? ? ? ? ? ?
? (2009年四川卷) 假设你是李华。你的外国笔友Jane打算于七 月来中国,特来信了解中国人的社交习俗。 请你用英语回一封信,从以下几个方面作具 体介绍。
? 注意:
  1.词数100左右,信的开头和结束语 已为你写好 (不计入总词数); ?
  2.可根据内容要点适当增加细节,使行文连 贯。 ? Dear Jane, ? Glad to hear from you and you’re welcome to China in July.
? I hope what’s mentioned above might be helpful and wish you a good journey. ? Yours sincerely, ? Li Hua
? Dear Jane, ? Glad to hear from you and you’re welcome to China in July.The following are some Chinese customs.
? Firstly,we greet each other by saying “Hello” or asking such questions as “Where are you going?” or “Are you busy?” to express our care.Secondly,when praised,we reply with “Oh,no!” or “I’m over-praised” to show good manners.Next,when receiving a gift, we usually say “It’s unnecessary” besides “Thanks” to show politeness and then put it away.Finally,at dinner parties,we talk loudly and touch glasses when drinking to someone’s health or success to show that we’re warm.
? Anyhow,different cultures,different customs.If you “Do as the Romans do when in Rome”,you’ll enjoy more of your stay here. ? I hope what’s mentioned above might be helpful and wish you a good journey. ? Yours sincerely, ? Li Hua
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  1. scientific adj. 科学的
  2. conclude vt.& vi. 结束;推断出
  3. conclusion n. 结束;结论
  4. analyse vt. 分析
  5. defeat vt. 打败;战胜;使受挫 n. 失败
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

  6. expert 熟练的;经验或知识丰富的 adj. n. 专家;行家
  7. attend 照顾;护理;出席;参加 vt.
  8. physician n. 医生;内科医师
  9. vt. 暴露;揭露;使曝光 expose n. 治愈;痊愈
  10. cure
  11. n. & vt. 挑战,向……挑战 challenge
  12. vt. 吸收;吸引;使专心 absorb
  13. vt. 怀疑 suspect n. 被怀疑者
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

  14. foresee vt. 预见;预知 vt. 责备;谴责
  15. blame n. 过失;责备
  16. pollute vt. 污染;弄脏
  17. handle n. 柄;把手 vt. 处理;操纵
  18. link vt.& n. 连接;联系
  19. announce vt. 宣布;通告
  20. instruct vt. 命令;指示;教导
  21. construction n. 建设;建筑物
  22. contribute vt.& vi. 捐献;贡献;捐助 positive ?
  23. adj. 积极的;肯定的;确 实的 enthusiastic cautious ?
  24. adj. 热情的;热心的 reject ?
  25. adj. 小心的;谨慎的 ?
  26. vt. 拒绝,不接受;抛弃
  1.put forward 提出 expose
  2. ...to 使显露;暴露 from
  3.apart sense 除……之外;此外
  4.make conclusion 讲得通;有意义 to
  5.draw a 得出结论 strict
  6.link... ... 将……和……联系 room 或连接起来 blame with... 对……严格的 ?
  7.be ?
  8.make for 为……腾地方 ?
  9.be to 应受谴责,应负责任 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?

  10.be against 违背,反对 view
  11.point of 态度,观点,看法 down
  12.slow 减速 to
  13.lead into 通向,导致
  14.look 调查
? Ⅲ.课文原句突破 ?
  1.Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. ? [信息提取] neither...nor...既不……,也 不,连接句中两个相同成分。 ? [例句仿写] 我既不想知道,也不关心。 ? Neither do I want to know it, . ? 【答案】 nor do I care about it
  2.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. ? [信息提取] every (each,any,next, first,last)time作连词使用,引导时间状 语从句。 ? [例句仿写] 杰克每次来城里都会来看望 我。 ? Jack he comes to town. ? 【答案】 will drop in on me every time
  3.The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. ? [信息提取] suggest vt.暗示,表明了。 ? [例句仿写] 他脸上的表情说明他非常高 兴。 ? The look on his face . ? 【答案】 suggested that he was happy
  4.Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. ? [信息提取] only+介词短语/状语从句/副 词放在句首时后面 (主)句用倒装语序。 ? [例句仿写] 我只有找到工作才能弄到足 够的钱继续大学的学业。 ? to continue my studies at college.
