Unit1 a
<p1>Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. <p2>This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. <p3>Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor. <p4>"We are slaves to nothing but the clock," it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. <p5>We <1>budget</1> it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also <2>charge</2> for it. It is a precious resource. <p6>Many people have a rather <3>acute</3> sense of the shortness of each lifetime. <p7>Once the sands have run out of a person's <4>hourglass</4>, they cannot be replaced. <p8>We want every minute to count. A foreigner's first impression of the US is likely to be that<p9> everyone is in a rush?often under pressure. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, <p10> <6>restlessly</6> seeking attention in a store, or <7>elbowing</7> others as they try to complete their shopping. <p11>Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of life in this country. Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting for you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. You also find drivers will be <8>abrupt</8> and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. <p12> Don't take it personally. This is because people value time highly, and they resent someone else "wasting" it beyond a certain appropriate point. <p13>Many new arrivals in the States will miss the <9>opening</9> exchanges of a business call, for example. <p14>They will miss the <10>ritual</10> <11>interaction</11> that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee that may be a <12>convention</12> in their own country. They may miss <14>leisurely</14> business chats in a restaurant or coffee house. <p15>Normally, Americans do not <15>assess</15> their visitors in such relaxed <16>surroundings</16> over extended small talk; <p16>much less do they take them out for dinner, or around on the golf course while they develop a sense of trust. <p17>Since we generally assess and <17>probe</17> professionally rather than <19>socially</19>, we start talking business very quickly.
<p18>Time is, therefore, always <20>ticking</20> in our inner ear. <p19><21>Consequently</21>, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving <22>devices</22>; we communicate rapidly through <23>faxes</23>, phone calls or <24>emails</24> rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer?<p20>especially <25>given</25> our traffic-filled streets. <p21>We, therefore, save most personal visiting for after-work hours or for social weekend <26>gatherings</26>. <p22>To us the <27>impersonality</27> of <28>electronic</28> communication has little or no relation to the <29>significance</29> of the matter at hand. <p23>In some countries no major business is <30>conducted</30> without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. In America, too, a final agreement will normally be signed in person. <p24>However, people are meeting <31>increasingly</31> on television screens, conducting "<33>teleconferences</33>" to settle problems not only in this country but also?by satellite?internationally. The US is definitely a telephone country. Almost everyone uses the telephone to conduct business, to chat with friends, to make or break social appointments, to say "Thank you", to shop and to <34>obtain</34> all kinds of information. Telephones save the feet and endless amounts of time. <p25>This is due partly to the fact that the telephone service is <35>superb</35> here, <36>whereas</36> the <37>postal</37> service is less <38>efficient</38>. Some new arrivals will come from cultures where it is considered <39>impolite</39> to work too quickly. <p26>Unless a certain amount of time is allowed to <40>elapse</40>, it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. <p27>Assignments are, consequently, given added weight by the passage of time. <p28>In the US, however, it is taken as a sign of <42>skillfulness</42> or being <43>competent</43> to solve a problem, or <44>fulfill</44> a job successfully, with speed. <p29>Usually, the more important a task is, the more <45>capital</45>, energy, and attention will be poured into it in order to "get it moving". 美国人认为没有人能停止不前。 如果你不求进取,你就会落伍。 这种态度造就了一个投身于研究、实验和探索的民族。 时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一要素是劳力。 人们一直说: “只有时间才能支配我们。 ” 人们似乎把时间当作一个差不多是实实在在的东西来对待。
我们安排时间、节约时间、浪费时间、挤抢时间、消磨时间、缩减时间、对时间的利用作出 解释;我们还要因付出时间而收取费用。 时间是一种宝贵的资源,许多人都深感人生的短暂。 时光一去不复返。 我们应当让每一分钟都过得有意义。 外国人对美国的第一印象很可能是:每个人都匆匆忙忙──常常处于压力之下。 城里人看上去总是在匆匆地赶往他们要去的地方, 在商店里他们焦躁不安地指望店员能马上 来为他们服务,或者为了赶快买完东西,用肘来推搡他人。 白天吃饭时人们也都匆匆忙忙, 这部分地反映出这个国家的生活节奏。 人们认为工作时间是 宝贵的。 在公共用餐场所,人们都等着别人尽快吃完,以便他们也能及时用餐, 你还会发现司机开车很鲁莽,人们推搡着在你身边过去。 你会怀念微笑、简短的交谈以及与陌生人的随意闲聊。 不要觉得这是针对你个人的, 这是因为人们都非常珍惜时间,而且也不喜欢他人“浪费”时间到不恰当的地步。 许多刚到美国的人会怀念诸如商务拜访等场合开始时的寒暄。 他们也会怀念那种一边喝茶或喝咖啡一边进行的礼节性交流, 这也许是他们自己国家的一种 习俗。 他们也许还会怀念在饭店或咖啡馆里谈生意时的那种轻松悠闲的交谈。 一般说来, 美国人是不会在如此轻松的环境里通过长时间的闲聊来评价他们的客人的, 更不 用说会在增进相互间信任的过程中带他们出去吃饭,或带他们去打高尔夫球。 既然我们通常是通过工作而不是社交来评估和了解他人,我们就开门见山地谈正事。 因此,时间老是在我们心中滴滴答答地响着。 因此,我们千方百计地节约时间。 我们发明了一系列节省劳力的装置; 我们通过发传真、打电话或发电子邮件与他人迅速地进行交流,而不是通过直接接触。虽然 面对面接触令人愉快,但却要花更多的时间,尤其是在马路上交通拥挤的时候。 因此,我们把大多数个人拜访安排在下班以后的时间里或周末的社交聚会上。 就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关 系。 在有些国家,如果没有目光接触,就做不成大生意,这需要面对面的交谈。 在美国,最后协议通常也需要本人签字。 然而现在人们越来越多地在电视屏幕上见面, 开远程会议不仅能解决本国的问题, 而且还能 通过卫星解决国际问题。 美国无疑是一个电话王国。 几乎每个人都在用电话做生意、与朋友聊天、安排或取消社交约会、表达谢意、购物和获得 各种信息。 电话不但能免去走路之劳,而且还能节约大量时间。 其部分原因在于这样一个事实:美国的电话服务是一流的,而邮政服务的效率则差一些。
