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Unit 5
The British Isles

  1. The Group of Eight (G
  8) consists of the eight richest countries in the world. 八国集团是由八 个世界上最富有的国家组成的? consist of 意为“由……组成”?“由……构成”,在意义上相当于我们以前学过的 be made up of? 例如: The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 联合王国由大不列颠和 北爱尔兰组成? Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 水由氢和氧组成? The solar system mainly consists of the sun and nine planets. 太阳系主要由太阳和九大行星 组成?
  2. The idea that England stands for Fish & Chips, Speakers’ Corner, Big Ben and the Tower of London is past. 认为炸鱼和土豆条?演讲角?大本钟和伦敦塔象征英国的时代已经过去了? (
  1) that England ... the Tower of London 是 idea 的同位语从句,说明 idea 的内容?同位语从句 前面常有 idea, fact, truth, news, question, problem, hope, wish, law, rule, suggestion 等名词作中 心词?上句中的 that 是连词,它没有词义,在从句中也不充当任何成分,但不可省略? (
  2) stand for 在不同的上下文中有不同的意思,在此处作“代表”?“象征”解?例如: WTO stands for the World Trade Organization. WTO 代表世界贸易组织? In the parable of the Prodigal Son, the father stands for God and the son for the repentant sinner. 在《浪子回头》这个寓言里,父亲是上帝的象征,儿子是忏悔罪人的象征? Dictatorship stands for the denial of individual freedom. 独裁意味着否定个人的自由?
  3. Within Great Britain for many years now, there has been a growing movement to make the most of its culture diversity??to see it as it really is: a nation of different countries held together by a common language and culture. 多年来,英国国内有一场开发多元文化的运动正在蓬勃开展,目 的是要看到英国这种真实的面貌:由共同的语言和文化维系起来的多国民族体? (
  1) make the most of 是一个固定习语,意思是“充分利用”?“极为重视”?“把……形容得 淋漓尽致”?例如: In both work and study we ought to make the most of our time. 不论在工作中还是在学习中, 我们都应该充分利用时间? The old teacher was made the most of when he was ill. 这位老教师在生病时受到无微不至 的关怀? The poem makes the most of the cruelties of slavery. 这首诗把奴隶制度的种种残暴描绘得 淋漓尽致? (
  2) hold together 作及物动词用时,意为“使……牢牢地结合在一起”;作不及物动词用时, 意为“凑在一起”?“团结一致”?例如: Cement holds sand together. 水泥把沙子牢牢地粘合起来? The chair is so rickety that it will not hold together much longer. 这把椅子东倒西歪的,要不 了多久就要散架了? We’ll be able to overcome any difficulties so long as we hold together. 只要我们团结一致, 什么困难我们都能克服?
  4. The British Isles are a group of islands that lies off the west coast of Europe. 不列颠群岛是位于
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欧洲西边海面附近的一群岛屿? 要注意 off the ... coast of 和 on the coast of 的区别:前者表示“离……海岸不远的地方”, 指在海上;后者表示“在……海岸上”,指在陆地上?试比较: A big ship sank off the east coast of Japan. 一艘大轮船在离日本东海岸不远的地方沉没? San Francisco and Los Angeles lie on the west coast of the United States, that is, on the Pacific coast. 旧金山和洛杉矶位于美国西海岸,即太平洋沿岸?
  5. The largest island is called Britain, which is separated from France by the English Channel, which at one point is only 20 miles wide. 最大的岛叫作不列颠岛,与法国隔英吉利海峡相望,海峡最狭 处只有 20 英里宽? 两个 which 引导的从句都是非限制定语从句?
  6. Between Britain and Ireland, in the Irish Sea, lies the small Isle of Man. 位于不列颠和爱尔兰之 间的爱尔兰海里,有马恩小岛? 这是个倒装句?正常的语序是: The small Isle of Man lies between Britain and Ireland, in the Irish Sea. 这样的倒装句不乏其例: On the stairs was sitting a beautiful long-haired girl. 楼梯上坐着一位美丽的长发姑娘? Beneath her distance lay a heart of gold. 在她冷漠的神态下面隐藏着一颗赤诚之心?
