Essay Writing

  4.1 Descriptive Essays
  4.2 Example/fact Essays
  4.3 Classification Essays
  4.4 Comparison/ Contrast Essays
  4.5 Process Essays
  4.6 Cause-Effect Essays
  4.7 Argumentative/ Persuasive Essays

  4.1 Descriptive Essays
?Definition??describe persons, things, places, incidents and so on with enough details to obtain a mind picture of them. ?Features?? ?
  1. worthwhile to describe ?
  2.create a dominant impression ?
  3.create a clear pattern of organization ?
Patterns of descriptive essays
? I Introduction ? A. Objective: Why you describe the item ? B. What you want to describedominant impression ? II. Body ? A. Physical characteristics of the item sense like: size, shape, material, taste, feel, ? smell, sound, etc. ? ? B. Descriptive order III. Conclusion A. Overall explanation of the dominant impression B. emphasize the importance of the item description ? ?
Descriptive order
?Spatial order ?Chronological order
Spatial order
? This technique is often used to write a narrative composition or a descriptive composition. The best way is to locate a point then start from that point and make the description, or to begin with a primary characteristic and builds upon it.
How to develop
  1.establish a dominant impression ?
  2.arrange the details in spatial order ?
  3.make the description vivid ? Dominant impression
?My dormitory room, on the second floor of the students’ Building No.5 is small and crowded. ?What makes the centre park my favorite is that it is around the water and in some places you can overlook the water. ?The trip to Hong Kong is one of the world’s outstanding but least expensive journeys.
spatial order
? to bottom ?
  2.right to left ? to periphery ?
  4.exterior to interior ?
  5.near to far
top to bottom
? On the south wall of Susan’s living room stands a large oak bookcase. On the top shelf of bookcase are dictionaries and reference books that she use in her schoolwork. On the second shelf, there are picture albums that contain photos of Susan’s family and friends. On the bottom shelf are record albums that she has collected over the years.
right to left
? Looking out of my hotel window, on my right, a few yards away, I can see a majestic castle. It is situated on the east river bank and surrounded by trees. To the left, about a mile down the road on the top of a small hill there is a church rising high above all enclosing hills. The rolling hills, intersected by the distant village, go right to the north.
center to periphery
Can you tell between center and periphery
?Oxford is an exceptionally old university town on the River Thames, Oxford’s center is the university. And all around the crossroads at the very heart of Oxford, there are gray stone Colleges and other university buildings.In the center you can find interesting old pubs and paved passages. As you leave the centre and go towards the outskirts of Oxford you can see industrial states and car factories in all directions
Oxford is an exceptionally old university town on the River Thames, Oxford’s center is the university. And all around the crossroads at the very heart of Oxford, there are gray stone Colleges and other university buildings.In the center you can find interesting old pubs and paved passages. As you leave the centre and go towards the outskirts of
exterior to interior
? It was undoubtedly the most beautiful property in the area. The building was of white stucco(泥灰), very Spanish in feeling, and beautifully designed and built. Inside the building, the floors were of white marble, as were some of the walls; the rooms were filled with distinctive antique pieces of Mexican origin and many paintings, and eye-catching accessories and lamps.
near to far
? The garret was a shadowy, suggestive, delightful place. Though the open window blew the sweet-scented, sun- warm air of the August afternoon; outside, poplar(白 杨) boughs rustled and tossed in the wind; beyond them were the old apple orchard which still bore its rosy harvests. Still further beyond was glimpsed a distant, white-capped, blue seathe beautiful St. Lawrence Gulf.
make the description vivid
  1.using sensory words(invite to see , smell taste, touch, and hear) ? The dark green walls and dirty smoked ceiling make the room seem dark and thus even smaller than it is. The two large windows over the bed are dimmed by heavy and dusty curtains.
make the description vivid
  2. using figurative of speech ? The other houses of the street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown gloomy faces. (Personification) ?After a breathless rush to the station, I found my train crammed like sardines. (simile)
?My Living Room ?The Most Crowded Bus I’ve Taken ?The Centre Park of NEU ?Any Place That Attracts Me
Chronological Ordering
? This method is often used in narrative composition or expository composition. In telling a story or recounting(详述) an event, the easiest and clearest way is to describe things in the order of time.
Key s to write a good story
  1. Dominant impression
  2.setting of the story with a time order ? When/ where/ who/ what ?
  3.plot of the story (how) ? beginningconflict raised with suspension ? middleconflict intensified with suspension ? endclimax and resolution ? Read the following story and analyze the setting and plot of the story. ?
My Tenth Birthday Present My most memorable birthday was when I turned ten. It took place in Ethiopia, my homeland, in the city of Debrizet, where I was born. Several weeks earlier, my morn had gone to the ? market to buy a jar of honey. When she got home, she told my sister and me not to touch the honey because it was for a special occasion. Then she put the honey in a box with a lock on it, where she kept all the other spices for cooking. I loved sweets so much that I did not listen to my ? morn and, whenever she went to the market, I would sneak some honey I would unscrew the screws that held the lock to the box with a screwdriver, take a couple of spoonfuls of honey, then put the screws back and lock it. I did this every time my mom went to the market. ?
