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Unit 3 Section A
A Good Heart to Lean on
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lean on: to depend on for support and encouragement
When you are in trouble, who will you lean on?
I always lean on... when I’m in trouble.
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keep one’s balance 保持平衡
I found it hard to keep my balance on the icy path. He lost his balance and fell off his bicycle. It is hard for women to strike a balance between family and career.
均势, 均势 达到平衡
BOOK1 Unit He was severely crippled and very short, and when we walked together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare. I would inwardly struggle at the unwanted attention.
his hand on my arm为独立主格结构 为独立主格结构: 为独立主格结构 逻辑主语+ 分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、 逻辑主语 分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、 方式或伴随情况等。 方式或伴随情况等。
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  1. Job finished, he went home.
  2. Nobody noticing, he slipped out of the room.
  3. He sat by the window, pipe in mouth. 他坐在窗前,嘴里衔着烟斗。 他坐在窗前,嘴里衔着烟斗。
BOOK1 Back Unit If he ever noticed or was bothered, he never let on. If he at any time noticed or felt troubled by this, he 如果他注意到这些或因此感到不安,他从不表露出来。 would never let anyone see or know how he felt.
Ever: a.常用于否定句、疑问句和表示条件的从句:从来 a.常用于否定句、疑问句和表示条件的从句: 常用于否定句 b.用于表示比较的从句中:曾经 b.用于表示比较的从句中: 用于表示比较的从句中 c.用于特殊疑问句:究竟;到底; c.用于特殊疑问句:究竟;到底;用任何方式 用于特殊疑问句
It is raining harder than ever. Nothing ever makes him angry. Who ever can it be?
b a c
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coordinate v.
make various things work effectively as a whole 协调 coordinate the movements of the arms and legs 使胳膊和腿的动作协调 coordinate the function of government agencies 调整政府机构的作用 coordinate with each other 互相配合
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to set the pace : 定好步速
如果让跑得最快的人领跑,其他人都会跟不上的。 如果让跑得最快的人领跑,其他人都会跟不上的。
If we let the fastest runner set the pace, the others will fall behind.
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adjust to: 适应
Have you adjusted to college life without parental protection? If you travel into space in a spaceship, you must adjust (yourself) to weightlessness.
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He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office even if others could not.
不论生病还是碰到恶劣的天气他都去上班, 不论生病还是碰到恶劣的天气他都去上班, 几乎没有旷过一天工。即使别人无法上班, 几乎没有旷过一天工。即使别人无法上班, 他也要去办公室。 他也要去办公室。
sick为语he的补足语,表示其现状、状态。 的补足语,表示其现状、状态。 e. g. Don’t marry young. 不要早婚。 不要早婚。 The wallet was found empty.
钱包被发现时已经是空的了。 钱包被发现时已经是空的了。
BOOK1 Unit despite (+ n./ing) in spite of ; although 尽管
She went out on dates despite the heavy rain.
尽管有错误和不足, 这还是一篇好作文。 尽管有错误和不足, 这还是一篇好作文。
Despite mistakes and weaknesses, it is a good composition.
BOOK1 Unit make it :
① to arrive somewhere in time for sth. ② to be successful in a particular activity
Do you think we can make it to the last bus? Is it too late? It’s hard to make it to the top in the show business.
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Tips for translating long sentences
长句:修饰语多, 并列成分多, 语言结构层次多 长句:修饰语多, 并列成分多,
  1.找出全句的主、 宾语,
  1.找出全句的主、谓、宾语,从整体上把握句 找出全句的主 子的结构。 子的结构。
  2.找出句中所有的非谓语动词、介词短语和从 找出句中所有的非谓语动词 句的引导词。 句的引导词。
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  3.分析从句和短语的功能,例如,是否为主语从 分析从句和短语的功能 宾语从句、表语从句等。 句、宾语从句、表语从句等。
  4.分析词、短语和从句之间的相互关系,例如, 分析词 定语从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个。 定语从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个。
  5.注意插入语等其他成分。 注意插入语等其他成分
  6.注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配。 注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配
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Once there, ①he would cling to hand-rail ② until he reached the lower steps ③that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. (L
  15) ①he would cling to hand-rail ②until he reached the lower steps ③that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice 他就紧抓着地铁通道口的扶手/一直往下走/ 他就紧抓着地铁通道口的扶手/一直往下走/因 为地铁空气暖和,下面几级台阶没有冰雪。 为地铁空气暖和,下面几级台阶没有冰雪。
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cling vi. (clung, clung)

