第 4 单元 II. Listening Skills
1-i 2-a 3-f 4-b 5-c 6-d 7-h 8-g 9-e
III. Listening In
Task 1: The Influence of Advertising
Richard: Dad, I need a pair of new shoes for an important basketball game. My old ones look kind of funny. Father: Funny! We just bought those last spring. There’s a lot of life left in them. Richard: But look at this ad with Yao Ming. He says these shoes give him extra spring. Father: Yao Ming is so tall that he doesn’t need extra spring. Anyway, he makes money than I do. And they probably give him millions of dollars to wear those shoes. Richard: But if you bought me the shoes, I’d wear them for nothing. And I’d have that extra spring. Father: Do you think Yao Ming reached the top just because of the shoes he wears? Or was it something else? Richard: You mean like hard work, dedication, that sort of thing? Father: Exactly. Just focus on your studies and forget the shoes.
  1. shoes
  2. look kind of funny
  3. there is still a lot of life left
  4. ad
  5. give him extra spring
  6.as much money
  7. need extra spring
  8. millions of dollars
  9.wearing the shoes
  10. wear
  11. for nothing
  12. reach the top
  13. because of
  14. something lese
  15. hard work and dedication
  16. focus/concentrate on his studies
  17. forget
Task 2: I’ll get a camera.
One day just before closing time, John rushed into a TV store to buy a color TV set with the money he had saved for three months. The friendly shop assistant was waiting for the day’s last and 100th customer to reach his sales target for his bonus, so he warmly greeted John and showed him the various models on display. He asked John to see how sharp and colorful the imagine on the screen was. At that moment, a new commercial came onto the screen, introducing a popular brand of camera as well as some beautiful pictures it had taken. The camera and pictures attracted John. He suddenly changed his mind and told the shop assistant: “Thank you for the TV commercial. Now I have to hurry to the camera store to get that camera.”
Task 3: Don’t even think about it!
“Don’t even think about it!” is a phrase commonly used in the United States when a person emphatically denies or refuse something. In 1995, Shaquille O’ Neal, a popular basketball player, made a Pepsi commercial in which this phrase was used. The commercial begins with Shaq playing basketball, and a little kid is watching him. Then the boy cries out the name of this basketball star. Shaq turns to see the kid with a Pepsi n his hand. He walks over to the boy and says, “Hey, can I have it?” He bends over, supposing that
his admirer will give him the Pepsi. But then the kid says, “Don’t even think about it!” This commercial was rather popular, and it had been shown on TV for about three years. The commercial seems to have a more dramatic effect than that produced by the Coca-Cola company in the 1970s. In the Coke ad a young boy meets football star “Mean” Joe Green as he is leaving the field a game. The boy gives his hero a bottle of Coke, and in exchange for the drink, the football player throws to the boy, who excitedly catches the souvenir. The phrase “Don’t even think about it!” is used on many other occasions. Visitors to New York City are often amused to see a road sign with these words: “Don’t even think about parking here.” This road sign means that people are strictly prohibited from parking there.
  1. A
IV. Speaking Out
Model 1 Who pays?
Laura: Hey! Bob: Hey! Look, this is a cool TV commercial. “Things go better with Coke!” Laura: I think the Pepsi commercial is just as attractive: “The choice of a new generation!” Bob: Yeah, but the competitors are just canceling out each other’s efforts. Laura: That’s quite true. They both spend piles of money to increase their market shares, but neither gains. Bob: I’m afraid the extra costs of advertising will be passed on to the consumers. Laura: I hear that the advertising produces a good image of a product, and that leads to consumer brand loyalty. Bob: What do you mean by consumer brand loyalty? Laura: It means consumers are loyal to a certain product and keep buying it. Also, they’re willing to pay more. Bob: It seems contradictory. In other words, more sales mean lower production costs, but more advertising means higher costs to the consumer. In the end the winner is of course the company. Laura: That’s true!
Now Your Turn
A: Look, “Make yourself heard!” The Ericsson’s TV commercial is so cool. B: I think the Nokia’s commercial is just as fascinating: “Connecting People.” A: I’m afraid consumers will have to pay for the advertising. B: I hear that the advertisements create as a favorable on\mage of a product, and that leads to consumer brand loyalty. A: Could you explain “consumer brand loyalty”? B: I mean consumers identify with the product and keep buying it. Sometimes they’re even willing to pay more. A: It is contradictory that increases sales lead to a lower production cost per unit, but more advertising results in greater costs for consumers. The winner is always the company. B: I agree.
Model 2 Beware of ads!
Peter: Mind if I switch channels? Those TV commercials are killing me. Jane: How can you say that? Watch: “Take Toshiba, take the world.” Fantastic! There’s a product you can depend on. A powerful product. Peter: If I were you, I wouldn’t trust those commercials. Jane: Now, look at this McDonald’s commercials! Aren’t those little kids cute? Oh, and there’s such a warm family feeling. Peter: Just how an advertising agency wants you to see McDonald’s. you’re the target audience. When they make TV commercials, they use scientific methods to learn what you’ll like and buy. Jane: Are you telling me those darling little children biting into Big Macs are part of a scientific project to get me into McDonald’s? Peter: Advertises don’t bother with facts more. Instead they want the end-user?that’s you?to fall in love with their product. Jane: I see. So what you’re saying is, “Watch out, or commercials will take over your life.”
Now Your Turn
A: Shall we switch to another channel? I don’t like those TV commercials. B: Why do you think so? Look: Just do it! What a powerful product. A: I doubt it. B: Now, look at this L’Oreal commercial. The model’s skin is so smooth. A: This is what they want you to believe: use the product and you will get the same skin. B: You mean they are lying about the product? I don’t really think so. A: Advertisers now appeal to emotions, not reason. They want you to like their product. B: Well, I don’t really agree with you, but we can switch to another channel.