有些初来美国的人来自文化背景不同的其他国家, 在他们的国家, 人们认为工作太快是一种 失礼。 在他们看来,如果不花一定时间来处理某件事的话,那么这件事就好像是无足轻重的,不值 得给予适当的重视。 因此,人们觉得用的时间长会增加所做事情的重要性。 但在美国,能迅速而又成功地解决问题或完成工作则被视为是有水平、有能力的标志。 通常情况下, 工作越重要, 投入的资金、 精力和注意力就越多, 其目的是 “使工作开展起来” 。
Uint1 b
Do you think studying in a different country is something that sounds very exciting? Are you like many young people who leave home to study in another country thinking you will have lots of fun? Certainly, it is a new experience, which brings the opportunity to discover fascinating things and a feeling of freedom. <p2>In <1>spite</1> of these advantages, however, there are also some challenges you will encounter. <p3>Because your views may <2>clash</2> with the different beliefs, norms, values and <3>traditions</3> that exist in different countries, <p4>you may have difficulty adjusting to a new culture and to those parts of the culture not familiar to you. This is called "culture shock". <p5>At least four essential stages of <4>adjustment</4> occur during culture shock. The first stage is called "the <5>honeymoon</5>". In this stage, you are excited about living in a different place, and everything seems to be <6>marvelous</6>. You like everything, and everybody seems to be so nice to you. <p6>Also, the <7>amusement</7> of life in a new culture seems to have no ending. Eventually, however, the second stage of culture shock appears. <p7>This is "the <8>hostility</8> stage". You begin to notice that not everything is as good as you had originally thought it was. <p8>You become tired of many things about the new culture. <9>Moreover</9>, people don't treat you like a guest <10>anymore</10>. Everything that seemed to be so wonderful at first is now awful, <p9>and everything makes you feel <11>distressed</11> and tired. Usually at this point in your adjustment to a new culture, <p10> you <12>devise</12> some defense <13>mechanisms</13> to help you <14>cope</14> and to protect yourself against the effects of culture shock.
One type of coping mechanism is called "<15>repression</15>". <p11>This happens when you pretend that everything is <16>acceptable</16> and that nothing bothers you. Another type of defense mechanism is called "<17>regression</17>". This occurs when you start to act as if you are younger than you actually are; you act like a child. You forget everything, and sometimes you become careless and <18>irresponsible</18>. The third kind of defense mechanism is called "<20>isolation</20>". <p12>You would rather be home alone, and you don't want to communicate with anybody. <p13> With isolation, you try to avoid the effects of culture shock, or at least that's what you think. <p14>Isolation is one of the worst coping mechanisms you can use because it separates you from those things that could really help you. The last type of defense mechanism is called "<22>rejection</22>". With this coping mechanism, you think you don't need anybody. You feel you are coping fine alone, so you don't try to ask for help. The defense mechanisms you <23>utilize</23> in the hostility stage are not helpful. If you only occasionally use one of these coping mechanisms to help yourself survive, that is acceptable. You must be cautious, however. These mechanisms can really hurt you because<p15> they prevent you from making necessary adjustments to the new culture. <p16>After you <24>deal</24> with your <25>hostile</25> feelings, <26>recognition</26> of the <27>temporary</27> nature of culture shock begins. Then you come to the third stage called "<28>recovery</28>". In this stage, you start feeling more positive, and<p17> you try to develop comprehension of everything you don't understand. The whole situation starts to become more <29>favorable</29>; <p18> you recover from the <30>symptoms</30> of the first two stages, and you adjust yourself to the new norms, values, and even beliefs and traditions of the new country. <p19>You begin to see that even though the <31>distinction</31> of the culture is different from your own, it has elements that you can learn to <32>appreciate</32>. The last stage of culture shock is called "adjustment". In this stage, <p20>you have reached a point where you actually feel good because you have learned enough to understand the new culture. The things that initially made you feel uncomfortable or strange are now things that you understand. <p21>This <33>acquisition</33> of understanding <34>alleviates</34> much of the stress. Now you feel comfortable; you have adjusted to the new culture. Culture shock is not something you can avoid when living in a foreign country. It does not seem like a very helpful experience when you are going through its four stages.
However, when you have completely adjusted to a new culture you can more fully enjoy it. <p22>You learn how to <35>interact</35> with other people, and you learn a <36>considerable</36> amount about life in a culture that is not your own. <37>Furthermore</37>, learning about other cultures and how to adjust to the shock of living in them helps you learn more about yourself. 你认为在异国留学是一件听上
 

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