Uint6 a
For her first twenty-four years, she'd been known as Debbie?a name that didn't suit her good looks and <1>elegant</1> manner. "My name has always made me think I should be a cook," she complained. <p2>"I just don't feel like a Debbie." <p3>One day, while filling out an <2>application</2> form for a publishing job, the young woman <3>impulsively</3> <4>substituted</4> her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. "That was the smartest thing I ever did," she says now. "As soon as I stopped calling myself Debbie, I felt more comfortable with myself... and other people started to take me more seriously." Two years after her successful job interview, the former waitress is now a successful magazine editor. Friends and associates call her Lynne. <p4>Naturally, the name change didn't cause Debbie/Lynne's <5>professional</5> achievement?<p5>but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her <6>talents</6>. Social scientists say that what you're called can affect your life. <p6>Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. "As his name is, so is he." says the <7>Bible</7>, and Webster's Dictionary includes the following <8>definition</8> of name: "a word or words expressing <p7>some quality considered <9>characteristic</9> or <10>descriptive</10> of a person or a thing, often expressing <11>approval</11> or <12>disapproval</12>". Note well "approval or disapproval". <p8>For better or worse, qualities such as friendliness or <13>reserve</13>, <14>plainness</14> or charm may be suggested by your name and <15>conveyed</15> to other people before they even meet you. Names become attached to <16>specific</16> images, as anyone who's been called "a plain Jane" or "just an average Joe" can show. <p9>The <17>latter</17> name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, <p10>which some think makes me more <18>qualified</18> to be a baseball player than, say, an art <19>critic</19>. Yet, despite this disadvantage, I did manage to become an art critic for a time. <p11>Even so, one <20>prominent</20> magazine consistently refused to print "Joe" in my <21>by-line</21>, using my first initials, J. S., instead. <p12>I suspect that if I were a more <23>refined</23> Arthur or Adrian, the name would have
appeared complete. Of course, <p13>names with a positive sense can work for you and even encourage new acquaintances. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women believed Richard and David were the most <24>attractive</24> for men. One woman I know <p14>turned down a blind date with a man named Harry because "he sounded dull". Several evenings later, <p15>she came up to me at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very <25>impressive</25> man; they'd been exchanging glances all evening. "Oh," I said. "You mean Harry." <p16>She was ill at ease. <p17>Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we're all guilty of name <26>stereotyping</26> to some <27>extent</27>. <p18><28>Confess</28>: Wouldn't you be surprised to meet a <29>carpenter</29> named Nigel? A <30>physicist</30> named Bertha? A <31>Pope</31> Mel? Often, <p19>we project name-based stereotypes on people, <p20>as one woman friend discovered while taking charge of a <33>nursery school</33>'s group of four-year-olds. "There I was, trying to get a little active boy named Julian to sit quietly and read a book?<p21>and pushing a <34>thoughtful</34> <35>creature</35> named Rory to play ball. I had their personalities confused because of their names!" Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well. In a study conducted by Herbert Harari of San Diego State University, and John McDavid of Georgia State University, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they <36>awarded</36> to the same papers when the writers' names were given as Michael and David. However, teacher prejudice isn't the only source of classroom difference. <37>Dr</37>. Thomas V. Busse and Louisa Seraydarian of Temple University found those girls with names such as Linda, Diane, Barbara, Carol, and Cindy <p22>performed better on <39>objectively</39> graded IQ and achievement tests than did girls with less <40>appealing</40> names. (A companion study showed girls' <41>popularity</41> with their peers was also related to the popularity of their names―although the connection was less clear for boys.) Though your parents probably meant your name to last a lifetime, remember that when they picked it they'd hardly met you, and the hopes and dreams they valued when they chose it may not match yours. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don't <42>despair</42>; <p23>you aren't stuck with the <43>label</43>. Movie stars regularly change their names, and with some determination, you can, too.
