Unit 9
重点语法:

  1.一般现在时表常常发生的动作或经常存在的状态, 常和always, often, usually, every day, sometimes等表示时间的状语连用.

  2.现在进行时态表示正在进行的动作,可和now, look, listen, at present, at this moment, these days等时间词连用.

  3.一般过去时

  1) 表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday, last night/yesterday evening, in 1990, two days ago/the day before yesterday(前天)/last Friday/before 6 o’clock/just now/a moment ago(刚才)/...)连用; 也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作, 常和表示频度的时间状语(如often, always…)连用。

  2) 系动词be的过去时: am(is) →was are→were
陈述句:主语+be动词的过去式+其他
Mike was in the United States last year.
否定句:主语+be动词的过去式+not+其他
Mike was not (wasn’t) in the United States last year.
疑问句: be动词的过去式+主语+其他?
--Was Mike in the United states?
--Yes, he was./No, he wasn’t.
They were at home yesterday.
注意:带有be动词的过去时的句子,一定要看清主语再正确选择用was还是were.

  3) 行为动词的一般过去时:
陈述句: 主语+动词过去式+其它
I go to the movie. →I went to the movie.
否定句: 主语+助动词didn’t+动词原形+其它
I don’t go to school today.
→I didn’t go to school.
一般疑问句: Did +主语+动词原形+其它
Do you have breakfast?
→Did you have breakfast?
注意:在否定句或者疑问句中,有了助动词did后,行为动词要还原, 不能再写成过去式.
He played football yesterday.
He didn’t play football yesterday.
--Did he play football yesterday?
--Yes, he did./No, he didn’t.

  4) 规则动词过去时的变化规则
构成方法
原形
过去式

一般情况在动词原形后加-ed
want
answer
wanted
answered

以字母e 结尾的动词,只加-d
move
die
moved
died

以“ 辅音字母+y ”结尾的动词,把y 改为i,再加-ed
carry
cry
carried
cried

以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加-ed
stop
plan
stopped
planned


  5)动词不规则变化
am, is?was are?were
go?went do?did
have?had come?came
take?took say?said
eat?ate see?saw
get?got put?put
sleep?slept give?gave
write?wrote read?read

  1. How was your weekend? 你的周末怎么样?
It was great /OK /pretty good /terrible /not good /awful / expensive / cheap. 好极了 /还可以 /相当好/坏极了/不好 /极坏的 / 昂贵的 / 便宜的。

  2.How were the people there? 那儿的人怎么样?
They were friendly / unfriendly. 他们是友好的 / 不友好的。

  3. What did you / she / he / Tom do last weekend? 上个周末你 / 她 / 他 / Tom做什么了?
On Saturday morning, I played tennis. 在周六早上,我打了网球。 He went to the movies. 他看电影了。

  4. How did you spend the weekend? 你怎样度过周末的?
(
  1)sb + spend + 钱 / 时间 + on sth /某人在某物上花费多少钱,主语是人。
Jim always spends too much money on clothes.
(
  2)sb + spend + 钱 / 时间 + (in) doing sth. 某人在做某事上花费多少时间
I have to spend two hours (in) doing my homework.
She spent ten minutes (in) writing her letter. 她花了十分钟写信。
(
  3)sb + spend + 钱 / 时间 +with sb 花时间和某人在一起
My grandmother spent a weekend with me.

  4)She spent ten minutes (in) writing her letter.=It took me ten minutes to write her letter.
It takes sb sometime to do sth.花费某人多少时间做某事,主语是It
sth cost sb some money to do某物花了某人多少钱做某事,主语是物
Sb pay(some money) for某人花钱为了某物,主语是人。

  5. I had a busy / bad / happy weekend. 我有一个忙碌的 / 糟糕的 / 愉快的周末。

  6. It is / was time to do something. 该到做某事的时间了。=It is / was time for something.
It is / was time for somebody to do something. 该到某人做某事的时间了。如:
It’s time for class.该到上课的时间了。= It’s time to have class.
It’s time for us to have class. 该到我们上课的时间了。

  7. walk名词,“散步”walk= have / take a walk.
go (out) for a walk/ for walking “(出)去散步”
也可当动词 Walk to school=go to school on foot

