READING SELECTION A Why Smaller Refrigerators Can Preserve the Human Race By Appletree Rodden [1] Why has this change in size and complexity occurred (appear) in America? It has not taken place (happen) in many areas (parts) of the technologically advanced world (the average West German refrigerator is about a yard high and less than a yard wide, yet refrigeration technology in Germany is quite advanced). Do we really need (or even want) all that space and cold (capacity)? [2] The benefits of a large refrigerator are apparent (obvious): a saving of time (one grocery-shopping trip a week instead of several), a saving of money (the ability to buy expensive, perishable items in larger, cheaper quantities), a feeling of security (if the car breaks down or if famine strikes, the refrigerator is well stocked). The costs are there, too, but they are not so obvious. [3] Cost number one is psychological. Ever since the refrigerator began to grow, food has increasingly become something we buy to store rather than to eat. Few families go to market daily for their daily bread. The manna in the wilderness could be gathered (collected) for only one day at a time. The ancient distaste (hatred) for making food a storage item is echoed (responded) by many modern psychiatrists who suggest (believe) that such psychosomatic disorders as obesity are often due to (because of) the patient's inability to come to terms with the basic transitoriness of life. Research into a relationship between excessive corpulence and the size of one's refrigerator has not been extensive, but we might suspect one (correlation) to be there. [4] Another cost is aesthetic. In most (most part) of Europe, where grocery marketing is still a part of the daily rhythm, one can buy tomatoes, lettuce, and the like picked on the day of purchase. Many European families have modest (smaller) refrigerators for storing small items (eggs, milk, butter) for a couple of days, but the concept (idea) of buying large quantities of food to store in the refrigerator is not widely accepted. Since fresh produce is easily available in Europe, most people buy it daily. Which brings to mind another price the large refrigerator has cost us: the friendly neighborhood market. In America, time is money. A large refrigerator means fewer time-consuming trips to the grocery store. One member of a deep-freeze-owning family can do the grocery shopping once or twice a month rather than daily. Since shopping trips are infrequent, most people have been willing to forego (give up) the amenities (pleasure) of the little store around the corner in favor of the lower prices found in the supermarket. [5] If refrigerators weren't so large -- that is (namely/ i.e.), if grocery marketing were a daily affair -- the "entertainment surcharge of buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate (friendly) setting (environment)" might carry some weight (is meaningful). But as it is (in fact/ actually), there is not really that (so) much difference between eggs bought from Farmer Brown's wife and eggs bought from the supermarket which in turn bought them from Eggs Incorporated, a firm operated out of Los Angeles that produces 200, 000 eggs a day from chickens that are kept in gigantic (huge) warehouses lighted artificially on an eighteen-hour light-and-dark cycle and produce one-and-a-half times as many eggs -- special breed of chickens who die young and insane. Not much difference if you don't mind eating eggs from crazy chickens. (yard chicken) [6] Chalk up (jolt down/ write down) Farmer and Mrs. Brown as cost number four of the big refrigerator. The small farmer can't make it (succeed) in a society dominated by supermarkets and big refrigerators; make way for super farmers, super yields, and pesticides (cost number five). (yard
chicken). [7] Cost number six of the big refrigerator has been the diminution of regional food differences. Of course the homogenization of American fare (market) cannot be blamed solely (only) on the availability of frozen food. Nonetheless, were it (=if it were) not for the trend toward turning regional specialties into frozen dinners (food), it might still be possible to experience novelty (sth. new) closer to home. [8] So much for the disadvantages of the big refrigerator. What about the advantages of the small one? First of all (Above all/ Most important of all), it would help us to "think small", which is what we must learn anyway if the scary (frightening) predictions of the Club of Rome (The Limits of Growth) are true. The advent (arrival) of smaller refrigerators would set the stage for reversing the “big-thinking” trends brought on with the big refrigerator, and would eventually (finally) change our lives. [9] Ivan Illich makes the point in Tools for Conviviality (Happiness) that any tool we use (the automobile, standardized public education, public-health care, the refrigerator) influences the individual, his society, and the relationship between the two. A person's automobile is a part of his identity. The average (ordinary) Volkswagen owner has a variety of characteristics (income, age, occupation) significantly (greatly) different from those (those people) of the average Cadillac owner. American society, with more parking lots than parks, and with gridded (straight) streets rather than winding lanes, would be vastly (great) different without the private automobile. Similar conclusions can be drawn about any of the tools we use. They change us. They (Tools) change our society. Therefore, it behooves (make) us to think well before we decide which tool to use to accomplish a given task. Do we want tools that usurp power unto themselves, the ones called "non-convivial" (unpleasant) by Illich? (achieve a goal/ usurp : rob sb. of sth./ a nation on the wheel) [10] The telephone, a "convivial (pleasant) tool", has remained under control; it has not impinged (influenced) itself on society or on the individual. Each year it has become more efficient, and it has not prevented other forms of communication (letter writing, visits). The world might be poorer without the telephone, but it would not be grossly (greatly) different. Telephones do not pollute, are not status symbols, and interact only slightly (if at all) with one's self-image. (showy) [11] So what about the refrigerator? Or back to the more basic problem to which the refrigerator was a partial answer: what about our supply of food? When did we decide to convert the emotion-laden (loaded) threat of starvation from a shared community problem (of societal structure: farm-market-home) to a personal one (of storage)? How did we decide to accept a thawed block taken from a supermarket's freezer as a substitute for