Unit 2 English: a global language
Today's topic is English as a global language. I know many of you who speak English as a second language,right? How about you, H~? Is English your first language? H:No. My first language is Japnese. English is my second language. And how about you, P~? P: English is my second language,too. My first language is Spanish. See, many of you use English as a second language, even as a global language to communicate with other people who speak English as a second language. Today I want to give you two cantrasting points of view on whether or not English is a global language. First is that English is obvious a glabal language, people who support this point of view believe English is the language of people all over the world used to communicate, and that it is gradually replacing other languages. The second point of view is that English is not truely a global language because it is not the main language spoken by most people word wide. Suporters of this view say that even though many people speak some English world wide, English has not replaced other languages. They ackonwledge that people use English every day for many reasons, but this doesn't mean English is replacing other languages, not make English the main language spoken in the world. First,let's exam the first view. First of all, English is the dominated language of business, travel and sciences. When people need a common language, they often use English. Think about it, English is often used that touriest imformation setters, in international hotels, at airports. If you use a taxi in Rome, and you can't speak Italian, the taxi driver is more likely to use English than any other languages. It is used at business meetings and international sports events. The European Union uses English along with French at its meetings. ACN, the Asian Trade Group, uses English at its meetings. Can you think of other situation in which English is used as a common language? P: How about this class? All of us are listening to you in English. Absolutely, educational settings a great example. Any others? P:How about the chatroom on the internet? I sometimes go to chatroom, seems everyone uses English. Excellent example! The internet has creat a lot of international communities and people often use English. In fact, most people who use the internet know English. This helps to support the view English is a global language. The second major reason that people believe English is a global language is that it is the offical language of more than 75 countries. This means these countries use English in schools, banks, business and govenment. Of these 75 countries, English may be the only offical language of the country like in England, or English may be used along with other offical languages, like in Filipine, Singapore and India. In country like in India, where so many languages were spoken, you can see how using English as an offical language make it easier for people to communicate. The third reason to support the global arguement is that every year about 1 billion people study English. Why? Why are some of the reasons? P~,how about you? P: Well, now to study ,and some day, I want to be in the international business. That's a solid reason,How about you? A~? A: I'm not really sure. I just think it will help me in the future somehow. OK. There is more general reason. The point is people want and need to learn English because it offers them opportunities. To sum up, English is used everyday by many people. People all over the world coming contact with each other for many reasons. The need a common language, a languge to facilitate communication.
Being proficient in English give someone an advantage in these situations. OK, I have given you many examples of how English is used in a variety of situations. Nevertheless, does this mean that English is a global language? lets look at why some people don't believe English has replaced other languages. First, there are about 3 times as many people who speak Chinese as their first language as those who speak English as their first language. As in many coutries, where some people use English for work each day, they don't use Enlish anywhere else. Even in an English speaking country, there are millions of people who perfer to speak a language other than english at home with friends or at work. Second, I mentioned before,that 75 countries had English as their offcial language. This doesn't mean all or even most of the people in these countries can speak English. e.g, In India, most (s ) agree that only about 5% of the population speak English. That's a small persentage. Third, how much English does a person need to know to be called an English speaker? People may learn some English for specific situation, such as the taxi driverd I mentioned ealier. However, I think you would all agree with me that a taxi driver who knows a few phrases like "where are you going" or "what is the name of your hotel" isn't really a proficient English speaker. Another example is, Airspeak, the English that is used by aircraft controll in pilots, a pilot from their lines or aircraft control need to know airspeak ,but they may only learn the words they need for these jobs ,and therefore they cannot be considered as English speakers. The point here is that people all over the world may use English for work or other situations, nevertheless, this doesn't mean they are fluent in English. They still use their first language for daily communication, English is not their main language. So, what does this all mean? I think it's safe to say that English will continue to be the main language used in many international settings because as I said earlier, people all over the world need a common language. And for now, English is that language. But English would replace other languages for most daily communication, and this to me is what a global language really is. One that replaces others for most everyday communication. Some people are afraid of this. They worry that as people use English more and more, their ability in their fist language will decline, I think people will use English along with other languages. We are moving into a global culture, and as this continues, I think people from non-English speaking countries will want to maintain their culture including their first language, they may still want to learn English, but I don't see them to give up their own language for English. What do you think? I'm gonna stop there. I know that's a lot of imformation to digest. we'll continue talking about some of the diffrences in English words used in vary countries in Austrilia,Singapore and Filipine.
Unit 3 High Anxiety: Phobias
