Unit 2 English: a global language
Today's topic is English as a global language. I know many of you who speak English as a second language,right? How about you, H~? Is English your first language? H:No. My first language is Japnese. English is my second language. And how about you, P~? P: English is my second language,too. My first language is Spanish. See, many of you use English as a second language, even as a global language to communicate with other people who speak English as a second language. Today I want to give you two cantrasting points of view on whether or not English is a global language. First is that English is obvious a glabal language, people who support this point of view believe English is the language of people all over the world used to communicate, and that it is gradually replacing other languages. The second point of view is that English is not truely a global language because it is not the main language spoken by most people word wide. Suporters of this view say that even though many people speak some English world wide, English has not replaced other languages. They ackonwledge that people use English every day for many reasons, but this doesn't mean English is replacing other languages, not make English the main language spoken in the world. First,let's exam the first view. First of all, English is the dominated language of business, travel and sciences. When people need a common language, they often use English. Think about it, English is often used that touriest imformation setters, in international hotels, at airports. If you use a taxi in Rome, and you can't speak Italian, the taxi driver is more likely to use English than any other languages. It is used at business meetings and international sports events. The European Union uses English along with French at its meetings. ACN, the Asian Trade Group, uses English at its meetings. Can you think of other situation in which English is used as a common language? P: How about this class? All of us are listening to you in English. Absolutely, educational settings a great example. Any others? P:How about the chatroom on the internet? I sometimes go to chatroom, seems everyone uses English. Excellent example! The internet has creat a lot of international communities and people often use English. In fact, most people who use the internet know English. This helps to support the view English is a global language. The second major reason that people believe English is a global language is that it is the offical language of more than 75 countries. This means these countries use English in schools, banks, business and govenment. Of these 75 countries, English may be the only offical language of the country like in England, or English may be used along with other offical languages, like in Filipine, Singapore and India. In country like in India, where so many languages were spoken, you can see how using English as an offical language make it easier for people to communicate. The third reason to support the global arguement is that every year about 1 billion people study English. Why? Why are some of the reasons? P~,how about you? P: Well, now to study ,and some day, I want to be in the international business. That's a solid reason,How about you? A~? A: I'm not really sure. I just think it will help me in the future somehow. OK. There is more general reason. The point is people want and need to learn English because it offers them opportunities. To sum up, English is used everyday by many people. People all over the world coming contact with each other for many reasons. The need a common language, a languge to facilitate communication.
Being proficient in English give someone an advantage in these situations. OK, I have given you many examples of how English is used in a variety of situations. Nevertheless, does this mean that English is a global language? lets look at why some people don't believe English has replaced other languages. First, there are about 3 times as many people who speak Chinese as their first language as those who speak English as their first language. As in many coutries, where some people use English for work each day, they don't use Enlish anywhere else. Even in an English speaking country, there are millions of people who perfer to speak a language other than english at home with friends or at work. Second, I mentioned before,that 75 countries had English as their offcial language. This doesn't mean all or even most of the people in these countries can speak English. e.g, In India, most (s ) agree that only about 5% of the population speak English. That's a small persentage. Third, how much English does a person need to know to be called an English speaker? People may learn some English for specific situation, such as the taxi driverd I mentioned ealier. However, I think you would all agree with me that a taxi driver who knows a few phrases like "where are you going" or "what is the name of your hotel" isn't really a proficient English speaker. Another example is, Airspeak, the English that is used by aircraft controll in pilots, a pilot from their lines or aircraft control need to know airspeak ,but they may only learn the words they need for these jobs ,and therefore they cannot be considered as English speakers. The point here is that people all over the world may use English for work or other situations, nevertheless, this doesn't mean they are fluent in English. They still use their first language for daily communication, English is not their main language. So, what does this all mean? I think it's safe to say that English will continue to be the main language used in many international settings because as I said earlier, people all over the world need a common language. And for now, English is that language. But English would replace other languages for most daily communication, and this to me is what a global language really is. One that replaces others for most everyday communication. Some people are afraid of this. They worry that as people use English more and more, their ability in their fist language will decline, I think people will use English along with other languages. We are moving into a global culture, and as this continues, I think people from non-English speaking countries will want to maintain their culture including their first language, they may still want to learn English, but I don't see them to give up their own language for English. What do you think? I'm gonna stop there. I know that's a lot of imformation to digest. we'll continue talking about some of the diffrences in English words used in vary countries in Austrilia,Singapore and Filipine.
