UNIT 1 Talking About Yourself
In this unit you
  1. study vocabulary related to work, leisure and studies;
  2.revise the simple and continuous present and past tenses;
  3.revise the expression used to to describe habitual past activities;
  4.practise writing by using linking words and pronouns. This unit is about describing yourself and others and talking about actions in the past.
SESSION 1
In this session you 复习一般现在时和现在进行时; ( revise the simple and continuous present; ) 学习与休闲和学习相关的词汇。 ( learn to use vocabulary for leisure and studies.)
Language Focus

  1.复习一般现在时 .
  1) 表示经常/习惯的动作或现在的存在状态。 例如: 例如:I drive to work regularly. He usually gets up at 6 in the summer. They are students of a medical college. She is tired now. We often go to school together.

  2) 表示客观事实或普遍真理。例如: The earth moves around the sun. A friend in need is a friend indeed. Light travels faster than sound.
  3) 表示主语的特征、性格、能力等。例如: My classmates speak English very well. My brother is good with his hands.
一般现在时的构成
一般现在时(present simple tense)表 示包括“现在”在内的一段时间内经常 发生的动作或存在的状态。一般现在时 是以动词原形表示 动词原形表示的,当主语为第三人 动词原形表示 当主语为第三人 称单数时,需要在行为动词原形后加-s或 称单数 -es,其构成方法与名词复数的构成法一 样,详见下表:
情况 一般情况 -s
结构
例句 work ? works live ? lives learn ? learns play ? plays do ? does class ? classes teach ? teaches finish ? finishes
以ch, sh, s, x, o结尾的词
-es
以辅音+y结尾 把y改为i, 再 study ? studies try ? tries 加-es 的词(元音 carry ? carries fly ? 加 y结尾的 flies 则直接加-s)
一般现在时结构
在一般现在时中,英语动词随人称和 数的变化而变化,下表为动词be, have, do在肯定、否定和一般疑问句结构中的 形式:
动词类型 be动词
肯定式 You are... I am... He / She / It is... We / You / They are... You / I have... He / She / It has... We / You / They have...
否定式
疑问式
You are not / aren't... Are you...? I'm not... Am I...? He / She / It is not / Is he/she/it...? Are you/they...? isn't... We / You / They are not / aren't... You / I have not / Have you...? haven't... Has he / she / He / She / It has it...? not / hasn't... Have you / they...? We / You / They have not / haven't...
have动词
You do not /don't do... Do you do...? 行为动词 You do... I / He / She I / He / She / It Does he / she / (do为例) / It does... does not / doesn't it do...? We / You / do... Do you / they They do... do...? We / You / They do not / don't do...
用法提示: : 美式英语用have的地方,英式英语可能用have got,但两种形式在英式英语中都是通用的。 比较: She's got blue eyes. (英) She has blue eyes. (英和美) 动词to have to have的否定句、疑问句以及简略回答等 结构中,英式英语和美式英语不完全相同。 I haven‘t got a car.(英) I don’t have a car.(英和美) Have you got a car? (英) Do you have a car? Yes, I do.(英和美)
练习P5 activity5

  2.复习现在进行时 复习现在进行时

  1) 表示说话时正在进行的动作 I’m looking for my umbrella right now. She is cooking dinner at this moment. The girls are sitting in the classroom.
  2) 表示现阶段正在进行的动作,虽然此时此刻这个动 作 也许并没有进行。 What is he currently working on?他目前在做什么? He is studying Chinese in Beijing. 他目前在北京学习汉语。 The students are preparing for the final examinations. 学生们在准备期末考试。

  3) 表示按计划安排近期即将发生的动作。 He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow. I’m going to Hainan for the winter holidays.我 打算去海南过寒假。
  4) 表示现阶段经常发生的动作,常always, forever, constantly, continually与等连用,往往 带有感情色彩(如不满、厌烦等) I’ve lost my key again. I’m always losing things. 我又把钥匙给弄丢了。我总是丢东西。