  8. study for the match test/exam:为数学考试准备
Study/learn spoken English学习口语 study hard 努力学习0
learn to do (sth) from sb 向某人学习(做)某事 Learn about sb/sth

  9. show sb sth 给某人出示某物,是双宾结构。= show sth to sb.
Please show me a map of China. 请给我出示一张中国地图。=Please show a map of China to me.
(但若sth 是代词,不能用双宾结构。 “请把它给我出示一下”只能说 Please show it to me. )

  10. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事。以下词后面只接动词ing形式:miss(错过), practice, enjoy, have fun, spend, imagine(想象), mind(介意), can’t stand等等。

  11. on Saturday morning, “在周六早上”,用介词on;
in the morning/afternoon/evening, “在早上,下午,晚上”,用介词in.
On a cold moring在一个寒冷的早上
on the night/noon of May 21st/在五月二十一日的晚上/中午
at night/noon在晚上/中午
而this / that / last / next / tomorrow / yesterday / every 等词所构成的短语前面不加介词。
如:He went there yesterday afternoon.
Lucy does homework every day.

  12. look for, “寻找”, 表过程。find, “找到”,表结果。
He looked for his son everywhere, but he couldn’t find him. 他到处找他的儿子,但不能找到他。
类似: look at, “看”,表过程; see,“看到”,表结果。
listen to, “听”,表过程;hear, “听到”,表结果。

  13. watch / see / listen to / hear + 宾语 + 动词ing或原形。其中动词ing表正在进行;动词原形表全过程,有时带频率词也常用动词原形。 如: Can you see a boy playing over there? (正在玩)
I heard somebody crying in the room. (正在哭)
He saw Lucy go out of the room. (全过程,go用原形)
I often watch my son play with his toys. (带频率词often, play用原形)

  14. He doesn’t want to do anything. 他不想做任何事情。= He wants to do nothing. (not anything = nothing)
同样,no = not…any; nobody = not …anybody
如: I have no bread. = I don’t have any bread.
There is nobody in the room. = There isn’t anybody in the room.

  15. do some reading“阅读”, do some cooking(做饭) do some washing(洗衣服) do some cleaning(扫除) do some shopping(购物)

  16. go shopping / swimming / fishing / dancing 去购物 / 游泳 / 钓鱼 / 跳舞

  17. make/cook dinner/dishes/meals for sb为某人做饭 /烧菜

  18.watch a talk show, 脱口秀

  19.do some sports/play sports/take some exercise做运动
20have a party for sb开个聚会

  21.stay at home呆在家

  22.practice English / the guitar练习英语 / 吉它
practice doing 练习做某事 practice speaking English / playing the guitar
Do some listening practice 做一些听写训练(做名词,练习,不可数)
23for most kids=most of the kids对大多孩子来说

  24.ask sb about sth询问某人关于某事
Ask sb to do sth叫某人去做某事
Ask sb for help请求某人帮助

  25.have (a lot of) fun doing做某事很开心 fun做不可数名词
Have fun!=Enjoy yourself!=Have a good time!

  26.What/How about sth/sb/doing sth?表建议,做某事怎么样
同意句型Let’s do sth./Would you like to do ?/Why not do sth?/Why don’t you do sth?/Shall we do sth?回答OK.All right.

Unit 8 Section A

  1. What kind of noodles would you / he like? 你 / 他想要什么种类的面条?

  2. I’d like some beef / tomato / mutton / potato…noodles, please. 我想要些牛肉 /西红柿 /羊肉 /土豆…面条。(单数名词修饰名词beef / tomato / mutton / potato单数修饰noodles)
I’d like beef and potato noodles. 我想要牛肉土豆面。(potato作定语,不能用复数形式。)

  3. (
  1)肯定句:I would like some chicken noodles.
(
  2)一般疑问句:Would you like some chicken noodles? 你想要些鸡肉面吗?
(would like表请求或建议时,所在疑问句中用到“一些”时,常用some而非any)
肯定回答是: Yes, please. /All right. / Yes. / OK.
其否定回答是: No, thanks.
(
  3)否定句: I would not like any chicken noodles.
(
  4)--Would you like to do sth? 你想要做某事吗?
--Would you like to see the dolphins?
肯定回答--Yes, I’d like to.
否定回答?Sorry,I have to do my homework.
否定句would not like to do
They would not like to swim this afternoon.

