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届高考英语(任务型阅读) 2010 届高考英语(任务型阅读)题库
(一) At the beginning of the twentieth century, many people thought that the American family was falling apart. A century later, we know that this was not the case. However, although the family is still alive in the United States, its size and shape were very different 100 years ago. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, there were mainly two types of families in the United States: the extended and the nuclear. The extended family usually includes grandparents, parents, and children living under the same roof. The nuclear family consists of only parents and children. Today there are many different kinds of families. Some people live in "traditional" families, that is, a stay-home mother, a working father, and their own biological children. Others live in two-paycheck families, single-parent families, adoptive or foster, families, blended families (where men and women who were married before marry again and , combine the children from previous marriages into the new families) child less families, and so on. What caused the structure of the family to change? In the early 1900s the birthrate began to fall and the divorce rate began to rise. Women were suddenly choosing to go to college and take jobs outside the home. In the 1930s and 1940s, many families faced serious financial, or money problems during the Great Depression, when many people lost their jobs. During World War II(1939-19
  45),5 million women were left alone to take care of their homes and their children. Because many men were at war, thousands of these "war widows" had to go to work outside their home. During the next ten years, the situation changed. There were fewer divorces, and people married at a younger age and had more children than the previous generation. It was unusual for a mother to work outside the home during the years when her children were growing tip. Families began leaving cities and moving into single-family homes in the suburbs. The traditional family seemed to be returning. In the years between 1960s and 1990s, there were many important changes in the structure of the family. From the 1960s to the early 1970s, the divorce rate doubled and the birthrate fell by half. The number of single-parent families tripled, and the number of couples living together without being married doubled again. In fact, the single-parent household, once unusual, has replaced the "traditional" family as the typical family in the States. If we can judge from history, however, this will probably change again in the twenty-first century. The Changes of the American Family Main comparisons Different1 Contexts There were two __2 types of families in the past, 3, the
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Changes in different
  5.
extended and the nuclear. Nowadays __4types of families can be seen than before. Many of the women had to work In the 1900s outside due to the __6of money., and 1940s thus causing the fall of __7__and the rise of divorce rate. Divorce rate slided and there were In the 1950s more children . The families tended to be 8 again. Different types of In the years familes__
  9. Traditional families between 1960s and are no longer the typical ones in 1990s America. A trend worth noting
Author's opinion on changes
  1. kinds/ types birthrate
  8. fewer
The present structure is 10; it will experience changes again in the near future.
  2. main
  3. namely
  4. more
  9. occurred
  10. temporary
  5.periods
  6. lack
  7.
(二) The family sphere(^ 围) used to be defined by its isolation from the public realm. There was the public male realm(领 )of "rational accomplishment" and cruel 觉)
competition, and the private female and child-rearing sphere of home, intuition(
and emotion. The private realm was supposed to be isolated from the realities of adult life. For both better and worse, television and other electronic media tend to break down the difference between those two worlds. The membrane around the family sphere is much more permeable(可 ). TV takes public events and transforms them into
dramas that are played out in the privacy of our living rooms, kitchens and bedrooms. Parents used to be the channel through which children learned about the outside world. They could decide what to tell their children and when to tell it to them. Since children learn to read in stages, books provide a kind of natural screening process, where adults can decide what to tell and not tell children of different reading abilities. Television destroyed the system that separated adult from child knowledge and
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separated information into year-by-year slices for children of different ages. Instead, it presents the same information directly to children of all ages, without going through adult filters. So television presents a real challenge to adults. While a parent can read a newspaper without sharing it with children in the same room, television is accessible to everyone in that space. And unlike books, television doesn't allow us to flip(翻转) through it and see what's coming up. We may think we're giving our children a lesson in science by having them watch the Challenger take off, and then suddenly they learn about death, disaster and adult mistakes. Books allow adults to discuss privately what to tell or not tell children. This also allows parents to keep adult material secret from children and keep their secret keeping secret. Take that same material and put it on The Today Show and you have 800,000 children hearing the very things the adults are trying to keep from them. "Television takes our kids across the globe before parents give them permission to cross the street." More importantly, children gradually learn that adults are worried and anxious about being parents. Actually, television has also places families under a lot of stress. How Television Changes Childhood? Contexts Homes used to be isolated from the 2realm. Distance between 1__and the outside. Homes nowadays are __3__to the outside world. In the past, children might learn __4__about the outside world with the help of parents and
  5. Media through which children can More information is got directly obtain information through TV and other electronic media, which breaks down the __6 between adult world and the child world. Traditionally, kids could only knew what they should learn at their age, carefully8by their parents. 7 of the information children get Everything can possibly be known by children, including many aspects of life. Effects on family education Families are now under greater stress than before. Adults are anxious about Parental instruction being parents and faced with new __
  10. Main comparisons
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  1. Homes
  2. public
  3.connected chosen
  9.adult
  10. challenges

