READING SELECTION A Why Smaller Refrigerators Can Preserve the Human Race By Appletree Rodden [1] Why has this change in size and complexity occurred (appear) in America? It has not taken place (happen) in many areas (parts) of the technologically advanced world (the average West German refrigerator is about a yard high and less than a yard wide, yet refrigeration technology in Germany is quite advanced). Do we really need (or even want) all that space and cold (capacity)? [2] The benefits of a large refrigerator are apparent (obvious): a saving of time (one grocery-shopping trip a week instead of several), a saving of money (the ability to buy expensive, perishable items in larger, cheaper quantities), a feeling of security (if the car breaks down or if famine strikes, the refrigerator is well stocked). The costs are there, too, but they are not so obvious. [3] Cost number one is psychological. Ever since the refrigerator began to grow, food has increasingly become something we buy to store rather than to eat. Few families go to market daily for their daily bread. The manna in the wilderness could be gathered (collected) for only one day at a time. The ancient distaste (hatred) for making food a storage item is echoed (responded) by many modern psychiatrists who suggest (believe) that such psychosomatic disorders as obesity are often due to (because of) the patient's inability to come to terms with the basic transitoriness of life. Research into a relationship between excessive corpulence and the size of one's refrigerator has not been extensive, but we might suspect one (correlation) to be there. [4] Another cost is aesthetic. In most (most part) of Europe, where grocery marketing is still a part of the daily rhythm, one can buy tomatoes, lettuce, and the like picked on the day of purchase. Many European families have modest (smaller) refrigerators for storing small items (eggs, milk, butter) for a couple of days, but the concept (idea) of buying large quantities of food to store in the refrigerator is not widely accepted. Since fresh produce is easily available in Europe, most people buy it daily. Which brings to mind another price the large refrigerator has cost us: the friendly neighborhood market. In America, time is money. A large refrigerator means fewer time-consuming trips to the grocery store. One member of a deep-freeze-owning family can do the grocery shopping once or twice a month rather than daily. Since shopping trips are infrequent, most people have been willing to forego (give up) the amenities (pleasure) of the little store around the corner in favor of the lower prices found in the supermarket. [5] If refrigerators weren't so large -- that is (namely/ i.e.), if grocery marketing were a daily affair -- the "entertainment surcharge of buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate (friendly) setting (environment)" might carry some weight (is meaningful). But as it is (in fact/ actually), there is not really that (so) much difference between eggs bought from Farmer Brown's wife and eggs bought from the supermarket which in turn bought them from Eggs Incorporated, a firm operated out of Los Angeles that produces 200, 000 eggs a day from chickens that are kept in gigantic (huge) warehouses lighted artificially on an eighteen-hour light-and-dark cycle and produce one-and-a-half times as many eggs -- special breed of chickens who die young and insane. Not much difference if you don't mind eating eggs from crazy chickens. (yard chicken) [6] Chalk up (jolt down/ write down) Farmer and Mrs. Brown as cost number four of the big refrigerator. The small farmer can't make it (succeed) in a society dominated by supermarkets and big refrigerators; make way for super farmers, super yields, and pesticides (cost number five). (yard
chicken). [7] Cost number six of the big refrigerator has been the diminution of regional food differences. Of course the homogenization of American fare (market) cannot be blamed solely (only) on the availability of frozen food. Nonetheless, were it (=if it were) not for the trend toward turning regional specialties into frozen dinners (food), it might still be possible to experience novelty (sth. new) closer to home. [8] So much for the disadvantages of the big refrigerator. What about the advantages of the small one? First of all (Above all/ Most important of all), it would help us to "think small", which is what we must learn anyway if the scary (frightening) predictions of the Club of Rome (The Limits of Growth) are true. The advent (arrival) of smaller refrigerators would set the stage for reversing the “big-thinking” trends brought on with the big refrigerator, and would eventually (finally) change our lives. [9] Ivan Illich makes the point in Tools for Conviviality (Happiness) that any tool we use (the automobile, standardized public education, public-health care, the refrigerator) influences the individual, his society, and the relationship between the two. A person's automobile is a part of his identity. The average (ordinary) Volkswagen owner has a variety of characteristics (income, age, occupation) significantly (greatly) different from those (those people) of the average Cadillac owner. American society, with more parking lots than parks, and with gridded (straight) streets rather than winding lanes, would be vastly (great) different without the private automobile. Similar conclusions can be drawn about any of the tools we use. They change us. They (Tools) change our society. Therefore, it behooves (make) us to think well before we decide which tool to use to accomplish a given task. Do we want tools that usurp power unto themselves, the ones called "non-convivial" (unpleasant) by Illich? (achieve a goal/ usurp : rob sb. of sth./ a nation on the wheel) [10] The telephone, a "convivial (pleasant) tool", has remained under control; it has not impinged (influenced) itself on society or on the individual. Each year it has become more efficient, and it has not prevented other forms of communication (letter writing, visits). The world might be poorer without the telephone, but it would not be grossly (greatly) different. Telephones do not pollute, are not status symbols, and interact only slightly (if at all) with one's self-image. (showy) [11] So what about the refrigerator? Or back to the more basic problem to which the refrigerator was a partial answer: what about our supply of food? When did we decide to convert the emotion-laden (loaded) threat of starvation from a shared community problem (of societal structure: farm-market-home) to a personal one (of storage)? How did we decide to accept a thawed block taken from a supermarket's freezer as a substitute