一、定语从句 指点定语从句的联系代词有 that,which,who(宾格 whom),所有格 whose)和联系副词 where when why 等,联系代词或联系副词在定语从句中充当一个成分,联系代词 that, which,who,whom 等在从句中区分作主语或宾语,whose 在从句中作定语,而联系副词 when,where,why 等在从句中作状语。 如:①i will never forget the days when/in which we worked together. ②i will never forget the days which/that we spent together. 解析:在句①中,示意时间的名词 the days 在从句中充当的是状语,所以用联系副词 when 来代指,指点定语从句润饰后行词 the days;而在句②中,示意时间的名词 the days 在从 句中充当的是动词 spent 的宾语,所以用联系代词 that 或 which 来代指。 异样,示意地点或原因的名词假设在从句中作状语,则用联系副词 where 或 why 来代指;假 设在从句中作动词的宾语,则用 which 或 that 来代替。 如:①this is the factory where/in which iworked.(作状语) ②this is the factory that/which ivisited years ago.(作宾语) 注:领后行词为 time,reason,place 时,指点词可以省略。如: ①this was the first(when/what)i had serious trouble with my boss. ②that is the reason(why)i did it. ③this is the place(where)we met yesterday. 另外,定语从句中谓语动词的数应与后行词的数相一致。如: ①mr.jackson is the only foreigner that is present at the party.0 ②he is one of the students who were praised by the teacher. 解析:在句①中,后行词 foreigner 被 only 润饰,强调只要一个,所以从句中谓语动词用 双数形式,而在句②中,who 指点的定语从句润饰后行词 the students,为双数,所以从句 谓语动词应为双数。 感悟:教师之所以在这一点上经常出错,主要是对定语从句的了解不够深入,区分不出主句 和从句, 对句子成分的掌握也不到位, 搞不清联系代词或联系副词在从句中充当何种句子成 分。所以要做好这一类题,要首先弄清联系代词和联系副词的用法,而且应擅长区分和剖析 句子结构及其相应成分,这样才能有的放矢,快速准确地找到瓿之所在 二名词性从句中的易错点 (一)that 指点的定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与前面的的名词是润饰与被润饰的联系, "…的名词", 而同位语从句是用来说明前 面名词的形式。与 that 从句同位的名词必须是一些示意梦想或概念的抽象名词,如 fact,news,belief,truth,reply 等。 that 在定语从句中必须作成分, 可用 which 或 who/whom 代替,而 that 在同位语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起衔接作用。如: ①along with the letter was his promise that he would visit me this coming christmas.②do you still remember the chicken farm that we visited three months ago. 解析:在句①中,that 指点同位语从句注释说明 promise 的形式,that 不充当任何句子成 分,只起衔接作用,而在句②中,that 在其指点的定语从句中作动词 visited 的宾语,对 后行词 the chicken farm 起润饰作用。 感悟:教师之所以在这一点上冗杂出错,主要还是因为对定语从句的了解不够深入,区分不 出 that 在从句中是否充当了句子成分,因此,还需在句子剖析上下功夫,并且搞清何谓同 位语从句。 (二)名词性从句中,对于 it 作形式主语和形式宾语的易错点
  1)名词性从句作主语或宾语时,为坚持句子平衡,罕用 it 作形式主语或形式宾语。如:
its apity that he dont come to give aspeech.(形式主语) we think it possible that you can finish the job today.(形式宾语)
  2)谓语动词 appreciate,dislike,hate,like,love,make 等接由 if 或 when 指点的宾语从句 经常常在从句前加上形式宾语 it. 例如:i would appreciate it if you could come to my birthday party.
  3)动词 hare,take,hide,punish,put 等,后接由 that 指点的病因从句式, 经常在从句前加形 式宾语 it. 例如:①i take it that you will be leaving shanghai soon. ②we punished it that we had finished the project ahead of time.
  4)短语动词 answer for,count on depend on,insist on,see to 等后接有 that 指点的宾语 从句时,必须冠以形式宾语 it. 例如:①im counting on it that you will come. ②shell see to it that he goes ahead. 注:作形式主语和形式宾语时只能用 it. 三、代词 it、one、that 的用法与区别. one 泛指,指代前面提到的那类人或物,用于指代可数名词,相当于 a 名词双数,其双数形 式 ones 前一般要有定语,否则就要用 some. that(those 双数)即可指代不可数名词,表特指,相当于 the 名词,前面经常与介词润饰语 连用。 it 指代上文出现的名词,示意同类同物,另外还可示意时间、距离、天气、还可指代人称 代词, 示意性别身份不明, 可作形式主语, 形式宾语, 指点强调句式以及一些流动搭配,如: get it,catch it,make it. 例如:①i have lost my watch.i think imust buy one.我丢了只表,我想我必须再买一 只。(代指上文指到的同类事物,但不指同一个) ②where is my pen?have you seen it?我的钢笔不知弄到哪去了,你见了吗?(代指上文提 到的同一事物) ③the land of china is larger than that of america. ④tome has ared pen and ablue one(或 two blue ones) ⑤he has no child,and he wants toadopt one(或 some) 四、虚构语气 i 虚构语气在 if 指点的条件句中的易错点。 ①if my lawyer had been here last saturday,he would have prevented me from going. ②if you had studied hard at school,you would be acollege student now. 句子①②都是虚构语气在条件句中的运用, 从句中都是假设过去的状况, 所以用过去实现时, 但在主句中,句①依然指代过去的状况,谓语动词是 would have done,而②中含有一个示 意往常的时间状语 now,这样就必须将其了解为假设往常的状况,所以谓语动词必须为 would/should/might 动词原形,教师在这一点上经常会疏忽 now 的存在,从而按句①的形 式填写答案。 ?虚构语气在名词性从句中的用法
  1.在 it is important(strange,natural,necessary…) that 句子或许 it is decided(ordered,suggested,demanded,advised…) that 句子中,主语从句中的谓语动词 罕用(should) 动词原形结构,示意某事"主要"、"必要"、"被决定"等 例如:①it is important that everyone(should)obey the rules all day and all night. ②it is decided that the meeting(should)be held tomorrow afternoon.