  5) be用于进行时态,表示一时的表现。 Jenny is being a good girl today. 詹妮今天很乖。(可能平时很淘气) He’s being silly by saying so. 他这样说是在犯傻。(平时不一定傻)
  6) 状态动词通常不用于进行时态。 除了动词to be 以外, 很多状态动词都与感官、情感和思 维活动有关,常用于表示状态的动词有: like want love hear see sound smell(闻起来) hate believe feel (摸起来) know think understand taste (尝起来)
现在进行时的构成
现在进行时(present continuous tense) 表示说话的时刻或现阶段正在发生的动 作。现在进行时常与now, at the present, at the moment等时间状语连用,其结构 由助动词be(am, is, are)+ 现在分词构 成。现在分词的构成规则如下:
情况 一般情况 -ing
变化
例词 work ? working study ? studying learn ? learning play ? playing have ? having live ? living come ? coming have ? having
以不发音的-e 去-e再加-ing 结尾
以重读闭音节 将词尾的辅音 stop ? stopping 结尾,末 字母双写, begin ? beginning forget ? forgetting 再加-ing 尾为一个 shut ? shutting 辅音字母, plan ? planning 它的前面 get ? getting 是单个元 音字母 少数动词的变 将ie变为y 化特殊 lie ? lying die ? dying
现在进行时的结构
现在进行时由助动词am, is, are + 现在分词构成,否定句的not放在be动词 后面,疑问句用be提问。以动词do为例, 请看现在进行时的肯定、否定、一般疑 问句和简略回答结构形式:
肯定式 You are doing... I am doing... He / She / It is doing... We / You / They are doing... 一般疑问式 Are you doing...? Is he / she / it doing...? Are you / they doing...?
否定式 You are not / aren't doing... I'm / I am not doing He / She / It is not / isn't doing... We / You / They are not / aren't doing... 简略回答 Yes, I'm. / No, I'm not. Yes, he / she / it is. / No, he / she / it is not / isn't. Yes, we / they are. / No, we / they are not.
SESSION 2
In this session you revise the simple past and continuous past; revise the expression used to to describe past activities; practise linking sentences using pronouns, and, but and with.
Language Focus

  1. 复习一般过去时
  1) 一般过去时常用于表示过去某一时 间的动作或状态或过去一段时期内经常 或反复发生的动作或存在的状态。例如: On the day of the World Cup, at 2 o'clock my mother went back to work. 在世界杯赛的那天, 我妈妈两点钟回去 上班了。
I played basketball with him yesterday. When I was a little girl, my brothers and I collected stamps for many years. 小时候,我和哥哥集邮集了好多年。 In the first month or two, I spent too much time making friends. 在最初的一两个月里,我在交朋友上 花的时间太多了。

  2) 在主句用过去时态,时间状语从句和 条件状语从句中过去时表将来。 Mary said she would come if she had time. He said he wanted to be a teacher when he graduated from college.
一般过去时的构成
一般过去时(past simple tense)表示过去某一 时间的动作或状态,常与表示过去的时间状语 连用,例如:yesterday, last year, in 19
  98,a few days ago等。一般过去时由动词的过去式 动词的过去式 表示,动词的过去式有规则变化和不规则变化。 表示 规则动词的过去式变化是在原形动词后加-ed 或-d,不规则动词的过去式变化有其特殊形式, 需要逐个记忆。有关规则动词的过去式变化, 详见下表:
情况 一般情况 -ed
构成
例词 look ? look want ? wanted learn ? learned play ? played love ? loved like ? liked move ? moved hope ? hoped study ? studied try ? tried carry ? carried fry ? fried stop ? stopped plan ? planned permit ? permitted drop ? dropped
以不发音的 e e结尾
-d
以 “辅音字 变y为i再加ed 母+y”结 尾 以一个辅音 字母结尾 的重读闭 音节词 双写字尾加ed
不规则动词的过去式用法提示: :
不规则动词的过去式有下列几种变化形式: 改变动词中的元音:begin ? began,run ? ran,win ? won,write ? wrote speak ? spoke,eat ? ate, take ? took; 改变动词词尾的辅音字母,通常有-d变为-t: build ? built, lend ? lent send ? sent, spend ? spent; 不做任何改变:hit ? hit, cost ? cost, put ? put, cut ? cut; 少数动词变-ay为-aid: say ? said, pay ? paid。
一般过去时结构
一般过去时由规则或不规则动词的过 去式表示,动词be的变化形式为第一人 称和第三人称单数用was,其余人称用 were;其它动词没有人称和数的变化。 一般过去时的肯定、否定以及一般疑问 句结构见下表:
动词类 型
肯定式
否定式
疑问式
be动词 You were... You were not Were you...? / weren't... I / He / Was he / she / it...? Were you/they...? I / He / She / It She / It was... was not / We / wasn't... You / They We/You/T were... hey were not/ weren't... 行为 动 词 (do 为 例) You did... You did not / Did you do...? didn't do... Did he / she / it do...? I / He / Did you / they do...? She / It I / He / She / It did... We / did not / You/Th didn't do... ey did... We/You / They did not / didn't do...

