★英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气, 英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站, 在线英语学习工具, 免费学习英语 ※Hao360英语学习网
-
我的英语学习宝库,专业英语学习网站,在线英语学习工具,免费学习英语,酒店英语用语,商务英语学习,外贸英语函电,旅游英语对话,贸易英语翻译,银行英语词汇,英语培训推荐,日常英语口语,英语四六级考试题,免费英语听力资料下载。商务英语系列:职场英语,金融英语,酒店英语,外贸英语,办公英语,旅游英语,通用商务英语;行业英语系列:计算机英语,公务员英语,体育英语,新闻英语,医务英语,其他行业英语;时事英语系列:中英双语新闻,经济新闻英语,娱乐新闻英语,新闻人物英语,体育新闻英语,图片新闻英语;口语听力系列:综合口语,综合听力,美国之音,走遍美国,习惯用语,新概念英语,名人演说英语,英语绕口令;英语考试题库系列:CET英语题库,IELTS英语题库,TOEFL英语题库,GRE英语题库,GMAT英语题库,BEC英语题库,PETS英语题库,其它英语考试题库;英语词汇系列:
特色英语词汇,时事英语热词,专题英语词汇,英语词海拾贝,分类英语词汇,日积月累英语;更多英语栏目:英文歌曲,趣味英语,英语考试资讯,英语名言警句,动画英语,英语杂谈,英文原版作品,更多免费英语资料……
设为首页
加入收藏
联系我们
网站首页 | 商务英语 | 行业英语 | 趣味英语 | 词汇乐园 | 时事英语 | 英语杂谈 | 翻译写作 | 互动英语 | 免费口语
考试资讯 | 考试题库 | 口语听力 | 英文歌曲 | 原版作品 | 名言警句 | 留学海外 | 商务招聘 | 雅思大全 | 留学无忧
 您的位置:网站首页 >>> 英语杂谈 >>> 英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气 
 
英文语法杂谈(
  1):虚拟语气
2005-4-6 19:00:10
虚拟语气的相关语法(Subjunctive Mood)
如果你看到下列的句子,你会认为它们是正确的还是错的呢?

  1. I wish I were a bird.

  2. We request that you be here tomorrow.
也许你会说:“哈哈,第一句的I were 错了,应该是I was;而第二句中的you
be是什么东东呀?不是you are, 也不是you will be, 什么you be?!”
其实上面的句子都是一种称为 Subjunctive 类型的句子。Subjunctive Mood
有的书译为“假设语气”,虽不很贴切;但在相当大的程度上,告诉我们这种句子的特点,Subjunctive
Mood中文译作“虚拟语气”,似乎不及“假设语气”那么容易明白。它是一种动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。
基本上,虚拟语气可分为虚拟现在(Subjunctive
Present)和虚拟过去(Subjunctive
Past)两种;但它们和时态(Tenses)上所指的现在时态(Present
Tense)和过去时态(Past Tense)是有所不同的。
一、虚拟现在(Subjunctive Present)
虚拟现在的句子,在任何时候都要用动词的原形(root form),就算是第三人称(he,
she, it)也是如此。如:

  1.
  1 现在时态(Simple Present)
 I work I work
 you work you work
 he works he work (注意到了吗,是work,不是works)
 she works she work (不是she works 喔)
 it works it work (同样不是it works 喔)
 we work we work
 they work they work

  1.
  2 现在进行时态(Present Continuous)
 I am working I be working (注意用的是be,怪怪的!)
 you are working you be working
 he is working he be working
 she is working she be working
 it is working it be working
 we are working we be working
 they are woring they be working

  1.
  3 现在完成时态(Present Perfect)
 I have worked I have worked
 you have worked you have worked
 he has worked he have worked (用的还是have喔)
 she has worked she have worked
 it has worked it have worked
 we have worked we have worked
 they have worked they have worked

  1.
  4 现在完成进行时态(Present Perfect Continuous)
 I have been working I have been working
 you have been working you have been
working
 he has been working he have been
working (是he have, 不是he has )
 she has been working she have been working
 it has been working it have been working
 we have been working we have been working
 they have been working they have been
working
二、虚拟过去(Subjunctive Past)
虚拟过去的动词无论在什么情况之下都要用过去复数形式。如:动词be,在虚拟过去中要用were。

  2.
  1 过去时态(Simple Past)
 I worked I worked
 you worked you worked
 he worked he worked
 she worked she worked
 it worked it worked
 we worked we worked
 they worked they worked

  2.
  2 过去进行时态(Past Continuous)
 I was working I were working (注意是I were)
 you were working you were working
 he was working he were working (是he were
喔)
 she was working she were working
 it was working it were working
 we were working we were working
 they were working they were working

