiftly sliding into that zone where they are using all the water resources available to them. They have only 15 to 20 years left before their agriculture, and ultimately their food security, is threatened. Even amid the scarcity there are "haves" and "have-nots". Compared with the United States, which has a freshwater potential of 10,000 cubic meters a year for each citizen, Iraq has 5,500, Turkey has 4,000, and Syria has little more than 2,8
  00. Egypt's potential is only 1,100, Israel has 460, and Jordan has less than 2
  60. But these are not firm figures, because upstream use of river water can dramatically alter the potential downstream. Scarcity is only one element of the Middle East's water crisis. Inefficiency is another, as is the reluctance of some water-poor nations to change priorities from agriculture to less water-intensive enterprises. Some experts suggest that if these nations would share both water technology and resources, they could satisfy the region's population, currently 159 million. But in this patchwork of ethnic and religious rivalries, the water crisis is not a clear-cut issue. It is entangled in the politics that keep people from trusting and seeking help from one another. Here where water, like truth, is precious, each nation tends to find its own water and supply its own truth.
Purse Snatching Purse snatching is an increasingly common crime. There are estimated 50 to 100 purse snatchings each month in the New York City subways, the number often swinging widely because of the depredations( 掠夺, 破坏) of a single teenager. When such a professional is in custody(被监禁, 被拘留着), the snatches can decrease by more than 50 a month. One of the favored techniques is to stand between two subway cars and as a train starts pulling out of the station, reach out and pull free a woman's purse. Recently, a crime analysis officer for the New York Police Department found that purse stealing in Manhattan's top restaurants was up 35 percent over the previous year. When a woman puts her purse on an empty chair at a table or at her feet beside her chair, she is inviting a purse snatcher to take it. Purse snatchers often work in pairs. When a target in a restaurant is seen, one of them will create some kind of disturbance to gain the victim's attention. While the woman is looking away
from her table, the actual snatcher will lift the purse. A popular technique is for the thief to carry an umbrella with the curved handle down. The umbrella handle suddenly hooks the bag and in an instant it is on the thief’s wrist, or under the coat over his arm if he is a man, and on its way out of the restaurant. Police advise that women in restaurants keep their purse either on their laps or on the floor between their legs. Other purse snatchers who operate in theaters are called "seat tippers", victimizing women who put their purses down on a neighboring empty seat. Others specialize in snatching purses from ladies' rooms. When a woman is in a toilet stall, her purse should never be placed on the floor or hung on the coat hook on the door. Thieves simply dive under the door and grab the purse on the floor, or stand on the toilet in the next stall and reach over and take the purse off the hook. The snatcher has enough time to escape since the victim can't immediately pursue the thief. Passage II How Do Handwriting Experts Catch Criminals On the afternoon of July 4, 1995, Mrs. Beatrice Weinberger brought her one-month old baby back from an outing. She left the pram(童车;婴儿车 (亦作: perambulator))outside her house and hurried inside to get the baby a clean nappy. When she returned a few moments later, the pram was empty and a scrawled(乱涂, 潦草地写) note was lying where her baby had been. The note said: "Attention. I badly need money, and can't get it any other way. Don't tell the police about this, otherwise I will kill the baby." "Just put $2,000 in small bills in a brown envelope, and place it next to the road lamp at the corner of Albemarle Rd. at exactly 10 o'clock tomorrow (Thursday ) morning." "If everything goes smooth, I will bring the baby back and leave him on the same corner 'safe and happy' at exactly 12 noon. No excuse, I can not wait! Your baby-sitter." Despite the kidnapper's warning, Mrs. Weinberger contacted the police. A small parcel containing broken pieces of newspaper was placed on the corner the following morning. But the kidnapper did not show up. He failed to keep two other "appointments" with the Weinbergers, and left a second note signed "Your baby-sitter". By then, the police felt that the baby was no longer alive. The FBI was called in, and the handwriting experts set to work to try to track down the kidnapper. In both notes an unusual z-shaped stroke was placed at the front of the y in words such as "money" and "baby". Starting with the New York State Police Office, the experts spent the next six weeks carefully going over local records at police offices, factories, hotels, clubs and schools and examining handwriting samples and comparing them with the writing on the kidnapper's notes. Then, in the middle of August, the experts' hard efforts paid off. The handwriting of John Rush Blake matched that of the kidnapper's, especially in the peculiar formation of the ys. (While achieving success is easier said than done , persistence does in fact pay off. 获得成功说起来比做起来容易,然而坚持不懈确实会有好结果。)
Not long after, John Blake was arrested for making illegal alcohol. On being shown the handwriting samples, he confessed to kidnapping the baby. He told the police that he had left the baby alive and well in a nearby park on the day after the kidnapping . But when officers hurried to the place, all they found was the baby's dead body. The criminal was later put into New York's Sing Sing Prison. Even if John Blake had tried to disguise his handwriting he would still have been caught. No matter how hard someone may try to disguise his handwriting characteristics, the "individuality" of the writer shows through, the very angle at which he or she holds a pen, the way a t is crossed and an / is dotted, the height and size of capital and small letters, the amount of space between words, the use (or misuse) of punctuation marks. All these can identify a person as surely as fingerprints.