在她人生最初的 24 年里,人们一直叫她戴比──一个和她的漂亮容貌和优雅举止不相配的 名字。 “我的名字总是使我觉得自己应该是一个厨子, ”她抱怨道, “我真的不想要戴比这个名字。 ” 一天,在填写一份出版工作职位的申请表时,这位小姐一时冲动,用她的中名林恩替换了她 的名字戴比。 “这是我一生中干得最漂亮的一件事, ”现在她对人这样说, “一旦我不再称自己为戴比,我就感到好多了…… 而且其他人也开始更认真地对待我了。 ” 顺利地通过那次工作面试两年后,这位昔日的女服务员现在成了一位成功的杂志编辑。 朋友和同事们都叫她林恩。 当然,戴比(或林恩)的职业成就并不是改名带来的,但是这肯定给她带来了好处,虽说改 名仅使她对自己的才能增加了一点点自信。 社会科学家认为你叫什么名字会影响你的生活。 从古至今,名字不仅被用来识别人,而且也被用来描述人。 《圣经》上说:人如其名。此外, 《韦伯斯特大词典》也对名字作了如下的定义:表达某种 特点的一个或几个字,这种特点被认为反映了某人或某事的本质,或描述了某人某事,常表 示嘉许或不赞成的意思。 请好好注意这几个词: “嘉许或不赞成” 。 不管是好是坏,诸如友好或拘谨、相貌平平或漂亮妩媚等特征已经在你的名字中有所暗示, 甚至他人在见到你本人之前就已经知道你的这些特征了。 名字是与特定形象相关联的,任何一个被称为“相貌平常的简”或“普普通通的乔”的人都 能证明这一点。 后面的那个名字特别使我烦恼, 因为我也叫乔。 有些人认为这个名字使我更适合于做一名棒 球运动员而不是别的什么职业,比如说艺术评论家。 然而,尽管有此局限,我确实曾一度设法成为了一名艺术评论家。 即便如此,一家著名杂志一直拒绝把“乔”作为我的文章署名,而是用我名字的首字母 J. S. 来代替。 我怀疑, 假如我的名字是比较文雅的阿瑟或艾德里安的话, 我的名字早已完整地出现在杂志 上了。 当然,有积极含义的名字对你是有好处的,甚至能促进你结交新朋友。 最新调查表明: 美国男士认为苏珊是最有吸引力的女性名字, 而女士则认为理查德和戴维是 最有吸引力的男性名字。 我认识一位女士, 她就拒绝了一次与一位叫哈里的男人见面, “这人的名字听上去没劲” 因为 。 可就在几天后的一个晚间聚会上,她走到我身边,催我把她介绍给一位气度不凡的男人;他 们俩人整个晚上都在互送秋波。 “哦, ”我说: “你指的是哈里呀。 ” 她听了后感到很尴尬。 虽然我们中大多数人会认为自己没有这样的偏见, 但在某种程度上, 我们都多多少少对名字 产生过成见。
说实话, 你碰到一个名叫奈杰尔的木匠会不会感到惊讶呢?或是一个叫伯莎的物理学家?抑 或是一个叫梅尔的教皇?正如我的一位女性朋友在照看托儿所里四岁的儿童时所发现的那 样,我们常常把由名字引起的固有想法加到他人身上。 “在托儿所里, 有一次我想让一个很活跃的名叫朱利安的小男孩静静地坐下来看书, 而把一 个喜欢沉思、名叫罗里的孩子推出去打球。 因为他们的名字,我把他们的性格给搞混了! ” 很明显,这样的偏见也会影响课堂成绩。 在一项由圣迭戈州立大学的赫伯特? 哈拉里及乔治亚州立大学的约翰? 麦克戴维主持的研究 中发现, 教师总是给署名为埃尔默和休伯特的作文打较低的分数, 但当把这两篇作文的署名 改为迈克尔和戴维时, 老师给的分数就要高些。 但是教师的偏见不是造成课堂成绩差别的唯 一原因。 坦普尔大学的托马斯?V?布塞博士和路易莎?瑟拉里达里安发现:那些名叫琳达、黛安、 芭芭拉、 卡罗尔及辛迪之类的女孩们在评分较客观的智力测验和学业成绩测验中的表现比那 些名字不太有吸引力的女孩要好。 (一个与之相关的研究表明:女孩受同伴欢迎的程度也与她们的名字受欢迎的程度有关系, 虽然对男孩来说这种关系不太明显。 ) 虽然你父母很可能想让你的名字伴随你一辈子, 但记住, 他们选这个名字的时候几乎还没有 见到你呢。而且,他们在选名字时所看重的希望和梦想也许并不符合你的希望和梦想。 如果你的名字看上去已不再适合你,不要苦恼;你不必一辈子用这个名字。 影星们就经常改名,下点决心,你也可以这样做。
Uint6 b
<p1>A standard criticism of sociological research is that it goes to great lengths to prove what most people with common sense already know. <p2>Without exactly taking sides for or against that criticism, <p3>I want to describe a <2>sociological</2> exercise that might seem to <3>validate</3> it?except that, for me and a classmate (and maybe for some who read this account), <p4>the experience made a common claim come alive. During spring break from a local college, my friend and I went downtown to shop. First, however, we made ourselves <4>virtually</4> unrecognizable to our friends and even to our families. We wore clothing <5>slightly</5> <6>inappropriate</6> for the weather, clean but not ironed, clearly not the styles worn by most visitors to the area. <p5>We carried plastic bags of nameless possessions. Both of us were slightly <8>untidy</8>.