? conclude vt.& vi. ? (
? These are facts;what do you conclude from them? ? 这些都是事实,你能从中得出什么结论? ? After waiting for half an hour,I concluded that he wouldn’t come at all. 等了半个小时后,我断定他不会来了。
? (
? Let me conclude my speech with a saying:Where there is a will,there is a way. ? 让我用一句谚语结束我的演讲:有志者, 事竟成。
? conclusion n.结束,结论 ? in conclusion最后,总之 ? arrive at/come to/draw/reach a conclusion得出结论 ? come to the conclusion that...所得结论 是…… ? I came to the conclusion that he was lying. ? 我看他是在说谎。
  1.?Ann seems to be upset.What’s up? ? ?Shefrom the voice on the line that her mother is not satisfied with her test scores. ? A.includes B.concludes ? C.suggests D.contains ? 【解析】 下句意为:她根据电话中的声 音判定母亲对她的考试成绩不满意。 ? 【答案】 B
? defeat ? (
  1)vt.打败;战胜;使受挫 ? Zhang Yining defeated Li Jiawei with difficulty in the 29th Olympics.张怡宁在 第29届奥运会上艰难地战胜了李佳薇。 ? The problem has defeated me and I can’t solve it. ? 这个问题把我难住了,我无法解决它。 ? Lack of money defeated my plan.缺钱使 我的计划落空。
? (
  2)n.失败,击败,挫折 ? Our baseball team has suffered another defeat. ? 我们的棒球队再次失败。
? 辨析:win,beat与defeat ? (
  1)win的意思是“赢”“获胜”“得到成 功”,在作为及物动词时,它的宾语往往 是奖品、奖学金、名誉、财产、战争或运 动等。win后不能接人 (对手),如不说win sb.。 ? win the race/the battle/the war/a prize/the game/a medal/success/friendship/reward ? 赢得了比赛/战斗/战争/奖品/比赛/奖牌/成 功/友谊/奖赏
? (
  2)beat译成汉语也有“赢”“取 胜”“战胜”之意。但跟win的用法不同, 这个动词后面跟的是比赛、竞争中的对手 或战争中的敌人。但beat还有连续敲打, (心脏)跳动之意。 ? You beat me in the race,but I’ll beat you at tennis. ? 赛跑我输给了你,但打网球我会赢你。 ? He was so nervous that he could feel his heart beating faster. ? 他如此紧张,以至于能感到自己的心跳加 快了。
? (
  3)defeat本来用于描述战争中打败敌人, 现在可与beat换用,以表示击败对手。 ? He was badly defeated/beaten in the election. ? 他在选举中惨败。
  2.Deng Yapingher competitor and got the first place in the game. ? A.won B.defeat ? C.beat D.hit ? 【解析】 “击败对手”可用beat或 defeat,但由got可知,空白处应用过去时, 若选B,则应为defeated。 ? 【答案】 C
? ? ? ? ? ?