  4.indirectly
  5.books
  6.difference
  7. Content

  8. decided/
(三) Some people believe that greed and selfishness has become the basis of modern society, and we should return to the old traditions of family and community then we will have a better life. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above opinion? In this fast-paced world, many values are undergoing major changes. While people traditionally prioritize caring, sharing and generosity in life and work, modern people seem to be more self-absorbed and self-concerned. Modern people act selfishly to survive the harsh competition of life. They say that it is a jungle out there. To survive, you have to fight with whatever means that come handy. Obviously greedy and selfishness go perfectly well with such ideas. In a company, employees do everything they can to get better pay and higher position, even at the cost of colleagues. We are in any way advocating any selfish conduct. It is just that people are pressured to act in a certain way due to outside influences. In spite of common practice, it is hard to conclude that modern society is built on greed and selfishness, both of which are not newly invented vocabulary. In ancient times people also did greedy and selfish things though such behaviors were more condemned then. But we can not ignore the fact that people in the past lived a relatively more isolated life and faced less pressure compared with their modern counterparts. Are we happier to share with others and be generous to them? There is no fixed answer either. Some people take great pleasure helping and giving to others while others feel happy doing the opposite. But I personally think that people should not be too selfish. Caring for others can actually encourage the development of a mutually beneficial relationship. In conclusion, modern people appear to be more self-centered than those in the past due to strong outside pressure. However, we should encourage people to know the importance of being caring and generous and to build a mutually beneficial relationship with others. Are Modern People Becoming More Selfish? Contexts In the past people put caring, sharing and generosity in the first
  2. Nowadays, people seem to be more 3about themselves. 4are changing too. People in the past appeared to be modest and self-effacing(谦让的). People may strive to achieve their own __5 at the price of their coworkers. The author's understanding Main comparisons __1__ are changing
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6 for the changes in author's eyes The author's 9towards topic
Fierce __7 and great __8on modern people may be responsible for the changes. A relationship which can 10 two sides should be established.
  4. Behaviors
  5. goals
  10. benefit
  6. Reasons
  7.

  1.Values
  2. place
  3. concerned competition
  8. pressure
  9. attitudes
(四) Traditionally, customers may consider more about what they buy the product for. However, the image of product and the consuming circumstance have become the key points to attract customer awareness and stimulate their buying needs. Frequently, customers buy goods just because they are cute, lovely and unique. With a less emphasis on functional utilities, the experience and imaginative space are placed into an increasingly important role. The image of product is emphasized, as well as the communication between products and consumers. "Customer behavior, which appears to be focused and directed at the object and at pleasure, in fact responds to quite different objectives: displaced expression of desire, and the production of a code of social values through the use of differential signs"(Baudrillard) . The reason for image-oriented customer behavior is probably that customers' lifestyle has been continuously virtualized by paying much attention to "Virtual Reality". The evidences can be traced from computer games and Hollywood movies, in which customers' preference for fleeing reality is perfectly matched.
This change requires us to take efforts to enhance product image by integrating style, color, taste, shape and material, and communicate with customers creatively, imaginatively and innovatively, and enable them to enjoy the distinctive experience image brings. "[A] need is not a need for a particular object as much as it is a 'need' for difference" ( Baudrillard). The typical example is Apple Computer's IMAC, which has strong visual impact and outstanding dynamics. By this way, customer relationship can be set up through image, and brand can be treated as living that can transform people. Other examples commonly used are Disney Fairyland and Las Vegas, where new experience and imagination are fully demonstrated. In sum, consumption is negotiation, a never-ending conversation held in the languages of advertising, packaging, branding, fashion, and entertainment.
More Attention to the Image of Product Main comparisons Different aspects 1about by people when they are shopping.
Contexts In the past, people think more about the __2__of the goods. People today are more easily
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3by the 4 of product and the buying atmosphere. Traditionally, producers may focus more on the functional utilities of goods. Different 5__ to promote sales Nowadays, product image should be __6and there should be more effective 7with customers. More details worth noticing Influenced by computer games and Hollywood movies, people's 9is virtualized. Apple Computer's IMAC/ Disney Fairyland/ Las Vegas
  6. stressed
The8 for image-centered behavior 10are given to prove the importance of image

  1.concerned/ cared
  2. use/ function
  3. attracted
  4.image
  5. ways
  7.communication
  8. reason
  9. lifestyle
  10. Examples (五)
A listener has written from China for advice about how to lose weight. Michael in Shanghai says he is 26 and has battled obesity for most of his life. Obesity , a severe weight problem, is a complex condition. A doctor may advise taking medicine along with changing one's behaviors. Experts say that the most successful weight?loss plans include a well-balanced diet and exercise. People who want to avoid weight gain have to balance the number of calories they eat with the number of calories they use. To lose weight, you can reduce the number of calories you take in, increase the number you use, or both. A recent study looked at four of the most popular dieting plans in the US. Researchers at Stanford University in California studied over 300 overweight women, mostly in their thirties and forties. Each woman
 

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