虚拟语气
虚拟语气(Subjunctive
Mood)这一语法项目是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一。虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话并不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、怀疑或推测。判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气;假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气.判断这个假设是与哪个事实相反。通常有三种情况:①与过去事实相反。②与现在事实相反。③与将来事实可能相反
I: 最基本的虚拟语气句型:

  1. 虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过
去式(be 一般用were),主句用would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形。
 If places were a like, there would be little need for
geographers.
如果各个地方都一样,就不需要地理学家了。

  2. 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设,if 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时
即had+过去分词,主句用would / should / could / might + have
+过去分词。
 If he had known your address yesterday, he would have
telephoned you.

  3. 虚拟将来时是表示对将来实现的可能性很小的或不确定的假设。If从句的谓
语形式用一般过去式或用were to / should +动词原形,主句用would / should
/could/ might +动词原形。
 If he were to leave today, he would get there by Friday

  4. 省略if 采用倒装语序的条件句。
 有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条件句中的连词if 省去,而将had , should,
were 等 词
提到主语之前,即用倒装结构。
  Had he worked harder, he would have got through the
exams.
Were he to leave today, he would get there by
Friday.
Were I in your place, I wouldn’t do that

  5. 有时虚拟条件句并没来if 从句表示出来,而是用介词短语(otherwise, or, without,
but for)、上下文或其它方 式来表示。
 We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we
would have telephoned him.
Without you help, I wouldn’t have achieved so much.
But for your help, I would not have succeeded.
II: 虚拟语气在从句中用should的情况:

  1. 在建议,要求,命令,想法后的动词后的从句里, 用should + 动词原形, should 可以省略. 如
advise, agree, command, decide, demand, determine,
grant, indicate, insist, order, prefer, propose,
request, require, stipulate, suggest, urge, vote.
常考到的是: suggest, advise, demand, require, propose,
insist, order, request.
His doctor suggested that he (should) take short leave
of absence.
The author proposed that TV (should) be turned off at
least one hour every day.

  2. 在建议,要求,命令,想法后的名词后的从句里, 用should + 动词原形, should可以省略. 如
advice, agreement, command, decision, decree, demand,
determination, indication, insistence, order,
preference, proposal, request, requirement, stipulation
etc.
It was Bill’s suggestion that everyone (should) have a
map.
His suggestion was that everyone (should) have a map.
He gave us a suggestion that everyone (should) have a
map.

  3. 在It is/was +形容词后的that 从句中用should的结构, should 可以省略.
这类形容词常见的有: advisable, anxious, compulsory, crucial,
desirable, eager, essential, fitting, imperative(绝对必要),
impossible, improper, important, natural, necessary,
obligatory, possible, preferable, probable,
recommended, urgent, vital etc.
It's natural that she (should) do so.
It is essential that we (should) tell her the news.

  4. 在 lest 和 for fear that( 以免) , in case (以防)从句中用should,
should 可以省略.
She walked quietly lest she (should) wake up her
roommates.
Have your gun ready in case we should need it.
III: wish 后的 that 从句中:

  1. 表示现在或将来的愿望,从句中过去式.
I wish I knew his address.
I wish I were young.

  2. 表示过去没有实现或不可能实现的愿望, 从句用过去完成式或would, could, might +
have + 过去分词.
I wish you had written to him.
I wish I could have slept longer this morning, but I
had to get up and come to class.

  3. 如果将wish改成wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变.

  4. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示 对现状不满或希望未来有所改变 或请求
I wish he would answer my letter.
I wish prices would come down.
I wish you would help me.
I wish you would stop asking silly questions.
IV: 在 It’s about/ high time
后的that 从句中, 用过去式. 表示 “该是做什么的时候了”
It is about time you were in bed.
It is high time we left.

V: 在would rather, would sooner, would just as soon
后的that从句中, 用过去式或过去完成式, 表示”宁愿做什么”
I would rather he came tomorrow than today.
John would rather that she had not gone to the
party yesterday evening.
VI: 在if only 感叹句中, 谓语动词与wish宾语从句的虚拟形式相同.
If only he didn’t drive so fast! (现在)
If only she had asked someone’s advice.(过去)
If only the rain would stop.(将来)
VII: 在as if / as though 从句中, 表示和现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑, 用过去式;
表示过去想象中的动作或情况, 用过去完成式.
He speaks as if he were on the spot.
She spoke to me as if I were deaf.
This device operated as though it had been
repaired.
注:
  1. 在 as if / as though 句中, 如果有可能成为事实, 用陈述语气.
He looks as if he is going to be ill.

  2. 在 insist 后的从句中, 如果是坚持自己, 用陈述语气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟语气.
she insists that she is right.
she insisted that I should finish the work at once.
 

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