good afternoon! Today we are going to turn to a new topic in psychology and start looking at some specific psychological problems. There are a variety of mentle problems that can affect us in our daily lifes. some are serious, like a fear of cats, or of insects, others are more serious. Now, as a psychologist, we try to study this different problems and find ways to help people. I want to start the discussion by talking about faily very common psychological problem, a phobia. that's P-H-O-B-I-A. First, I'll explain what phobia is and then I'll talk about some theories on why people have phobias. As you probobly know, a phobia is a fear. So do any of you have phobias? Oh,come on, you can tell me, I'm a psychologist. Yes, Monica. (M) I have a fear of swimming. I don't like to go near the ocean. Ok. That's not an usual phobia. Any one else?Ali? (A) I hate dogs. I mean I just unlike them. When I see a big dog, actually any dog, I just get nervous, so I avoid them. OK. that's another common phobia. Thanks for sharing those examples of phobias. A phobia is not a normal fear, it is an extreme fear, a very strong fear. e.g, my brother, who is a sucessful artist, had computer phobia. he didn't simply dislike using computers, he used to have very strong fear of using them. Psychologist just come up with 3
characteristics of a phobia. People display these 3 characterisitics, if they have a phobia, not just a normal fear. Now, first, a phobia is not a rational response. It's a very strong reaction, too strong for the situation. for my brother, this meant he has very strong physical reaction if someone ask him to use a computer. he started shaking violated, had trouble breathing, once he even started choking. Physical recations like this are common. Second, a phobia often last for a long time, for months or even years. In my brother's case, it lasts several years. Third, the reaction is too strong for a person to control. e.g, even my brother told himself to not to be afraid of computer, it didn't help. He still felt very afraid. Usually, people avoid whatever it is they are afraid of. so, in my brother's case, he avioded using a computer. OK, so those are the 3 characteristics of phobias. It's an extreme unrational response, it's long-lasting,and it's uncontrollable. (M) so 'uncontrollable' means even you try to control it, you can't? yes, it means you can't control it by try to deny you fear of phobia. There are ways to treat phobias, and we will talk about it in a minute. Yes! (A) what happened to your brother, did he get over of it? Yes, he did. The main thing was that he decided that he wanted to get over it.and he was treated by a psychologist. now, he uses computers all the time. OK.let's spend a minute going over some classifications of phobias. Phobias are classified by the thing or situation that the person fears. Greek or Latin are usually used to describe the fears. here are examples: Hypno, H-Y-P-N-O means sleep, so, fear of sleep is hypnophobia. cyno, C-Y-N-O means dog, so a fear of dog is cynophobia, right? Here is another example, aerophobia, listen to the first part, aero, what's the fear? aero, as in airplane, aerophobia is fear flying. Let turn out to the causes of phobias. One theory is that phobia is learned. This means something happens that causes someone or in a sence, teach someone to fear afraid. e.g, Ali ,could have learn to be afraid of dogs, if he was attacked or injured by a dog when he was a child. poeple can also learn phobias by watching how other people react. In fact, I just find that phobias tend to run in families. e.g, let's image that Ali's mother has always been afraid of dogs, whenever Ali and his mother were together and so a dog, his mother got very scared, very nervous, when Ali saw how his mother reacted, he would then gradually became very scared, too. He would then, have developed cynophobia from watching his mother. So you can see that there are two ways learning can be involved in phobias. So the 1st theory is that phobia is learned either by directed experiences or by watching the reactions of others. The 2nd theory says that a phobia is only a sign of a deeper problem. This means that the phobia isn't the whole problem. Let's take another example, I once treated a teenage who was very afraid of dark, he couldn't be in a dark room by himself, he was terrified to go outside at night, and so on. According to this theory, when he acted afraid of the dark, he was really showing his fear of sth else. In theopy he reviewed ,he was afraid of his father. His father was very strict was he was young, and once his father made him sit in a dark room when he did sth bad. According to this theory, his fear of dark was a sign of this deeper, real fear of his father. Yes, question. (A)so what did you do? did you talk to his father? Well, no, we couldn't do that. But recongnizing that he was really afraid of his father, and not the dark, was the key-step of the treatment. Now he is cured, no more fear of the dark. Ok,let's think about these 2 theories, and about the main difference between them. The 1st theory says that the phobia is the problem itself, right? And the 2nd theory says the phobia is a sign of deeper problem a person has. Why is the difference important? The most improtant in deciding how to treat the person. According to the 1st theory, if a phobia is learned, perhaps, it can be unlearned. A psychologist who follow this theory would try to teach someone to react differently to behave differently when he or she feels afraid. Changing the person's behavior is the goal. On the other hand, the psychologist who believes the 2nd theory may start by try to teach the person to react differently, but the doctor was interersted in more than that. The
doctor's objective or goal is to help the patient reveal the deeper psychological problem because it will be easier to treat the phobia if the deeper problem is identified and work down as well. I want you to think for a minute, about the significance of having these 2 theories or any competiing thoeries. What is it mean? I t tells us that phychologist like any scitist have to continue to do research to learn and to test treatments we believe to affect based on research. Treatments improve the more we learn.
Unit 4:TV-What we watch?
Good morning. Who watched TV last night? Ha, most of you. OK, today we're going to talk about an important part of the media-TV. Specifically, TV viewing and TV dramas. Now, first, I'll give you some background, then we'll discuss what make this type of programming -dramas so popular worldwide? OK, let's get started. Most of you would agree that watching TV is part of most people's lifes. Now, statistic varies on how much people watch TV, but res
 