the voluptuous (colorful) shapes, smells, and textures of fresh fruits and vegetables obtained from complex individual sources? [12] The decision for larger refrigerators has been consistent with a change in food-supply routes from highly diversified "trails" (from small farms to neighborhood markets) to uniform, standardized highways (from large farms to centrally located supermarkets). Desirable meals are quick and easy rather than rich and leisurely. Culinary artistry (cooking) has given way to efficiency, the efficiency of the big refrigerator. [13] People have a natural propensity (tendency) for running (turning) good things into the ground (ordinary). Mass production has been a boon (gift) to mankind, but its reliance on homogeneity precludes its being a paradigm (example/ a case in point) for all areas of human life. Our forebears (forefathers) and contemporaries have made it possible to mass-produce almost anything. An equally challenging task now lies with (facing us) us: to choose which things of this
world should be mass-produced, and how the standards of mass production should influence other standards (values) we hold dear (value). [14] Should houses be mass-produced? Should education? Should food? Which brings us back to refrigerators? How does one (anyone/ anybody) decide how large a refrigerator to buy, considering one's life, one's society, and the world, and not simply the question of food storage? [15] As (when) similar questions are asked about more and more of the things we mass-produce, mass production will become less of a problem and more of a blessing (gift). As cost begins to be measured not only in dollars spent and minutes saved, but in total richness acquired, perhaps smaller refrigerators will again make good sense (meaningful). A small step backward along some of the roads of "technological progress" might be a large step forward for mankind, and one (step) our age (era) is uniquely qualified to make. (1, 252 words) ABOUT THE AUTHOR Appletree Rodden has danced with the Staatstheatre Ballet Company and was at one time a biochemical researcher at Stanford University. His essay here, first published in Harper's in 1975, asks us to consider whether "bigger and more necessarily means better when it comes to (as far as sth. is concerned) technology". Once, long ago, people had special little boxes called refrigerators in which milk, meat, and eggs could be kept cool. The grandchildren of these simple devices are large enough to store whole cows, and they reach temperatures comparable to those at the South Pole. Their operating costs increase each year, and they are so complicated that few home handymen attempt (try) to repair them on their own (independently). EXERCISES I. Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions or complete the following statements.
  1. The writer suspects that there is a correlation between . A. obesity and the size of a refrigerator B. transitoriness of life and obesity C. psychosomatic disorders and corpulence D. inability and excessive corpulence
  2. Many European families have modest refrigerators because . A. small refrigerators save space B. fresh produce is easily available C. their daily rhythm is quite fast D. they love daily shopping
  3. By saying "entertainment surcharge of buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate setting", the author means "buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate setting . A. costs more B. is inconvenient C. offers extra pleasure D. is important
  4. Who is Mrs. Brown mentioned in the text? A. A brand name of a well-known refrigerator. B. A name of a chain supermarket. C. One who likes daily shopping. D. A general name for the small farmer's wife.
  5. The author of this article believes that availability of frozen food is . A. nonetheless the trend toward diminution of regional food differences B. a major but not the only cause of homogenization of American fare C. hardly influential on turning regional specialties into frozen dinners D. possibly good for experiencing novelty closer to home
  6. Ivan Illich makes the point in Tools for Conviviality that .
A. owners of Cadillac are much richer than owners of Volkswagen B. American society would be very different with winding lanes C. the tools used by mankind exerts influence on man and its society D. there is an interactive relationship between tools and mankind
  7. What will big refrigerators do to the art of cooking according to the text? A. Cooking will be easier and more leisurely. B. The art of cooking will be more of a personal problem. C. Fast food will soon dominate our supply of food. D. Cooking will be fast, and food will be the same.
  8. What does the author think about mass production? A. Mass production is both beneficial and challenging. B. Mass production should not be encouraged. C. Mass production should be applied to all areas of human life. D. Mass production is supposed to determine the size of refrigerators.
  9. The cost of refrigerators is supposed to be measured not only by time saved and money spent, but also by . A. the amount of blessing given B. the good sense gained C. the total richness acquired D. technological progress
  10. The author suggests by the last sentence of this text that . A. degradation of mankind is often caused by technological progress B. progress for mankind is determined by technological progress C. technological progress results in progress for mankind D. setbacks in technology facilitates human progress II . Vocabulary Choose the hest word from the four choices to complete each of the following sentences.
  1. The disorder of his life: the succession of cities, of loves, inevitably led to his worsening psychosomatic problems. A. transitional B. transiting C. transitory(adj.) D. (in)transitive
  2. They are told not to store apples in the refrigerator because fresh fruit like (such as) apples are . A. perishable B. destructive C. scary (scar/ scare/ scarce) D. vanishing(vi.)
  3. The providers claim that they have the right to make a for delivering the goods outside of the city limits. A. substitute(n./ vt.) B. proposition C. benefit (sb./ ~from sth.) D. surcharge
  4. Mr. Bint has a to put off decision to (postpone sth. untill sometime) the last minute. A. propensity (tendency) B. probability C. complexity D. consistency
  5. A constitutional amendment any president from serving more than two terms, with only one exception during World War II. A. precludes B. usurps(rob sb. of sth./ deprive sb. of sth./ deny sb. sth.) C. resists D. defies (disobey)
  6. And with the of television, the cinema chains virtually (actually) abandoned the b-movies overnight.
A. diversity B. advent (arriv