  4. What size bowl of noodles would he / you like? 他 / 你想要多大碗的面条?

  5. I’d like a large / medium / small bowl of noodles. 我想要一大碗 / 中碗 / 小碗的面条。

  6. We have large, medium and small bowls (of noodles). 我们有大碗,中碗和小碗(的面条)。

  7. What sizes do you have? 你们有多大的?

  8. What kind of dessert would you like? 你想要什么种类的甜食?
What size of dessert would you like? 你想要多大号的甜食?

  9. House of Dumplings 饺子馆 =Dumpling House 注意dumpling的单复数。


  10.Would like sth=want sth Would like to sth=want to do sth
Would you like some…?=Do you want some…?(Yes,I do./No,I don’t)

  11.Can I help you?/What can I do for you?你想要买什么东西吗?

  12.表示数量。如: a glass of water, two cups of tea.

  13. Countable nouns 可数名词many /some/ any/no /a lot of/lots of/a few+可数名词
Potatoes (Potato chips)薯条
Tomatoes(
onions (a basket of onions)一篮洋葱
strawberries
noddles
dumplings
oranges
hamburgers
carrots
vegetables (many kinds of vegetables)
Uncountable nouns不可数名词(much//some/any/no/a lot of/lots of/a little+不可数名词)
Pork/meat
beef (a beef hamburger)
mutton
chicken(小鸡可数,鸡肉不可数)
rice
porridge( a bowl of porridge)一碗粥
orange juice
green tea (a cup of green tea)一杯绿茶
cabbage卷心菜((a kilo of cabbage一公斤卷心菜)
soup(eat vegetable soup)喝蔬菜汤
broccoli花椰菜
bread (a piece of bread)一片面包
fruit(一般不可数,表示种类可数What kind of fruits would you like?)

  14. drink/have orange juice: 桔子汁

  15. green tea:绿茶 black tea红茶

  16. a dessert house一家甜品店

  17. phone number:电话号码

  18. eat tomato soup:西红柿汤
Section B

  19. special特价菜,特色菜,做可数名词
We have some great specials.
There is a special on coffee this week.本周咖啡特价。
Special 1 has beef and onion,and is just/only 10 RMB for dumplings.特价1是洋葱牛肉水饺,15个水饺只售10元
Special 特别的,专门的,做形容词
This is a special day today.今天是一个特别的日子
This pizza is special.这个比萨饼很特别。

  20.(
  1)种类a kind of all/different/many/some kinds of 加名词复数或者不可数名词
(
  2)有点kind of=a little bit加形容词
(
  3)kind=friendly友好的
He is kind to everyone..
It’s kind of you.你太好了。

  21.take the size of a box 量箱子的尺寸
 houses of all sizes 大大小小的房子
 boys of all the same size一样个头的男孩子们
What size of shoes do you want? 你要多大号码的鞋子?
Size L/M/S./The large/medium/small size.

  22. We have large, medium and small bowls.

  1) large adj. “(形状、面积、数量等方面) 大的, 巨大的 ,强调体积但不重”
China is a large and beautiful country.中国是一个幅员辽阔又美丽的国家。
a large office 一间宽敞的办公室

  2) big adj. “(面积、体积、数量、规模、程度等方面)大的, 巨大的 ”
a big city 一个大城市 a big pie tree 高大的松树

  3)huge adj.体积或者数量超过一般事物
A huge elephant

  4)great adj. 体积、数量、程度等方面远远超过标准,还有伟大的,很多,非常之意
Work hard and you’ll make great progress.努力工作,你就会取得巨大进步。
Have a great time a great party

  23. Can I help you?/What can I do for you?
在商店 :你想要买什么东西吗?
我想要一顶帽子。I’d like a black hat.
在餐馆 :您想吃点什么?
请来一块面包,一杯牛奶和两个鸡蛋。A piece of bread, a glass of milk and two eggs,please.
在书店:您需要什么书?
我想要一本关于电脑的书。I’d like a book on computers./I’m looking for a book on computers.

  24.Come and get your dumplings!今天快来买水饺吧!get 购买
Bu
 

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