  2. 复习过去进行时

  1) 过去进行时用于描述过去某一时刻或过 去某阶段正在进行的动作。例如: We were very excited because England were playing West Germany in the final. 我们当时非常兴奋因为在决赛中英格兰队对 阵西德队。 I was sleeping at 2:00 yesterday afternoon. I was watching TV when she came to see me. As we burst in, my mother was standing behind the counter.
当我们闯进去的时候,我妈妈那时正站在柜 台后。
  2) 过去进行时与一般过去时连用时, 可用 while, when as when和as连接。 持续时间较短的动作用 一般过去时。例如: When we were having lunch, my mother told us an interesting story. As we were watching TV, the postman arrived.

  3) 表示两个过去的动作同时进行。例如: Susan was cooking dinner while Robert was fixing the car. 罗伯特在修车的时候苏珊正在做饭。 They were playing basketball while I was doing my homework. 他们在打篮球而我在做作业 。
过去进行时 的构成
过去进行时(past continuous tense)用来 表示过去某时或某阶段正在发生的动作, 由“主语+助动词be的过去时(was, were)+动词的现在分词”构成。现在 分词的构成规则如下:
情况 一般情况 -ing
变化
例词 work ? working study ? studying ask ? asking learn ? learning have ? having live ? living come ? coming have ? having
以不发音的-e结尾
去-e再加-ing
以重读闭音节结尾,末尾为一 个辅音字母,它的前面是单 个元音字母
将词尾的辅音字 stop ? stopping begin ? beginning 母双写,再 加-ing forget ? forgetting shut ? shutting plan ? planning get ? getting 将ie变为y lie ? lying dying die ?
少数动词的变化特殊
过去进行时结构
过去进行时由助动词was / were + 现在分词构成,否定句的not放在was / were后面,疑问句用was / were提问。 以动词do为例,过去进行时的肯定、否 定、一般疑问句和简略回答结构形式见 下表:
肯定式 You were doing... I was doing... He / She / It was doing... We / You / They were doing... 一般疑问式 Were you doing...? Was he / she / it doing...? Were you / they doing...?
否定式 You were not / were not / weren't doing... I was not / was not / wasn't doing He / She / It was not / wasn't not doing... We / You / They were not / weren't doing... 简略回答 Yes, I was. / No, I was not. Yes, he / she / it was. / No, he / she / it was not / wasn't. Yes, we / they were. / No, we / they were not / weren't.

  3. used to

  1) ‘used to +动词原形’ 这一结构常用 于描述过去反复发生的动作, 因此过去只 发生过一次动 作不能使用这一结构。试比较: He used to go to the cinema once a week. 他过去常常每一星期看一次电影。 He went to the cinema last week. 他上 周去看电影了。

  2) ‘used to +动词原形’这一结构只适用于反复发生 在过去的动作或过去持续的状态,因此一 直持续到现在的动作或状态不能使用这一结构。 试比 较: We used to go camping every summer. 我们过去每年夏天都露营。(暗含的意思是现在不 这样做了。) We have gone camping for years. 我们露营多年了。 ( 暗含的意思是我们现在还这样做。) We used to be friends. 我们过去是朋友。(暗含的意 思是现在不是了。) We have always been friends. 我们一直是朋友.(我们从 过去到现在一直是朋友。)

  3) ‘used to + 动词原形’这一结构的疑 问句、否定句及简略回答形式如下: What did she use to do during the week? My mother d
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