Then, one day Mother opened the box to get some honey to make honey bread for a special occasion, which was my tenth birthday. I was playing outside when my morn came out to tell me to please come into the house, go to the bedroom, and close the windows. As I finished, she came into the bedroom and ? closed the bedroom door, She had a whip in one hand and a rope in the other hand. She asked me, “Who ate all the honey?” I said that I didn’t know. She said, “You sure do,” and she held both my hands and tied them with the rope. Then she tied my legs and proceeded to whip me. I started crying and screaming so loudly that the neighbors came and asked my mom to have mercy on me. But she did not listen. She kept beating me until I could not cry or scream any more. She said, “This is what happens to people who steal, and this is your lesson for your birthday,.” Because of this experience, I feel that my tenth ? birthday was my most memorable birthday, ?
Principles of descriptive essays
? Objective description focuses on factual details with or ? without some personal opinions ? ? Impressionistic/ subjective description reflects the thoughts, feelings, mood ? of the writer. ? ? Mixture of the objective and subjective description balance factual details with the power of f emotional ? impressions. Such descriptions are effective in appealing to a mass audience. ? Find out the two kinds of descriptions on Page 64-65 respectively and make some comments ? ? ?
  1) Use concrete images and ideas to describe something ?
  2) Describe something significant or meaningful ?
  3) Use all of your senses in the description and not just sight ?
  4) Avoid colorless fuzzy adjectives, like good, fun, tall, fast, short, beautiful, ugly, light, rough, hard, kind, angry, friendly, and other non-descriptive adjectives. And try to tell how fun, tall, fast, etc. in details. ?
  5) In your conclusion, say something that will tie your reader into our description, or say how the thing you are describing has changed your life in some way.
  1)A hospital waiting room ?(
  2) A person I admire ?(
  3) A shopping mall ?(
  4) The first police officer who arrived at an accident scene ?(
  5) The crowd at a recent concert ?(
  6) The most moving or most disappointing place you have visited
Essay Development by Examples and Facts
Definition ?Purpose ?How to Develop an Essay by Examples
?The example is a series of facts, statistics and testimony quoted to prove the point of an essay. Examples may be single words, phrases, brief stories, extended story, hypothetical story, statistics and testimony from a paragraph to a whole essay in length.
? Example: a specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like to make the essay vivid and clear. Brief example ? Extended example ? Hypothetical example ? ? Statistics: Numerical data to clarify or strengthen a writer’s points. Representative ? Reliable ? Persuasive and convincing ? ? Testimony: proofs, quotations, expertise, experience and other personal insight to a point from experts or not in order to make the essay more credible. qualified source ? unbiased source ? identified people ?
Brief example
?Brief example a specific case used to ?* illustrate a point. ?* Introduce a topic.
Several casesBrief example
? Brief examples several cases piled one by one until creating the desired impression. ? You may not be familiar with other Americans of Mexican origin who have made important contributions to US society. Nancy Lopes played a crucial role in popularizing women’s professional golf and won 48 tour championships. Dr. Ellen Ochoa is an astronaut who has logged more than 480 hours in space and has invented several optical methods the greatly aid space exploration. Dr. Mario won the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the formation and decomposition of ozone layer.
Extended example
? A story is developed at some length to illustrate one point. ? In the history of the Olympic Games, there have been many shining stars. Among them was a European girl, With the lapse of time, her name as faded from memory, yet her unbending spirit shall never perish. It was she who highlighted the Olympic Creed信条. ? In the lead though she had been, she stumbled near the terminus and her leg was injured, Competitors passed her from behind in succession until finally only her weak and lonely figure remained on the track. Doctors came and offered to take her away. Yet she refused. With the only strength left in her, she managed to get up and shuffled拖着脚走feebly to the endpoint with drops of blood along her trail. ? But cheers broke out. Though she failed in the race, the girl won applause from people all over the world. It was she who elucidated the Olympic creed of participation. It was she who instilled perseverance in
Hypothetical example
? An example describes an imaginary or fictitious situation to get the readers involved. ? You’re tired; you’re hungry. You’ve just spent a long day at College Library and you can’t wait to get back to your room. Glancing outside, you remember how quickly it becomes dark. You don’t think much of it, though, as you bundle up (穿衣) and head out into the gusty wind. Not until you spy the shadows on the sidewalk or hear the leaves rustling beside you do you wish you weren’t alone You walk quickly, trying to stop your imagination from thinking of murderers and rapists. Only when you are safely inside your room do you relax and try to stop your heart from pounding out of your chest. ? ( What may be the topic?)
Can you remember a time when you felt this way? I would be surprised if you never have. The FBI reported last year that there were 3 murders, approximately about 430 aggravated assaults, 1400 burglaries, and 80 rapes here in Madison alone. And while these statistics are quite alarming, they don’t compare to the numbers of larger metropolitan areas.
?Statistics: Numerical data to clarify or strengthen a writer’s points. ? Representative ? Reliable ? Persuasive and convincing
Tips for using statistics
? ? ? ? ? ? Use statistics to quantify your ideas Use statistics sparingly Identify the sources of your statistics Explain your statistics According the Foundation for Crime Prevention Education, violence and crime have dramatically increased. An American is six times more likely to be assaulted with a weapon today than in 19
  60. The FBI reports that someone is either murdered, raped, assaulted, or robbed every 16 seconds. This means that today, at the end of our 50-minute class period, approximately 187 people will have been victims of a violent crime.
?Testimony: proofs, quotations, expertise, experience and other personal insight to a point from experts or not in order to make the speech more credible. ? qualified source ? unbiased source ? identified people
John Silber, Chancellor of Boston University and Chairman of the Massachusetts Board of E


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