for the voluptuous (colorful) shapes, smells, and textures of fresh fruits and vegetables obtained from complex individual sources? [12] The decision for larger refrigerators has been consistent with a change in food-supply routes from highly diversified "trails" (from small farms to neighborhood markets) to uniform, standardized highways (from large farms to centrally located supermarkets). Desirable meals are quick and easy rather than rich and leisurely. Culinary artistry (cooking) has given way to efficiency, the efficiency of the big refrigerator. [13] People have a natural propensity (tendency) for running (turning) good things into the ground (ordinary). Mass production has been a boon (gift) to mankind, but its reliance on homogeneity precludes its being a paradigm (example/ a case in point) for all areas of human life. Our forebears (forefathers) and contemporaries have made it possible to mass-produce almost anything. An equally challenging task now lies with (facing us) us: to choose which things of this
world should be mass-produced, and how the standards of mass production should influence other standards (values) we hold dear (value). [14] Should houses be mass-produced? Should education? Should food? Which brings us back to refrigerators? How does one (anyone/ anybody) decide how large a refrigerator to buy, considering one's life, one's society, and the world, and not simply the question of food storage? [15] As (when) similar questions are asked about more and more of the things we mass-produce, mass production will become less of a problem and more of a blessing (gift). As cost begins to be measured not only in dollars spent and minutes saved, but in total richness acquired, perhaps smaller refrigerators will again make good sense (meaningful). A small step backward along some of the roads of "technological progress" might be a large step forward for mankind, and one (step) our age (era) is uniquely qualified to make. (1, 252 words) ABOUT THE AUTHOR Appletree Rodden has danced with the Staatstheatre Ballet Company and was at one time a biochemical researcher at Stanford University. His essay here, first published in Harper's in 1975, asks us to consider whether "bigger and more necessarily means better when it comes to (as far as sth. is concerned) technology". Once, long ago, people had special little boxes called refrigerators in which milk, meat, and eggs could be kept cool. The grandchildren of these simple devices are large enough to store whole cows, and they reach temperatures comparable to those at the South Pole. Their operating costs increase each year, and they are so complicated that few home handymen attempt (try) to repair them on their own (independently). EXERCISES I. Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions or complete the following statements.
  1. The writer suspects that there is a correlation between . A. obesity and the size of a refrigerator B. transitoriness of life and obesity C. psychosomatic disorders and corpulence D. inability and excessive corpulence
  2. Many European families have modest refrigerators because . A. small refrigerators save space B. fresh produce is easily available C. their daily rhythm is quite fast D. they love daily shopping
  3. By saying "entertainment surcharge of buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate setting", the author means "buying farm-fresh food in a smaller, more intimate setting . A. costs more B. is inconvenient C. offers extra pleasure D. is important
  4. Who is Mrs. Brown mentioned in the text? A. A brand name of a well-known refrigerator. B. A name of a chain supermarket. C. One who likes daily shopping. D. A general name for the small farmer's wife.
  5. The author of this article believes that availability of frozen food is . A. nonetheless the trend toward diminution of regional food differences B. a major but not the only cause of homogenization of American fare C. hardly influential on turning regional specialties into frozen dinners D. possibly good for experiencing novelty closer to home
  6. Ivan Illich makes the point in Tools for Conviviality that .
A. owners of Cadillac are much richer than owners of Volkswagen B. American society would be very different with winding lanes C. the tools used by mankind exerts influence on man and its society D. there is an interactive relationship between tools and mankind
  7. What will big refrigerators do to the art of cooking according to the text? A. Cooking will be easier and more leisurely. B. The art of cooking will be more of a personal problem. C. Fast food will soon dominate our supply of food. D. Cooking will be fast, and food will be the same.
  8. What does the author think about mass production? A. Mass production is both beneficial and challenging. B. Mass production should not be encouraged. C. Mass production should be applied to all areas of human life. D. Mass production is supposed to determine the size of refrigerators.
  9. The cost of refrigerators is supposed to be measured not only by time saved and money spent, but also by . A. the amount of blessing given B. the good sense gained C. the total richness acquired D. technological progress
  10. The author suggests by the last sentence of this text that . A. degradation of mankind is often caused by technological progress B. progress for mankind is determined by technological progress C. technological progress results in progress for mankind D. setbacks in technology facilitates human progress II . Vocabulary Choose the hest word from the four choices to complete each of the following sentences.
  1. The disorder of his life: the succession of cities, of loves, inevitably led to his worsening psychosomatic problems. A. transitional B. transiting C. transitory(adj.) D. (in)transitive
  2. They are told not to store apples in the refrigerator because fresh fruit like (such as) apples are . A. perishable B. destructive C. scary (scar/ scare/ scarce) D. vanishing(vi.)
  3. The providers claim that they have the right to make a for delivering the goods outside of the city limits. A. substitute(n./ vt.) B. proposition C. benefit (sb./ ~from sth.) D. surcharge
  4. Mr. Bint has a to put off decision to (postpone sth. untill sometime) the last minute. A. propensity (tendency) B. probability C. complexity D. consistency
  5. A constitutional amendment any president from serving more than two terms, with only one exception during World War II. A. precludes B. usurps(rob sb. of sth./ deprive sb. of sth./ deny sb. sth.) C. resists D. defies (disobey)
  6. And with the of television, the cinema chains virtually (actually) abandoned the b-movies overnight.
A. diversity B. advent (arriv