Model 3 Are the free magazines free?
Peter: Jane, what’s that magazine you’re reading? Jane: It’s one of those free magazine you can pick up around town. It’s got some pretty interesting articles in it. Peter: Wake up, Jane! It’s not free at all. Look at it: It’s all advertising. Jane: Maybe so, but if the advertising pays for the magazine, then I don’t have to. Peter: Sure you do. The cost of the ads is built into the products. Jane: Still, I think advertising serves a useful purpose. It tells me about new products. Peter: A lot of companies spend more money on advertising than on making quality products. Jane: But some commercials are really fascinating. Besides, you have the freedom to choose not to look at the ads. Peter: Well, it’s time to cook dinner.
Now Your Turn
A: What’s that brochure you’re reading? B: It’s a giveaway brochure you can easily find here and there. It’s got some pretty interesting things in it.
A: Do you really think so? It’s not really free. Look at all the ads in it. B: Could be, but I don’t have to pay for it. A: You bet you do. The cost6oof the ads is included in the products. B: Still, I think advertising tells me about new products. It helps me in choosing what to buy. A: This is just what the advertisers want you to do. B: But some commercials are really fascinating. Besides, you’re didn’t have to believe all the ads. A: Well, let’s go swimming.
V. Let’s Talk
A Job Ad for a Friendly Employee
A firm advertising for a “friendly” employee has been asked to change its wording because it discriminates against unfriendly people. Travelco, a travel agency, put in a request for a “Friendly employee” to provide food for its staff. But the Job Center in Bristol told managing director Harry Smith that he would have to remove the word “friendly” before the advertisement could be accepted. Mr. Smith said he could not believe the decision and thought it was “ridiculous.” He said: “We were told we could not use that particular word because it was discriminatory against people who looked unfriendly. We thought it was ridiculous. It’s only too natural for us to specify what kind of people we want.” He added, “The people at the center have since said they thought they had been a little over the top.” The center had made it a rule that certain words were nor allowed in ads and the words “motivated” and “enthusiastic” had been banned in the past. An official of the center said: “We do have guidelines of not using personality characteristics in advertisements to ensure that there is no discrimination in the process.” She added: “We should leave the dispute to the local judges. They’ll make the final decision. It’s possible that a member of our staff has been over-enthusiastic in cutting out words in ads.”
A firm
advertised for a friendly employee; Was asked to change the wording requested employee for a friendly
discrimination unfriendly people against
Travelco The Job Center
to provide food staff/employees
told the Travelco managing director to remove the word “friendly” said was told not to use that word; thought it was ridiculous added that the people at the center thought they had been a little over the top It was natural to specify the kind of people they wanted
The managing director
The center
had decided that certain words
were not allowed; motivated, enthusiastic An official
e.g. no discrimination
said they had guidelines of not personality using characteristics added that they should leave the dispute to the local judges maybe a member of their staff had been over-enthusiastic
to make the final decision in cutting words
VI. Furthering Listening and Speaking
Task 1: Banning Cigarette Ads
Nancy: Hey, Robert, what do you think about cigarette ads? Robert: They’re disgusting. Many countries have banned tobacco ads completely. Nancy: I heard in the States advertises are not allowed to show young people smoking cigarettes, neither are ads targeted at youth allowed. Robert: But advertises keep finding ways around the law. Some years ago one cigarette ad showed a deer smoking, but it was dressed in a university sweater. Obviously the ad is trying to attract young people. Nancy: In order to increase sales, they have to make smoking appealing to young people. Make them think it’s cool. Robert: Right. Cigarette manufacturers need to keep bringing in new customers. The old ones are dying of lung cancer. Nancy: Good point. Our Student Union should do some publicity against smoking in campus. Robert: I couldn’t agree more.
  1. They have banned tobacco/cigarette ads completely.
  2. Advertisers are not allowed to show young people smoking cigarettes.
  3. They keep finding ways around the law.
  4. They must keep bringing in new customers, as the old ones are dying of lung cancer.
  5. IT should do some publicity against smoking on campus.
Task 2: A Radio Commercial
Are you looking for appliances or furniture to give new life to your home? Look no further! Here at Frontier Furniture, we have everything you need to give your home a new look and feel. Stereos, video machines, refrigerators, dining tables, washers and dryers. You name it; we have it! Low on cash? We have an easy rent-to-own plan that will put you on your favorite sofa tonight. Big color TVs cost only two hundred and twenty-five dollars; digital pianos staring at three ninety-nine ($3
  99); king size beds from two hundred and fifty dollars. Free delivery on all major appliances. So come on down to Frontier Furniture. Located downtown two blocks east of city hall, across from Union Square. We’re open daily from 10:00 AM to 9:30 PM. So, come on in, and let us make your dream home a reality.




Task 3: An Introduction to Advertising
Advertising has become increasingly specialized in modern times. In today’s business world, supply usually outnumbers demand. There is great competition among different manufacturers of the same kind of product to attract customers to their product. They always have to remind the consumer of the name and the qualities of their product. They do this by advertising. The manufacturers advertise in the newspapers and on posters. They sometimes pay for songs about their product in commercial radio programs. They employ attractive salesgirls to distribute samples. They organizes competitions, with prizes for the winners. They often advertise on the screens of local cinemas. Most important of all, in countries that have television, they have advertisements put into programs that will accept them. Manufacturers often spend large sums of money on advertisements. Someti


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