  2.
  3 过去完成时态(Past Perfect)
 I had worked I had worked
 you had worked you had worked
 he had worked he had worked
 she had worked she had worked
 it had worked it had worked
 we had worked we had worked
 they had worked they had worked
 (耶,全部都用 had ! )

  2.
  4 过去完成进行时态(Past Perfect Continuous)
 I had been working I had been working
 you had been working you had been working
 he had been working he had been working
 she had been working she had been working
 it had been working it had been working
 we had been working we had been working
 they had been working they had been
working
 (全部都是 had been 喔)
三、简单的祝愿和命令:

  3.
  1 祝愿
 
  1. May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。
 
  2. May you have a good time.
 
  3. May the friendship between us last long,
 
  4. Have a good journey! 祝你旅途愉快!

  3.
  2 命令
 注意:
  1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。
    
  2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!
    
  3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be ,
go
    
  4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词 do,加上 not。
 
  1. Work !
 
  2. Work harder !
 
  3. Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)
 
  4. You go out !
 
  5. Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
 
  6. Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替do not)
四、在现在时态句里,用情态动词(Modal
Verb)的过去时态(could,might,should,would)表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼、委婉等:

  1. Would you be kind enough to show me the way
to the post office.
  (情态动词would,表示客气有礼)

  2. It would be better for you not to stay up too
late.(表示委婉)
五、虚拟语气在宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的用法:

  5.1 在wish后的虚拟语气宾语从句(可省略它的that):
   表示:a.和现在的事实相反;
      b.和过去的事实相反;
      c.对将来的主观愿望。

  5.
  1.1 现在情况的虚拟,从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的):
 
  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the
question.
   (wish, 动词过去式 knew)
   我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)
 
  2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the
year around.
   (wish, were)
   但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)
 
  3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)
   但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能,难道是鸟人?呵呵)
 
  4. When she was at the party,she wished she
were at home.
   (wished, 过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)
 
  5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he
understood Chinese.
   (wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)
   现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)
 
  6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they
were with us.
   (will wish, 过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

  5.
  1.2 过去情况的虚拟,从句动词用"had + 过去分词"(时间上较前):
 
  1. I wish (that
 

相关内容

★英文语法杂谈(2):虚拟语气, 英文语法杂谈(2):虚拟语气[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站

   ★英文语法杂谈(2):虚拟语气, 英文语法杂谈(2):虚拟语气[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站, 在线英语学习工具, 免费学习英语 ※Hao360英语学习网 - 我的英语学习宝库,专业英语学习网站,在线英语学习工具,免费学习英语,酒店英语用语,商务英语学习,外贸英语函电,旅游英语对话,贸易英语翻译,银行英语词汇,英语培训推荐,日常英语口语,英语四六级考试题,免费英语听力资料下载。商务英语系列:职场英语,金融英语,酒店英语,外贸英语,办公英语,旅 ...

★求职路上英语面试问答大全, 求职路上英语面试问答大全[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站,

   ★求职路上英语面试问答大全, 求职路上英语面试问答大全[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站, 在线英语学习工具, 免费学习英语 ※Hao360英语学习网 - 我的英语学习宝库,专业英语学习网站,在线英语学习工具,免费学习英语,酒店英语用语,商务英语学习,外贸英语函电,旅游英语对话,贸易英语翻译,银行英语词汇,英语培训推荐,日常英语口语,英语四六级考试题,免费英语听力资料下载。商务英语系列:职场英语,金融英语,酒店英语,外贸英语,办公英语,旅游英语, ...

★六个经典的英语面试问题, 六个经典的英语面试问题[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站, 在线

   ★六个经典的英语面试问题, 六个经典的英语面试问题[最新咨讯], Hao360英语学习网, 专业英语学习网站, 在线英语学习工具, 免费学习英语 ※Hao360英语学习网 - 我的英语学习宝库,专业英语学习网站,在线英语学习工具,免费学习英语,酒店英语用语,商务英语学习,外贸英语函电,旅游英语对话,贸易英语翻译,银行英语词汇,英语培训推荐,日常英语口语,英语四六级考试题,免费英语听力资料下载。商务英语系列:职场英语,金融英语,酒店英语,外贸英语,办公英语,旅游英语,通用 ...

英语学习网站

   英语学习网站共享(内部交流) 英语学习网站共享(内部交流) 温馨提示: 温馨提示: 建议听力差的从初级中间开始,进度可以快一点,还可以跟读,以纠正发音, 建议听力差的从初级中间开始,进度可以快一点,还可以跟读,以纠正发音,一般同学可 以从中级开始,结合慢速新闻,听力好的从高级开始,结合常速新闻. 以从中级开始,结合慢速新闻,听力好的从高级开始,结合常速新闻. 级听力。 还可以做老 6 级听力。 MP3,可用作精读,朗诵,背诵文本,对阅读和写作有帮助。 晨听晨读美文有文本和 MP3,可用作精读 ...