  7. In general, Scotland is colder throughout the year, and receives more rain. 一般来说,苏格兰全 年都比较冷,雨水也更多一些? (
  1) in general 意为“总的说来”?“一般而言”?“大体上”,“通常”?常用于概括?例如: The climate in England is mild in general. 一般来说,英国的气候是温和的? Boys are in general naughty. 男孩子通常总是淘气的? (
  2) throughout the year 相当于 all the year around, 意为“一年到头”?“终年”?例如: The mountains are covered with snow throughout the year. 这些山终年白雪覆盖?
  8. In the summer months the difference in temperature between London and the north can be as much as nine degrees! 夏季,伦敦和北方的温差可达九度? 要注意 as much as 与下文 as many as 的区别:前者表示量的比较,后者表示数目的比较?两者 都可译为“多达”?例如: Such super stars as Tom Cruise can earn as much as 1000,000 dollars a year. 像汤姆?克鲁斯 这样的超级明星,年收入可达一百万美元之多? As many as 2 billion people will watch the world-cup football matches on TV. 将有多达 20 亿 的人通过电视观看世界杯足球赛?
  9. The result of this French influence was that the English language ended up with many French words such as table, animal and age. 法语的影响导致英语里存在着大量的法语单词,比如 table, animal 和 age? end up with 是一个短语动词,意思是 “以……结束” ,与其反义的短语动词是 begin/start with, 意为“以……开始”?例如: At the dinner we usually begin with soup and end up with fruit. 在宴会上,开始上的通常是汤, 最后上的是水果? The birthday party started with a song of Happy Birthday to You, and ended up with the singing of Auld Lang Syne. 生日晚会开始时唱《祝你生日快乐》,结束时唱《友谊地久天长?
  10. Wales had already been conquered by England in 1283, but it was not until 250 years later that they formed a single state. 威尔士早在 1283 年就被英格兰征服了,但是到 250 年后它才又成为 一个单独的国家? ... it was not until 250 years later that they formed a single state 是一个强调句,强调的是 until
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250 years later? 原句应为: ... they didn’t form a single state until 250 years later. 其倒装句为: ... not until 250 years later did they form a single state. 到目前为止,我们必须学习了上述 not ... until ... 的三种表达形式?又如: 直到午夜雨才停止? It didn’t stop raining until midnight. Not until midnight did it stop raining. It was not until midnight that it stopped raining.
  11. Only the northern counties, making up Northern Ireland, are still part of the United Kingdom. 只有北方的一些郡组成了北爱尔兰,它们仍然隶属于联合王国? making up Northern Ireland 是现在分词短语作后置定语,意思上相当于一个非限制性定语 从句?另外, make up 在这儿是“组成”的意思,表示主动关系?例如: Workers, peasants, soldiers, students and business people make up the majority of the population of our country. 工农兵学商组成了我国人口的大多数? Women make up 40% of the British labor force. 妇女占英国全部劳动力的百分之四十?
  12. The smaller islands, such as the Isle of Man, are neither part of the United Kingdom nor independent. 那些小岛,如马恩岛,既不属于联合王国,也没有独立? neither ... nor ... 意为 “既不……又不……” ,用来连接两个否定的概念?在连接两个主语时, 谓语动词的形式通常和与其靠近的主语在人称和数上保持一致?例如: Generally, the weather in Britain is neither too cold in winter nor too hot in summer. 一般地 说,不列颠的气候是冬天不很冷,夏天也不很热? There is neither ice cream nor pop in the refrigerator. 电冰箱里既没有冰淇淋也没有汽水? Neither my wife nor I have been to Brazil. 我妻子和我都没有去过巴西?