   READING SELECTION A A Case ( reason) for (against) Male Dishwashing By Page Smith female a case (reason) for sth.<->a case against sth. [1] Recently there has been a great whooping and hollering (noisy argument) over (about) the diminished di ...

捷进大学英语阅读教程2 译文

   捷进大学英语阅读教程 2 译文 Chapter 1 教育:社会的反思 探访学校, 在世界任何地方, 你可能会注意到若干相似之处。 学生, 教师,课本,黑板和考试无处不在。然而,在任何其他国家相比一个国 家的学校制度是不同于别的的系统。它不能完全一样的,因为每个文化 是不同的。教育系统是一面镜子,反映文化。看看学校系统,你将看到 的社会结构及其文化价值。 墨西哥 在墨西哥,教育系统反映了国家的许多方面。相信国家能够通过教 育实现人人平等的权利。墨西哥的教育系统的基础是国家的宪法,并于 1917 ...

大学英语 阅读教程5 unit 1

   阅读教程5 大学英语 阅读教程 COLLEGE ENGLISH READING COURSE 5 授课教师:曾艳玲 Lynn Introduction What is the aim or objective of this course(5)? Studying plan? What are the requirements? Aims 1) to improve your English proficiency; 2) to acquire a general understanding ...


   小学英语阅读能力习惯培养练习方法技巧英语阅读教材教程 《英语课程标准》分级目标中提到,小学 3、4 年级完成一级目标,5、6 年级完成二级目标,学 习有关本级话题范围的 600-700 个单词和 50 个左右的习惯用语。我们老师都知道,在当前日新月 异的知识时代,就这些根本无法满足孩子平常的读书看报、上网浏览等拓宽视野的活动,在孩子 的阅读中,我们应该从哪些方面、怎样施以引导和帮助呢? 阅读一是要读得懂,二是要读得快,读而不懂不行,懂而太慢也不行,作为阅读的基本要求,如 何才能帮助我们的学生 ...


   《科技英语阅读》教案 科技英语阅读》 ( 一 )Unit 1 教学内容: 教学内容: 1. Introduction 2 . Passage A Cyberspace: If You Don’t Love It, Leave It Key Words: 1) cyberspace 2) Hanker 3) moderator 4) Prodigy 5) Echo 6) Kid-fun 7) Kid-link 8) Kids’Space 3. Exercises 教学要求: 教学要求: 了解信 ...


   浅谈小学英语阅读教学 来源:中 国 论 文 下 载 中 心 [ 08-11-19 16:07:00 ] 作者:彭 铮 编辑:studa0714 摘要:进行英语教学可以巩固和扩大学生的词汇量,培养学生的语感,是学生学习语言和感 受语言的重要途径。 在小学阶段进行阅读教学是应该针对小学生的心理特点和认知规律, 以 年段划分,分别开展拼读、认读、朗读和初步的阅读训练。 关键词:教学目的;教学模式;教学策略;教学渠道 根据英语新课程标准, 小学阶段开设英语课程的目的是培养学生学习英语的积极情感, 形 ...