英语学习网站

   1、练习听力 、 美国国家公共广播电台 NPR:http://www.npr.org/ 特点:标准美式英语。 建议:每天花三十分钟左右,反复听英语广播,这是听力过关的 必经之路。点击网页中左边“BROWSE TOPICS”下面的“News” 选项。选择自己有兴趣的新闻链接,点开“Listen Now”左边的 红色小喇叭图标,然后反复听该新闻的广播。 英国广播公司 BBC:http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 特点:标准英式英语。 建议:点击网页中左边选项中的“Video and Au ...

英语学习网站

   试试 vocard.cn 吧。有单机版。 这是我个人开发的【在线背单词】公益网站 下载安装后,提示输入分享 ID,复制输入:308384361-CJVJQ-3QW1U www.happydown.com ttp://www.douban.com 1.http://www.24xuexi.com/Article/hy/(24 小时学习网) 2.http://www.ywhc.net/article/Index.asp(英文荟萃) (内含口语 8000 句) 3.英语听力资源汇总 http:// ...

英语学习网站

   英语学习网站 最近把网上的各种英语学习地址发到一起,方便大家查找语法 http://www.dailygrammar.com/ ; 点点英语 考试资源共享 ftp://www.diandian.net 汇集 四六级、口语口译、商务英语、出国英语、研究生入学等考试资料,集各家之长,更新比较迅速,建 议收藏! adventuretv,提供视频资料,内容多是各地的风土人情,很不错。http://www.adventuretv.com/ ; 纽约时报,网上看新闻的好地方 http://www.nyt ...

英语学习网站

   英语学习网站 综合站点 http://wz.iciba.com/class_detail.php?class_id=33 外语人才 http://wz.iciba.com/class_detail.php?class_id=20 英语博客 http://wz.iciba.com/class_detail.php?class_id=2 学术组织 http://wz.iciba.com/class_detail.php?class_id=27 国外机构 http://wz.iciba.com/c ...

英语学习网站

   英语学习网站推荐 一, 英语综合网站: 1. http://www.literature.org/ 文学网站. 作家不全, 也不具有很大的代表性, 但界面极其友好. 2. www.promo.net/pg 文学网站.也还可以. 3. http://www.chinatranslate.net/ 中国翻译网,号称全国最大的翻译专业网 站.知识全面,但更新较慢. 4. http://www.wangqian.net/ 翻译方面的个人网站,还可以.许多的链接, 可以访问. 5. www.world ...

英语学习网站

   窗体顶端 6577653,m05601 窗体底端 首页更多 我的首页 我的首页预览: 好友访问时 陌生人访问时 好友更多 我的全部好友 好友管理 邀请朋友加入 查找朋友 群更多 我的群 好友的群 创建新群 全部群 消息更多 短消息 系统消息 评论 评论回复 留言板 留言回复 邀请 找人 设置 账户设置 隐私设置 组件设置 支付中心 退出 查找好友... 照片 日记 记录 转帖 动他一下 礼物 音乐 网盘 姓名缘分 竞猜 投票 朋友买卖 测试 争车位 电影 足迹 运势 知我多少 朋友比较 朋友 ...

热门内容

2010年高考英语试题分类汇编--连词

   2010 年高考英语试题分类汇编??连词 年高考英语试题分类汇编?? ??连词 (10 福建) 26 The girl had hardly rung the bell to greet her.A. before 案:A 考点:考连词的使用 解析:根据 “rung the bell” 和 “the door was opened ”的发生先后,可以得出答案。句子的含义 是:女孩还没来得及按门铃,门就突然打开了。她的朋友们一拥而上去欢迎她。 the door was opened sudde ...

1.英语写作词汇策路

   1 Lecture 1 口语、写作、翻译词汇学习策略 2 1.What problems do you have in writing? lacking association misusing avoiding using some useful words 2.Do you have any concrete plan for learning words? Any strategy or policy? 3.Do you learn words with any difference? ...

七年级英语上册练习题

   一 . 词 汇 ( 20 分 ) 1.单 词 归 类 ( 10 分 ) book, fish, blue, shirt, ruler , shoe , green , rice , bread, red , coat , pen dress, white , chicken , meat , black , pants , eraser , pencil 学习用具: 颜色: 2. 按 要 求 作 答 . ( 10 分 ) A) 英 汉 互 译 1) .the Great Wall 3.) h ...

2011年考研英语(二)真题

   Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word s)for each numbered black and mark ( A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of sp ...

09年高考英语重点知识点复习题汇编

   2009 年高考英语重点知识点复习题汇编 名词 27 1. Because prices of food and clothing and almost everything else in that country have steadily gone up, the buying has gone down. A. energy B. force C. power D. strength 2. Many students signed up for the race in the spo ...