Passage One The Application of Computers In Education The best method for improving educational standards is to utilize every tool available including state-of-the-art 达到最新技术发展水平的 technology. Computers and the Internet have expanded the way in which information can be delivered to the students of today. Today's networking technologies provide a valuable opportunity to practice new learning techniques. Educators are discovering that computers are facilitating learning. Computer-based communications, or telecommunications can offer many educational opportunities; therefore, educators will need to adapt current teaching methods to incorporate this new media into the classroom. Computers have made a fundamental impact on most industries, providing a competitive advantage that has come to be essential to many businesses. Therefore, schools must also use technology to improve the educational process. School systems often consider purchasing a compute network, and justify its purchase by applying it to routine administrative tasks, such a attendance records and grading. While these tasks are very important, they only show a small part of what technology can do for a school. Technology must go further than simply keeping attendance; it must focus on keeping students interested and productive. Since computers and the Internet have expanded the ways in which education can be delivered to students, it is currently possible to engage in "distance education” through the Internet. Distance education involves audio and video links between teachers and students in remote areas. Video conferencing allows groups to communicate with each other. Desktop video conferencing promises to bring students together from geographic and cultural distances face to face via computer. Not only will the teacher talk to the students, but the students will be able to interact with each other. This will make students more interested in learning.
Passage Two
E-Commerce The Internet, as a means for commerce, did not become reality until the 1990s. Before this time, it was mainly a tool for the army, and a research device for some American universities. Its popularity grew when it proved to be a fast and efficient means to conduct long distance transactions, as well as an effective way to distribute information. The first advantage that e-commerce possesses is speed. With increased speeds of communication, the delivery time is expedited 加快 and that makes the whole transaction from start to finish more efficient. Also, you can find practically any product available for sale on the Internet. Even more significant is the fact that information appearing on the Internet can be changed rapidly. This gives business owners the ability to inform customers of any changes to the service that they are offering. The second advantage of electronic commerce is the opportunity it offers to save on costs. By using the Internet, marketing, distribution, personnel, phone, postage and printing costs, among many others, can be reduced. You can start doing business in cyberspace for as little as $1
  00. The savings, therefore, are tremendous. These funds can then be diverted to marketing and advertising your product or service. Cyberspace knows no national boundaries. That means you can do business all over the world as easily as you can in your own neighborhood. Since the Internet connects everyone in cyberspace, information is transmitted at the speed of sound or the speed of light, depending on your connection. Either way, distance becomes meaningless, which enables you to link to nearly anyone on the globe, and anyone on the globe can link to you. The ability to establish links makes doing business on the Internet attractive to customers in any part of the world. A potential source of trouble is customer concerns with privacy and security. Anything sent over the Internet is sent through several different computers before it reaches its final destination. The concern regarding Internet security and privacy is that unscrupulous hackers can capture credit card or check account data as it is transferred or break into computers that hold the same Part D Extensive listening
One day in 1848, a remarkable discovery was made by a carpenter named Marshall. He happened to pick up some bright yellow particles from the water near his sawmill. Not knowing what they were, he took them to his master Mr. Sutter. Sutter
immediately realized the importance of the discovery and sent a ma



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