   浅谈初中英语阅读教学 【内容摘要】 在初中英语教学中,对阅读课教学研究得较浅,远不如高中 阅读课教学的研究和运用。在新课程理念下,英语阅读教学的研究、学生 阅读量增加、阅读兴趣、阅读技能的培养的意义已超出为了学生考试的意 义。激发学生的阅读兴趣、提高学生的阅读水平对激发学生的英语学习兴 趣、提高学生的英语水平有着积极的现实意义。本篇论文提出了研究的问 题,探讨解决的策略,并结合日常教学实践创造性地加强了“问题情景教 学法”研究。以“问题”的形式,以“情景”的方式,引导学生参与、体 验英语阅读 ...


   高中英语阅读教学论文- 浅谈高中学生英语阅读能力的问卷调查与思考 近年来,高考越来越注重对于阅读能力的测试,表现在阅读量的加大,难度 的增加,以及综合性的试题逐渐增多等方面。 对于考生阅读能力的要求越来越高, 加大阅读能力的培养势在必行。 提高阅读能力不是一朝一夕的事情,需要遵照一 定的规律,循序渐进,不能急于求成,否则,容易挫伤学生的积极性。而找到制约学 生阅读能力提高的症结所在,找到提高学生阅读能力的切入口又是我们阅读教 学重中之重。 一、学生阅读能力的问卷情况 学生的需求是能够进行有效 ...


   拓展高中英语阅读教学初探 没有公告 加入收藏 设为首页 联系站长 | 网站首页 | 新闻动态 | 科组概况 | 教学研究 | 教学常规 | 教学资源 | 英语天地 | 学生园地 | 图片中心 | 软件下载 | | 教学研究首页 | 教研动态 | 教学论文 ...


   小学英语阅读教学的 小学英语阅读教学的一些思考 蔡红雨 一、思考的原因 思考的 1.社会背景 这个世纪是知识经济的时代,是信息的时代。英语是传输信息的重要工具之一。一个 人英语阅读能力的高低,往往决定了他吸收有用的信息的数量和质量。所以,从小培养学 生的英语阅读能力具有重大的意义。 2.学习背景 国家英语课程标准规定到小学毕业能看懂英文动画片和程度相当的英语节目,每学年 不少于 10 小时(平均每周 20-25 分钟),掌握 600-700 个单词和 50 个左右的习惯用语; 二期课改更是规 ...


英汉翻译实用教程第7讲 商务英语语篇的特点及其翻译要点

   英 汉 翻 译 实 用 教 程 第 七 讲 商务英语语篇的特点及其翻译要点 20102010-8-17 1 7.1商务英语语篇的文体特点 7.1 7.1.1 词汇的使用特点 首先,商务英语在进行一般叙述时多使用 日常用词,但涉及商贸活动时则大量使用 专业词汇和具有商务含义的准商贸术语。 商务语言在词汇使用上的最大特点就是对 专业词汇的精确使用,因此其中含有大量 专业具有商务含义的普通词(或复合词)以 及缩略词,这些专业语汇需要通过专业学 习才能掌握。 20102010-8-17 2 例如 ...


   《英语阅读》课程教学大纲 英语阅读》 课程编码:30613008 学分:4 学分 总学时:72 学时 说 明 【课程性质】 课程性质】 英语阅读是英语专业的专业必修课程。 教学目的】 【教学目的】 教学目的在于培养学生的英语阅读能力和提高学生的阅读速度; 强化学生的阅读技能训 练,帮助学生扩大词汇量、吸收语言和文化的知识。 教学任务】 【教学任务】 本课程以实践为主,通过课上引导以及课下进行大量的阅读练习来加快学生的阅读速 度,提高他们的阅读质量,使其掌握阅读技巧,发展阅读能力,以达到满意的 ...

专业英语unit 13 化学工程中的单元操作

   化学工程与工艺专业英语 第十三单元 化学工程中的单元操作 Unit 13 Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering 第十三单元 化学工程中的单元操作 化学工程由不同顺序的步骤组成,这些步骤的原理与被操作的物 料以及该特殊体系的其他特征无关。在设计一个过程中,如果(研究) 步骤得到认可,那么所用每一步骤可以分别进行研究。有些步骤为化 学反应,而其他步骤为物理变化。化学工程的可变通性(versatility) 源于将一复杂过程的分解为单个的物理步骤(叫做单元 ...


   法律英语的语法及其翻译: 四 . 法律英语的语法及其翻译:转换 conversion 1 1.英语主语的转换 1.英语主语的转换 I. 英语主语转换为汉语谓语 1. 1.Complaints were frequent, especially from those who had seven minutes watching passengers with just hand baggage get out immediately. 2. 不断有人抱怨.有些乘客在7分钟的等待中,眼 看着只携 ...


   免费外教在线一对一英语口语 商务英语口语 900 句 免费外教在线一对一英语口语 Unit One 希望与要求 1 We'd like to express our desire to establish business relations with you on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and the exchange o ...