My friend wore a faded cotton shirt over a T-shirt and a <10>wrinkled</10> skirt over sweat <11>pants</11>. <p6>I wore a wool hat that <12>concealed</12> my hair and an <13>unfashionable</13> coat and glasses with <14>sunshades</14> that <15>clipped</15> on. <p7>The aim was to look like street people and to observe what difference that made in the way other people responded to us?<p8>whether the appearance of <16>poverty</16> would invite prejudice on us. <p9>We were also prepared to act out some <18>mildly</18> unusual behaviors that might speak of some <19>emotional</19> problems, without appearing seriously disturbed or dangerous. <p10>As it turned out, there was no need for <20>dramatics</20>; <p11>people turned us off or tuned us out on the basis of appearance alone. Our first stop (after <21>parking</21> our cars near the railroad tracks) was <p12>in the <22>bargain</22> store of a local <23>charity</23>, where we politely asked access to a bathroom and were refused. Next we entered the lobby of a large hotel, where we asked for a coffee shop and a bathroom. The doorman said, "You must go to the twentieth floor." <p13>We weren't up to trying our act at an <24>exclusive</24> restaurant, so we <25>wandered</25> around the first floor and left. From there we went to a <26>second-hand</26> shop, <p14>where we more or less <27>blended</27> with the customers, and then on to the <30>upper-scale</30> stores and coffee shops during the lunch hour. <p15>It was prejudice time. Some of the children we encountered stared, pointed, and laughed; adults gave us long, doubting looks. <p16>Clerks in stores followed our track to watch our every move. In a <31>lunchroom</31> a second assistant hurried to the side of the cashier, where they took my $2 check without asking for <32>ID</32>; <p17>it seemed worth that price to have us out the door. <p18>At one doorway a clerk physically blocked the entrance apparently to <33>discourage</33> our <34>entry</34>. We had money to cover small purchases, and, <p19>apart from wearing <35>down-scale</35> clothing, we did nothing in any of these <36>settings</36> to draw attention to ourselves; we merely shopped quietly in our accustomed manner. <p20>At one establishment we did blow our cover when we ordered French rolls with two special coffees; <p21>that may have been too far out of character for "bag ladies". <p22>Elsewhere we encountered <37>ribbing</37>, <38>imitating</38>, lack of trust, and <39>rude</39> stares. So what did we learn? Mostly what we expected, what everybody knows: People judge by appearances.
<p23>Just looking poor brings with it prejudice, <40>accompanied</40> by <41>removal</41> of much of the social <42>grace</42> most of us take for granted. <p24>L
 

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