  1. to hold tightly; stick firmly 粘着/住, 紧贴 粘着/ His wet shirt clung to his body.
  2. (fig.) believe firmly; have hopes that 依靠,抱定 依靠,抱定… cling to the last hope 抱定最后希望 决不灰心 抱定最后希望,决不灰心 She still clings to the belief that her son is alive. There is no point in arguing with him for he is a man who clings to the old ideas.
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free of/ from: without; safe from Lunch is provided free of charge on the anniversary of Xiamen University. He wished to live a life entirely free of trouble. freedom of speech 言论自由
BOOK1 Unit be amazed ( by/at/to do sth./that clause)
In what situation do you feel amazed? I am amazed at... I was amazed at/by her rapid progress in English.
! be amazed at/by + how-clause
You would be amazed at/by how difficult the exam was.
BOOK1 Back Unit subject (one/oneself) to: cause to experience or suffer
这种产品投放市场前必须进行了数次严 格的测试。 格的测试。 This type of product must be subjected to a number of severe tests before coming into the market. No one would willingly subject himself to such indignities.
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When I think of it now, I am amazed at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such shame and stress.
key idea:
Normally, when you clip the modifiers (修饰语), you will see the key idea. A modifier can be a clause, prepositional phrase, adverbial phrase, indefinite phrase etc.
I am amazed. (the key idea )
BOOK1 Unit He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. 他从不说自己可怜, 他从不说自己可怜,也从不表现出对那些比他幸 nor: used to introduce a 运或健康的人的羡慕。 运或健康的人的羡慕。 second negative statement which is added to the first one. I have never been to Paris, nor my wife. has He is not a football fan, nor I . am
BOOK1 Unit Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people... 现在我长大成人, 现在我长大成人,开始相信这正是判断一个人 的恰如其分的标准, 的恰如其分的标准, …… which to judge: 疑问词 +不定式 e.g. 我真不知道该说什么。 我真不知道该说什么。 I really don’t know what to say. More: how to do; what to buy; where to go; when to begin…
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Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. 尽管很多活动我爸爸不能参加, 尽管很多活动我爸爸不能参加, 但他还是尽量用某种方式参加。 但他还是尽量用某种方式参加。
unable to engage: a phrase showing concession: although he was unable… 。
分词还可以作时间、原因、方式、条件、结果、 分词还可以作时间、原因、方式、条件、结果、目的 时间 等状语。 形容词、名词、 等状语。值得注意的是“分词being + 形容词、名词、 常可省略。 介词短语”结构中being常可省略。如:
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  1. (Being) A little girl, Mary knows very little of the world.
玛丽是个小女孩,对世事知之甚少。 玛丽是个小女孩,对世事知之甚少。

  2. John, (being) in a bad mood, did nothing yesterday.
约翰情绪不好,昨天什么也没做。 约翰情绪不好,昨天什么也没做。

  3. Mary slept the whole day, (being) weary and worried.
玛丽忧心忡忡,疲惫不堪,睡了一整天。 玛丽忧心忡忡,疲惫不堪,睡了一整天。
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engage v.

  1. to arrange to employ someone 雇用 I have engaged him to work as my new assistant. 我已聘他做我的新助手。 我已聘他做我的新助手。
  2. to attract or keep the interest or attention of someone The new toy didn’t engage the child’s attention for long.
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engage in:
to take part in; to become involved in an activity
从事,参与 从事,
If you engage in the local politics, you can’t have much time for your family. 如果你在当地从政的话, 如果你在当地从政的话,就没有太多时间顾 家了。 家了。
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engaged adj.

  1. having agreed to marry 已订婚的 Our son is engaged to a nice young woman.
我们的儿子已跟一位年轻漂亮的女子订了婚。 我们的儿子已跟一位年轻漂亮的女子订了婚。

  2. busy; spending time on doing something 忙于 He was engaged in writing letters. 他正忙于写信。 他正忙于写信。
  3. (of a telephone line) in use; (of a public toilet) in use
电话占线;(公共厕所)占用中的 电话占线;(公共厕所) ;(公共厕所
BOOK1 Unit in some way : in a certain manner
More: More: in a way, in no way Practice In a way he is right in saying so. ,
You can allow this situation to in no way continue.
BOOK1 Unit have a good time: (have a hard time, difficult time doing sth.)
I had a hard time getting the driving license.
She had a good time swimming and sun-bathing on the beach.
BOOK1 Unit be content to do sth. 满足于做某事 如今的大学生不再满足于英语课堂的听讲。 如今的大学生不再满足于英语课堂的听讲。 他们需要能够参与的英语课。 他们需要能够参与的英语课。
Nowadays, college students are no longer content to sit and listen passively in English class. They want the kind of class they can participate in. I am not content with beautiful dreams: I want beautiful realities.
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urge sb. to do: 催促某人做某事 urge against: 强烈反对 urge that …: 从句的谓语常用do或should + do 从句的谓语常用 或

  1) They urged us to give our support.
  2) College students urged that they (should) go to the front.
  3)His parents urge against his having a girlfriend because he is only fourteen.
BOOK1 Unit see to: take care; make sure照料,务必做到 照料, 照料 see to it +that clause see + that clause
See (to it) that the students have the enough time to review the lessons. The parents who scold their children should first see to their behavior.
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-ing verb phrases very often are used as adverbials showing time, condition, reason, etc. without using any conjunctions. Hearing the sad news, the mother collapsed.
Knowing English well, he translated the article without much difficulty.
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If-clause expresses a condition just the opposite of the real situation.
if … had done…, … would/could/should have done… 表示对过去的假设 If you had studied hard last term, you would not have failed in the final exam. If I had taken doctor’s advice and rested for a few days, I should have completely recovered by now.
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complain about : to say that you are dissatisfied,
or unhappy about sth. or someone
学生们经常抱怨食堂的伙食不好。 学生们经常抱怨食堂的伙食不好。
The students always complain about the poor food in the canteen. canteen.
They never complain about working extra time to anybody.


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