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 您的位置:网站首页 >>> 英语杂谈 >>> 英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气 
 
英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气
2005-4-6 19:00:10
虚拟语气的相关语法(Subjunctive Mood)
如果你看到下列的句子,你会认为它们是正确的还是错的呢?

  1. I wish I were a bird.

  2. We request that you be here tomorrow.
也许你会说:“哈哈,第一句的I were 错了,应该是I was;而第二句中的you
be是什么东东呀?不是you are, 也不是you will be, 什么you be?!”
其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood
有的书译为“假设语气”,虽不很贴切;但在相当大的程度上,告诉我们这种句子的特点,Subjunctive
Mood中文译作“虚拟语气”,似乎不及“假设语气”那么容易明白。它是一种动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。
基本上,虚拟语气可分为虚拟现在(Subjunctive
Present)和虚拟过去(Subjunctive
Past)两种;但它们和时态(Tenses)上所指的现在时态(Present
Tense)和过去时态(Past Tense)是有所不同的。
一、虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present)
虚拟现在的句子,在任何时候都要用动词的原形(root form),就算是第三人称(he,
she, it)也是如此。如:

  1.
  1 现在时态(Simple Present)
 I work I work
 you work you work
 he works he work (注意到了吗,是work,不是works)
 she works she work (不是she works 喔)
 it works it work (同样不是it works 喔)
 we work we work
 they work they work

  1.
  2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous)
 I am working I be working (注意用的是be,怪怪的!)
 you are working you be working
 he is working he be working
 she is working she be working
 it is working it be working
 we are working we be working
 they are woring they be working

  1.
  3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect)
 I have worked I have worked
 you have worked you have worked
 he has worked he have worked (用的还是have喔)
 she has worked she have worked
 it has worked it have worked
 we have worked we have worked
 they have worked they have worked

  1.
  4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous)
 I have been working I have been working
 you have been working you have been
working
 he has been working he have been
working (是he have, 不是he has )
 she has been working she have been working
 it has been working it have been working
 we have been working we have been working
 they have been working they have been
working
二、虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)
虚拟过去的动词无论在什么情况之下都要用过去复数形式。如:动词be,在虚拟过去中要用were。

  2.
  1 过去时态(Simple Past)
 I worked I worked
 you worked you worked
 he worked he worked
 she worked she worked
 it worked it worked
 we worked we worked
 they worked they worked

  2.
  2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous)
 I was working I were working (注意是I were)
 you were working you were working
 he was working he were working (是he were
喔)
 she was working she were working
 it was working it were working
 we were working we were working
 they were working they were working

  2.
  3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect)
 I had worked I had worked
 you had worked you had worked
 he had worked he had worked
 she had worked she had worked
 it had worked it had worked
 we had worked we had worked
 they had worked they had worked
 (耶,全部都用 had ! )

  2.
  4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous)
 I had been working I had been working
 you had been working you had been working
 he had been working he had been working
 she had been working she had been working
 it had been working it had been working
 we had been working we had been working
 they had been working they had been
working
 (全部都是 had been 喔)
三、简单的祝愿和命令:

  3.
  1 祝愿
 
  1. May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。
 
  2. May you have a good time.
 
  3. May the friendship between us last long,
 
  4. Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快!

  3.
  2 命令
 注意:
  1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。
    
  2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!
    
  3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be ,
go
    
  4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词 do,加上 not。
 
  1. Work !
 
  2. Work harder !
 
  3. Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)
 
  4. You go out !
 
  5. Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
 
  6. Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替do not)
四、在现在时态句里,用情态动词(Modal
Verb)的过去时态(could,might,should,would)表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼、委婉等:

  1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way
to the post office.
  (情态动词would,表示客气有礼)

  2. It would be better for you not to stay up too
late.(表示委婉)
五、虚拟语气在宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的用法:

  5.1 在wish后的虚拟语气宾语从句(可省略它的that):
   表示:a.和现在的事实相反;
      b.和过去的事实相反;
      c.对将来的主观愿望。

  5.
  1.1 现在情况的虚拟,从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的):
 
  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the
question.
   (wish, 动词过去式 knew)
   我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)
 
  2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the
year around.
   (wish, were)
   但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)
 
  3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)
   但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能,难道是鸟人?呵呵)
 
  4. When she was at the party,she wished she
were at home.
   (wished, 过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)
 
  5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he
understood Chinese.
   (wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)
   现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)
 
  6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they
were with us.
   (will wish, 过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

  5.
  1.2 过去情况的虚拟,从句动词用"had + 过去分词"(时间上较前):
 
  1. I wish (that
 

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