  2.suggest,insist 前面指宾语从句时需注意的中央
  1)①suggest 当"建议""提出"讲时,其后宾语从句的谓语动词罕用"should 动词原形" 例如:he suggested that the work(should)be started at once 他建议立刻开工。 相似的动词还有 insist 坚持,demand 央求,desire 央求、央求,request 央求,require 央求、需要,order 命令,propose 建议,command 命令,ask 央求,advise 建议,prefer 宁愿等。 这些动词变主动语态(如:it is suggested that 主语从句)形式后,主语从句谓语动词仍 用"(should) 动词原形" 这些动词变名词(如 suggestion)后,其后的表语从句和同位语从句中的谓语局部仍用 "(should) 动词原形" ②suggest 当"提出(某看法),暗示,启发"讲时,其后宾语从句的动词不用虚构语气。 例如:(
  1)the police suggested that the thief might be one of the family member 警察局提出窃贼能够是一名家庭成员。 (
  2)her yawns suggests that she is sleepy.她打哈欠表明她困了。 (
  3)although he didnt suggest that we __ the decision to swim across the river,but his look suggested that our decision __wrong.固然他没提出咱们应当终止游过这条河 的决定,但他的表情表明咱们的决定是过失的。 a:stop;wasb:should stop;bec:stopped;wasd:stopped;should be 在这个句子中,前一个 suggest 当"建议""提出"讲,而后一个作"表明"讲,所以答案为"a"
  2)①insist 作"坚决央求…该…;坚持认为…定要…"讲时,其后宾语从句的谓语动词用 "(should) 动词原形" 例如:i insisted that you(should)be there on time.我坚持认为你应当准时到那里去 ②insist 作"坚持(看法,看法);坚持说,确信"讲时,其后从句不用虚构语气。 例如:he suggested(that)he heard someone in the next room.他坚持说他听到隔壁屋子 里有人。 五.反意疑难句中的易错点
  1.在一般疑难句中,不论一定的问或是否认的问,假设回答为一定则用 yes,反之则用 no. 特地注意假设出现省略则看下文所暗示的意思。 ①-are you anew comer? -yes,i came here only yesterday. ②-isnt tom agood student? -yes,he is excellent. ③-dont you think the composition good? -no,it cant be any worse. 注意:在②③句中,当回答的意思与问句相一致时,则用 no,译为"是的",当回答的意思 与问句相同时,则用 yes,译为"不"
  2.情态动词 must ①i must leave now,mustnt i? ②he must be in the classroom,isnt?(表推测) ③he must have finished his homework,hasnt he?(表往常的结果) ④he must have finished his homework yesterday afternoon,didnt he?(表过去) 当句子中有示意猜想的情态动词时, 其反意疑难句的形成不能再用原句中的情态动词, 而应 依据原句在去掉情态动词的状况下的主谓联系来一定其反诘形式。 六、非谓语动词中的易错点
非谓语与其逻辑主语(即举动的实施者或接受者)之间有三种联系, 如为主谓联系, 则用往常 分词或不定式的自动式; 如为主动联系则用过去分词、 往常分词的主动(强调举动正在停止) 或不定式的主动式(举动将停止); 如既无自动也无主动联系则只能用状语从句或独立主格结 构(即非谓语加上自己的逻辑主语)。 judging/considering/genrally speaking/supposing 指谈话者的举动, 故只用自动式。 如: having been ill in bed for nearly amonth,he had ahard time passing the exam. 解析:从这个句子可以看出,句词的逻辑主语与句子的主语 he 一致,并且是主谓联系,所 以用了往常的分词作状语,同时,分词的举动清楚地发生在句子的谓语动词举动之前,故采 纳了现代分词的实现式。 in order to improve english,_. a.jennys father bought her alot of tapes. b.jennys father bought alot of tapes for herself. c.a lot of tapes were bought by jenny. d.a lot of tapes were bought by jenny father. 解析:依据不定式短语咱们可以推知,句子的逻辑主语应当是人而不是物,所以,应当扫除 cd,再就是应当是 jenny 提高自己的英语,而不是她爸爸,故答案先 b. ,we decided to go out for awalk. a.it is fine b.it fine c.being fine d.it being fine 解析:主句主语 we 与动词短语 be fine 之间既无自动联系与无主动联系,所以要加上自己 的逻辑主语 it,因为不存在主、主动联系,故不能选 c 项,而应中选 d 项。 --more attention,the trees could have grown better. a.given b.to give c.giving d.having giving 解析:give 与主句的主语之间是主动联系,故选 a.如为自动联系则选 c. 易出错的效果一般都是教师在学习中对知识了解不深入或才能完善的中央, 应及时纠错和树 立"错题档案", 还应"小题大作", 故意常把一些易错题予以归类, 找出过失根源, 总结法则。
 

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