Unit 3 High Anxiety: Phobias
good afternoon! Today we are going to turn to a new topic in psychology and start looking at some specific psychological problems. There are a variety of mentle problems that can affect us in our daily lifes. some are serious, like a fear of cats, or of insects, others are more serious. Now, as a psychologist, we try to study this different problems and find ways to help people. I want to start the discussion by talking about faily very common psychological problem, a phobia. that's P-H-O-B-I-A. First, I'll explain what phobia is and then I'll talk about some theories on why people have phobias. As you probobly know, a phobia is a fear. So do any of you have phobias? Oh,come on, you can tell me, I'm a psychologist. Yes, Monica. (M) I have a fear of swimming. I don't like to go near the ocean. Ok. That's not an usual phobia. Any one else?Ali? (A) I hate dogs. I mean I just unlike them. When I see a big dog, actually any dog, I just get nervous, so I avoid them. OK. that's another common phobia. Thanks for sharing those examples of phobias. A phobia is not a normal fear, it is an extreme fear, a very strong fear. e.g, my brother, who is a sucessful artist, had computer phobia. he didn't simply dislike using computers, he used to have very strong fear of using them. Psychologist just come up with 3
characteristics of a phobia. People display these 3 characterisitics, if they have a phobia, not just a normal fear. Now, first, a phobia is not a rational response. It's a very strong reaction, too strong for the situation. for my brother, this meant he has very strong physical reaction if someone ask him to use a computer. he started shaking violated, had trouble breathing, once he even started choking. Physical recations like this are common. Second, a phobia often last for a long time, for months or even years. In my brother's case, it lasts several years. Third, the reaction is too strong for a person to control. e.g, even my brother told himself to not to be afraid of computer, it didn't help. He still felt very afraid. Usually, people avoid whatever it is they are afraid of. so, in my brother's case, he avioded using a computer. OK, so those are the 3 characteristics of phobias. It's an extreme unrational response, it's long-lasting,and it's uncontrollable. (M) so 'uncontrollable' means even you try to control it, you can't? yes, it means you can't control it by try to deny you fear of phobia. There are ways to treat phobias, and we will talk about it in a minute. Yes! (A) what happened to your brother, did he get over of it? Yes, he did. The main thing was that he decided that he wanted to get over it.and he was treated by a psychologist. now, he uses computers all the time. OK.let's spend a minute going over some classifications of phobias. Phobias are classified by the thing or situation that the person fears. Greek or Latin are usually used to describe the fears. here are examples: Hypno, H-Y-P-N-O means sleep, so, fear of sleep is hypnophobia. cyno, C-Y-N-O means dog, so a fear of dog is cynophobia, right? Here is another example, aerophobia, listen to the first part, aero, what's the fear? aero, as in airplane, aerophobia is fear flying. Let turn out to the causes of phobias. One theory is that phobia is learned. This means something happens that causes someone or in a sence, teach someone to fear afraid. e.g, Ali ,could have learn to be afraid of dogs, if he was attacked or injured by a dog when he was a child. poeple can also learn phobias by watching how other people react. In fact, I just find that phobias tend to run in families. e.g, let's image that Ali's mother has always been afraid of dogs, whenever Ali and his mother were together and so a dog, his mother got very scared, very nervous, when Ali saw how his mother reacted, he would then gradually became very scared, too. He would then, have developed cynophobia from watching his mother. So you can see that there are two ways learning can be involved in phobias. So the 1st theory is that phobia is learned either by directed experiences or by watching the reactions of others. The 2nd theory says that a phobia is only a sign of a deeper problem. This means that the phobia isn't the whole problem. Let's take another example, I once treated a teenage who was very afraid of dark, he couldn't be in a dark room by himself, he was terrified to go outside at night, and so on. According to this theory, when he acted afraid of the dark, he was really showing his fear of sth else. In theopy he reviewed ,he was afraid of his father. His father was very strict was he was young, and once his father made him sit in a dark room when he did sth bad. According to this theory, his fear of dark was a sign of this deeper, real fear of his father. Yes, question. (A)so what did you do? did you talk to his father? Well, no, we couldn't do that. But recongnizing that he was really afraid of his father, and not the dark, was the key-step of the treatment. Now he is cured, no more fear of the dark. Ok,let's think about these 2 theories, and about the main difference between them. The 1st theory says that the phobia is the problem itself, right? And the 2nd theory says the phobia is a sign of deeper problem a person has. Why is the difference important? The most improtant in deciding how to treat the person. According to the 1st theory, if a phobia is learned, perhaps, it can be unlearned. A psychologist who follow this theory would try to teach someone to react differently to behave differently when he or she feels afraid. Changing the person's behavior is the goal. On the other hand, the psychologist who believes the 2nd theory may start by try to teach the person to react differently, but the doctor was interersted in more than that. The
doctor's objective or goal is to help the patient reveal the deeper psychological problem because it will be easier to treat the phobia if the deeper problem is identified and work down as well. I want you to think for a minute, about the significance of having these 2 theories or any competiing thoeries. What is it mean? I t tells us that phychologist like any scitist have to continue to do research to learn and to test treatments we believe to affect based on research. Treatments improve the more we learn.
Unit 4:TV-What we watch?
Good morning. Who watched TV last night? Ha, most of you. OK, today we're going to talk about an important part of the media-TV. Specifically, TV viewing and TV dramas. Now, first, I'll give you some background, then we'll discuss what make this type of programming -dramas so popular worldwide? OK, let's get started. Most of you would agree that watching TV is part of most people's lifes. Now, statistic varies on how much people watch TV, but res
 

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