   READING SELECTION A American Values at the Crossroads [1] Faced with the rapid change and the fear and uncertainty that go with it, individuals (citizens) as well as (and) nation sometimes seek to return to the ways of the past as a solution. In th ...


   READING SELECTION A A Case ( reason) for (against) Male Dishwashing By Page Smith female a case (reason) for sth.<->a case against sth. [1] Recently there has been a great whooping and hollering (noisy argument) over (about) the diminished di ...


   READING SELECTION A Science and Technology By Judith Raughman (Editor) [1] Optimism and empowerment. As the century drew to a close, the potential for human invention and understanding appeared boundless. Scientific understanding expanded daily, fr ...


   READING SELECTION A The New School Choice/ option By Mary Lord [1] When a form letter from the school district arrived earlier this summer, Terri Wooten, PTA president at Parklane Elementary School in East Point, Ga., did what any busy, single moth ...


   小学英语阅读能力习惯培养练习方法技巧英语阅读教材教程 《英语课程标准》分级目标中提到,小学 3、4 年级完成一级目标,5、6 年级完成二级目标,学 习有关本级话题范围的 600-700 个单词和 50 个左右的习惯用语。我们老师都知道,在当前日新月 异的知识时代,就这些根本无法满足孩子平常的读书看报、上网浏览等拓宽视野的活动,在孩子 的阅读中,我们应该从哪些方面、怎样施以引导和帮助呢? 阅读一是要读得懂,二是要读得快,读而不懂不行,懂而太慢也不行,作为阅读的基本要求,如 何才能帮助我们的学生 ...


   《科技英语阅读》教案 科技英语阅读》 ( 一 )Unit 1 教学内容: 教学内容: 1. Introduction 2 . Passage A Cyberspace: If You Don’t Love It, Leave It Key Words: 1) cyberspace 2) Hanker 3) moderator 4) Prodigy 5) Echo 6) Kid-fun 7) Kid-link 8) Kids’Space 3. Exercises 教学要求: 教学要求: 了解信 ...


   浅谈初中英语阅读教学 【内容摘要】 在初中英语教学中,对阅读课教学研究得较浅,远不如高中 阅读课教学的研究和运用。在新课程理念下,英语阅读教学的研究、学生 阅读量增加、阅读兴趣、阅读技能的培养的意义已超出为了学生考试的意 义。激发学生的阅读兴趣、提高学生的阅读水平对激发学生的英语学习兴 趣、提高学生的英语水平有着积极的现实意义。本篇论文提出了研究的问 题,探讨解决的策略,并结合日常教学实践创造性地加强了“问题情景教 学法”研究。以“问题”的形式,以“情景”的方式,引导学生参与、体 验英语阅读 ...