expose vt.暴露,揭露,使曝光,使面临 expose sth./sb./oneself (to…) 显露或暴露某事物/某人/某人自己 ①Don’t expose your baby to the sun. 不要把你的婴儿暴露在阳光下。 ②The film has been exposed.这胶卷已 经曝光了。 ? ③We want to expose the kids to as much art and culture as possible.我们想 让孩子们受到尽可能多的艺术和文化的熏
? ④Don’t expose yourself to the sun for too long.You will get burnt. ? 别在太阳下晒得太久,你会被晒伤的。
  3.the sun for too much time will do great harm to your skin. ? A.Exposed to B.Being exposed to ? C.Exposing to D.To expose to ? 【解析】 该句意为:“在阳光下暴晒很 长时间有害于皮肤。”此题考查分词短语 作主语。 ? 【答案】 B
? blame ? (
? ①She blamed him for the failure of their marriage. ? 她把婚姻的触礁归咎于他。 ? ②The police blamed the traffic accident on Jack’s careless driving.警察把那起 交通事故归咎于杰克的粗心驾驶。 ? ③Who is to blame for the accident? ? 谁该为这次事故负责任。 ? ④The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident. ? 这位司机不应承担交通事故。
? (
? ⑤You must bear the blame for the accident. ? 你必须承担这次事故的责任。
  4. (2006年安徽卷)Mr Green stood up in defence of the 16-year-old boy,saying that he was not the one . ? A.blamed B.blaming ? C.to blame D.to be blamed ? 【解析】 he was not the one to blame 意为“他不是那个应该受责备的人”。 ? 【答案】 C
  5.(2006年福建卷)for the breakdown of the school computer network,Alice was in low spirits. ? A.Blaming B.Blamed ? C.To blame D.To be blamed ? 【解析】 本题考查非谓语动词的用法。 句意为:Alice因为电脑网络故障被责备, 情绪很低落。非谓语形式用做原因状语, 主语是这个动作的承受者,故用过去分词 blame。D项to be blamed有将要的意味。 ? 【答案】 B
  6.Don’t alwaysyour own failureothers.Sometimes you yourself. ? A.blame;on;are to be blamed ? B.blame;for;are to blame ? C.blame;on;are to blame ? D.blame;for;are to be blamed ? 【解析】 句意为:不要总把失败归咎于 他人。有时该责怪你自己。blame sth.on sb.把……归咎于某人;be to blame该受 责备,要用主动式表被动意义。 ? 【答案】 C
  7.She’llthe blameus if it turns out badly. ? A.lay;for B.put;on ? C.bear;for D.get;on ? 【解析】 bear the blame for对……负责。 ? 【答案】 C
absorb vt.吸收;吸引;使专心;并入, 并吞
? ①I was so absorbed in this book that I didn’t hear you come in. ? 我正入神地看这本书,连你进来也没听见。 ? ②Absorbed in his work,Tom simply forgot food and sleep. ? 汤姆专心于工作,几乎忘记了吃饭和睡觉。 ? ③The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization.这家大公司渐渐把这些 小公司吞并了。
  8.in her new novel,the young writer kept thinking and writing for a dozen hours in her study. ? A.Having deeply absorbed ? B.Deeply absorbing ? C.Deeply having been absorbed ? D.Deeply absorbed ? 【解析】 本题考查非谓语动词的用法。 短语be absorbed in的意思为“专心于”。 ? 【答案】 D
  9.It is very quiet in the classroom.The students are all reading books. ? A.absorbed B.absorbed in ? C.absorbing in D.absorb ? 【解析】 本题意为:教室里很安静,学 生们在全心全意读书。be absorbed in doing sth.专心做某事。 ? 【答案】 B
  10.So absorbed in the detective storythat he didn’t notice his father speaking to him. ? A.he was B.was he ? C.did he D.he did ? 【解析】 首先根据词语用法be absorbed in判断,排除C、D两个选项, 再根据so在倒装句中的用法选择B项。 ? 【答案】 B
? contribute vt.& vi.捐款;贡献;捐助
? ①All the people in our school contributed something to the disaster areas in Sichuan. ? 我们学校所有的人都向四川灾区捐献了东 西。 ? ②He contributed some articles to the newspaper. ? 他给报社投了几篇稿。 ? ③A proper amount of exercise contributes to good health. ? 适度运动有益于健康。
? make great contributions to 对……有贡 献 ? ④He has made great contributions to a space development program.他对太空发 展计划有很大贡献。
? Many people contributed money to the poor boy,which contributed to his returning to school.A writer wrote a story about it and contributed it to a newspaper. ? 许多人给这个可怜的小男孩捐钱,这使他 重新回到了校园。一位作家写了一篇关于 此事的文章并把它投到了报社。
  11.To be honest,my carelessnessa lot to my failure. ? A.contributed B.donated ? C.provided D.offered ? 【解析】 句意为:说实话,我的失败主 要是因为我的粗心大意。contribute to导 致。donate捐献


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