  13. There are six spoken languages that are considered to be native to the British Isles as well as two local accents. 有六种口语是不列颠群岛上的本族语,外加两种地方方言? be considered to be 是 consider sb or sth to be 的被动形式,意思是“被认为是……”, to be 后面可以接形容词,也可以接名词, to be 也可省略?例如: The report was considered to be false. 那个报道被认为是虚假的? The Dream of Red Chamber is considered to be one of the best novels in the Chinese literary history. 《红楼梦》被认为是中国文学史上最好的长篇小说之一? Yao Ming is considered (to be) the finest basketball player alive in China today. 姚明被认为 是当今中国最优秀的篮球运动员?
  14. That most of these are now threatened and may disappear is a serious matter to the people in Britain. 其中大多数都属于频危语言,有可能消失,这对英国人来说是个严重的问题? 引导主语从句的 that, 尽管没有词义,但绝对不能省略?如果主语从句较长,可用 it 作形式主 语,而把主语从句移到后面去?因此本句也可改写为: It is a serious matter to the people in Britain that most of these are now threatened and may disappear. 又如: That children need love and understanding is quite obvious. (= It is quite obvious that children need love and understanding.) 孩子们需要爱和理解,这是很明显的?
  15. They realize that it is of great value to record and teach them to the younger generation. 他们 认识到,把这些语言记录下来并传给后代,是一件很有价值的事情? “of + 抽象名词”意义上相当于与该抽象名词同根的形容词,在句子中常用作表语?主语补 足语?宾语补足语或后置定语?常常可以这样用的抽象名词有 use, help, importance, significance, interest 等?例如: Sports and games are of great help (= very helpful) to people’s health. 体育运动对人们的健
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康很有帮助? This dictionary is of no use (= useless) to middle-school students. 这本词典对中学生没有用? You’ll find this map of great value for you to get round London. 你会发现这张地图对你游览 伦敦很有价值? This is a meeting of great importance. 这是一次很重要的会议? What the teacher says about the test is of great significance to our study. 老师关于考试所讲 的话,对于我们的学习是意味深长?
  16. The cathedral is famous for the height of its tower, which is without doubt the highest and the most handsome in England, being from the ground 404 feet. 大教堂以其塔楼高度而闻名于世,该 塔毫无疑问是英国最高?最漂亮的,塔顶距地面足足 404 英尺高? (
  1) 句中的 without doubt 意为“毫无疑问”?介词 without 常与抽象名词搭配?例如: Without doubt he is the best salesman we have ever employed. 毫无疑问,他是我们曾经雇 佣过的最佳推销员? It is not altogether without reason to believe so. 这样想并非完全没有道理? The United States has trouble without end in Iraq. 美国在伊拉克遇到了没完没了的麻烦? (
  2) being from the ground 404 feet 是现在分词短语作状语?
  17. It is built where two rivers come together. 它建于两条河的交汇处? two rivers come together 是由 where 引导的地点状语从句,表示“在……地方”? Rice grows best where it is warm and rains a lot. 水稻在气候温暖,雨水充足的地方生长得最 好? The hopeful man sees success where others see failure, sunshine where others see shadows and storm. 在别人看到失败的地方,充满希望的人会看到成功;在别人看到阴云和暴雨的地方, 他却能看到明媚的阳光?
  18. Neither of them is very big, but they become a large river when joined together, and yet larger when joined by a third river about three miles below the city. 两条河都不大,但合流后便成了一 条大河,而且在城市下游三英里处又与第三条河相遇,河流就变得更加开阔了? “neither of + 名词复数”表示“两个都不”?“两个中没有一个”,该结构作主语时,谓语 动词为单数形式?例如: Neither of them knows me. 他们俩都不认识我? Neither of the young couple is particular about clothes. 这小俩口谁都不讲究穿着?
  19. The city of Salisbury has
 

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