   初中英语阅读教学论文 摘要:本文针对学生在英语阅读中存在的问题, 摘要:本文针对学生在英语阅读中存在的问题,根据新课标要求阐述 英语阅读中存在的问题 教师如何真正意义上做到科学有效地引导。 教师如何真正意义上做到科学有效地引导。 科学有效地引导 英语阅读作为语言技能的重要组成部分,作为语言输入的主要环节之 一,在英语教学中占有重要地位。培养学生的阅读能力是主要教学目 标之一,而在平时的教学过程中,我们会发现,阅读是很让学生头疼的 问题。很多学生的阅读兴趣不高,动力不足,方法不当。认真探究其中 ...


   高中英语阅读教学之我见 高中英语阅读教学之我见 在社会高速发展的今天,技能教育和素质教育两大板块 的要求越来越重要。高中英语教育也应紧密跟上这一要求, 中学英语教学涉及到学习者的听、说、读、写,也牵动着学 习者的注意力、观察力、毅力及兴趣、动机、情感等众多心 理素质和思想道德、艺术审美等社会文化素质。 教育是以 学生为本的。素质教育正是以人为本, 把学生作为教育的主 体, 以激发学生的主体意识为主旨, 使学生成为积极主动 和富有创造性的学习的主人, 从而全面有效地发展学生素 质。那么,在高中 ...


   拓展高中英语阅读教学初探 没有公告 加入收藏 设为首页 联系站长 | 网站首页 | 新闻动态 | 科组概况 | 教学研究 | 教学常规 | 教学资源 | 英语天地 | 学生园地 | 图片中心 | 软件下载 | | 教学研究首页 | 教研动态 | 教学论文 ...



   英语应用能力考试、 英语应用能力考试、计算机水平 考试报名和考务工作流程图 从教务处网站下载专区获取各系、部 报名模板 由各班班长负责汇总报名信息, 按要求输入报名数据 由各班班长负责汇总 报名费,存入指定帐户 各班班长将报名数据和存款回执单 交予班级所在系、部教学秘书处 各系、部教学秘书审核汇总报名 数据后,与存款回执单、报名费 统计表一并呈交教务处学籍考务科 由各班班长到班级所在系、部领取 考生信息校对单,并组织同学校对 无 有 由学生本人携带核对单 到学籍考务科修改信息 考生信息核对单 ...

七年级英语上册 units5重、难点剖析 人教新目标版

   新目标英语七年级上册重 难点剖析 新目标英语七年级上册重、难点剖析(Unit 5) 七年级上册 Unit 5 Do you have a soccer ball? 1.?Do you have a ping-pong ball? 你有乒乓球吗? ?Yes, I do. (P25) 是的,我有。 动词 have 意为“有” ,表示拥有关系,有人称和数的变化,当主语是 I, we, you, they 或名词复数时,就与 have 搭配。如: My parents have a computer ...


   常用英语句型 1.I don’t think it will lead to a good result.我认为这事不会有什么好结果。 2.It took him a little time to fix that watch. 他很快就把表修理好了。 3.My father is at home looking for the ticket. 我爸爸正在家里找票呢! 4.I didn’t have an inkling about it. 我对此一无所知。 5.The sight of t ...


   嘉兴英语教学网 收集整理 欢迎使用 绝密★ 绝密★启封并使用完毕前 2010 高考真题精品解析 英语(湖南卷) 高考真题精品解析--英语 湖南卷) 英语( 【名师点评】 整套试卷突出了语言运用能力的考查.其中语言知识部分,15 道单项选择 题侧重动词和句法;动词方面,考查了动词时态,语态,语气,主谓一致,非谓 语动词,情态动词,可谓是涉及了动词方方面面的语法知识.句法方面,考查了 强调句型,定语从句,状语从句和名词性从句,考查面也很广.完形填空第一节 全部 ...

经典双语文章汇总 青岛英语培训学校

   经典双语美文 (一)那些经典而温暖的话 1.Life is a profound book. Other's notes cannot replace your own understanding. May you find and create something new in it. 生活是一本精深的书,别人的注释代替不了自己的理解。愿你有所发现,有所创 造。 2.Oh, my friend, do you like stars? If you feel lonely far away ...