相关内容

研究生英语听说教程(听力原文)

   研究生英语听说教程(引进版) 研究生英语听说教程(引进版)听力原文 Lesson 1 Take on Listening:Listening and Speaking Strategies Lesson 1 Exercise 1 Student: Excuse me. Counselor: Yes? Student: Do I need to make an appointment to register for an ESL class? Counselor: No, but you fi ...

朗文英语听说教程三1-8单元录音稿

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

新视野大学英语视听说教程第三册听力录音原文文本和答案第8单元

   Unit8 Flying there is not half the fun IIBasic Listening Practice 1 Script M:would you prefer a window or an aisle seat,madam? W:Aisle,please.If there's none 1eft,then a wind.w seat is OK.But I don't like middle seats. Q: what is the order of the w ...

新潮研究生英语综合教程课文翻译

   UNIT 1 TEXT A 没有舞台的表演: 没有舞台的表演:文学翻译的艺术 Robert Wechsler 胡兴文 巫阿苗译 文学翻译是一门奇特的艺术。当你坐在书桌旁,所译的是已经完成、署着别人大名 的小说或诗歌时,这便是文学翻译。 这种工作性质似乎具有衍生性,不值一提。 谁愿意为坐在 博物馆里描摹别人画作的人著书立说呢?摹仿者不是艺术家,他们是学徒、 造假者、 名人崇拜 者和骗子。 然而,文学翻译却是一门艺术。 它所以奇特,是因为译者实际上和作家做着完全相同的事 情。假如演员也像剧作家、 ...

新视野大学英语听说教程听力答案

   新视野大学英语听说教程(第三册)第二版(郑树棠)答案 Unit 1 Warming up 1. F 2.NG 3.T Listening Short conversations 1. C 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.B 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.A 10.B Long conversation 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.B 5.D Passage 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.C 5.C Radio program 1. a journalism degree 2. pretty good ...

新视野大学英语听说教程听力答案

   新视野大学英语听说教程(第三册)第二版(郑树棠)答案 Unit 1 Warming up 1. F 2.NG 3.T Listening Short conversations 1. C 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.B 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.A 10.B Long conversation 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.B 5.D Passage 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.C 5.C Radio program 1. a journalism degree 2. pretty good ...

新视野大学英语6(听说教程)听力原文(3)

   Very often, newborn babies are not beautiful. They are wrinkled or bald, or they have angry expressions on their faces that seem to say, "Go away! I hate parent, meaneverybody." But to a parent, that bald, wrinkled, mean-faced baby is the ...

新视野大学英语6(听说教程)听力原文(9)

   Claude Monet was born in France in 1840. He had a classical training in art in the style of the "Old Masters". While his art teachers developed a realistic, some would call it almost "photographic", expression of art. Monet, lik ...

新视野大学英语6(听说教程)听力原文(1)

   Case 1: Mei Ling, a new graduate student at Columbia University in New York City, went to a large department store to shop. She had just got her first paycheck as a research assistant and wanted to buy a blouse for herself. She found what she liked ...

小学五年级英语(上)单元达标题听力材料

   小学五年级英语( 小学五年级英语(上)单元达标题听力材料 第一单元听力材料 一、听录音两遍,根据所听到的句子顺序给下列图片排序。 1. Our math teacher is tall and thin. 3.The girl is Helen. She’s very quiet. 5.We are very active in class. 7.I like Mrs Heart. She’s very kind. 2.Mr Liu is our Chinese teacher. He’s ...

热门内容

中考英语作文常见错误分析

   中考英语 中考英语作文十大常见错误分析 英语 俗话说"千里之行始于足下".英语 英语书面表达能力的形成不是一日之功,必须从平时的课堂学习 英语 一点一滴抓起,持之以恒. 一篇优秀的英语 英语作文在内容和语言两方面应是一个统一体,任何一方面的欠缺都会直接影响 英语 到作文的质量.然而,很多考生在写作中或者由于粗心大意,或者由于基本功不扎实而经常出 现名词不变复数,第三人称单数不加 s,前后不一致,以及时态语态,句子完整性等方面的错误. 如 2004 年中考 中考作文要求写一 ...

2011高考英语作文万能开头模板

   吴军英语家教万能开头 看了都说好! 看了都说好! 开头万能公式: 1. 开头万能公式一:名人名言 有人问了, “我没有记住名言,怎么办?尤其是英语名言?” ,很好办:编! 原理:我们看到的东西很多都是创造出来的,包括我们欣赏的文章也是,所以尽管编,但是一定要听起来很有道 理呦!而且没准将来我们就是名人呢!对吧? 经典句型: A proberb says, “ You are only young once.” (适用于已记住的名言) It goes without saying that w ...

2011年职称英语等级考试用书(理工类)--不包含第一部分

   2011 年职称英语等级考试用书(理工类) 2011 年职称英语等级考试用书(理工类)第二部分 阅读判断 第一篇 Inventor of LED LED 的发明者 When Nick Holonyak set out to create a new kind of visible lighting using semiconductor alloys, his colleagues thought he was unrealistic.Today, his discovery of ligh ...

小学英语

   北师大版五年级上册数学单元测试题 班级: 姓名: 总分:120 分数: 一、填空(20 分) 1)、32 和 8 的最大公因数是( 2)、 1 又 3/4 的分数单位是( ),最小公倍数是( )。 ),它有( )个这样的分数单位。 )、女生是全班的( )。 8 小时=( )日 )。 )。 3)、五年级(1)班有 45 明学生。其中女生 25 人,男生是女生的( 4)、既是奇数,又是合数的最小两位数是( 5)、填分数:55 厘米=( )米 50 分=( )小时 6)、给 7/18 的分母加上 ...

2006年广东深圳市高三年级第二次调研考试英语

   2006 年深圳市高三年级第二次调研考试 英语 本试卷分第Ⅰ卷(选择题)和第Ⅱ卷(非选择题)两部分.第Ⅰ卷为第 1 页至第 2 页,第Ⅱ 卷为第 3 页至第 5 页.满分 150 分,考试时间 120 分钟. 注意事项: 1.答卷前,考生务必用黑色字迹的钢笔或签字笔将自己的学校、姓名、考生号填写在模 拟答题卡的密封线内,并在右上角的“试室号”栏填写本科目试室号,在“座位号” 栏填写座位号。用 2B 铅笔将自己的姓名、考生号和座位号填写在小答题卡上,并将 相应的考生号标号和考试科目涂黑。 2. ...