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On the Skills of Rhetoric and Translation Approaches in Advertising English
1 Introduction
Along with the rapid development of social economy, China and foreign countries' trade is expanding gradually, numerous colorful and fantastic English advertisements appear in Chinese market. The role of advertisement becomes more and more important in everyday life. Advertising English has become an important means of communicating ideas and an indispensable part, lots of advertisements use various rhetoric to add to its originality and charm, therefore it appears to be more important for us to understand, appreciate and translate advertisement language properly. Advertisement translation is a lively and distinctive field. The whole paper is divided into two chapters about how to appreciate advertising rhetorical skills and translate them well into Chinese. All this is given a careful discussion and a detailed study in this paper.
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Theoretical Foundations
The function and skill of rhetoric
Rhetorical devices are variations of literal or ordinary forms of expressions. Their function is to make the thought more striking and effective.
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A fresh and suitable rhetorical device appeals to the imagination, creates mental pictures and makes the speech or writing vivid, impressive and interesting. Rhetorical devices can make language more vivid by using the simple words to express complex meanings. By the use of rhetoric, even abstract ideas can become concrete. Rhetoric can make the modified subjects more prominent, distinctive, and specific, and the language can give people more space to imagine. Whereas, without the use of rhetoric, the language is boring and there is no vigor in the language. Next we will study several kinds of rhetorical devices which are frequently used in advertisement, and it is necessary to study them one by one by giving definitions and making illustrations. All of the examples studied below are constrained within English advertisements.
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  1.1 Simile Simile is a way of comparing one thing with another of explaining what one thing is like by showing how it is similar to another thing and it signals itself in a text, with the words "as or like."In metaphor, one thing is directly compared to another thing, without the marker?"like " or "as". the
use of metaphor makes the language more vivid and attractive. Metaphor is a kind of rhetoric devices which is favored by most advertisement composers. The following is a good example: "You'd better off under umbrella". This is an advertisement for a travel insurance agency. In this advertisement, "umbrella" refers to the travel insurance agency. In the advertisement, "the vehicle" is not stated. In fact, "the vehicle" is the staff of the "Umbrella" agency. No matter it is raining or
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shining, if the customers carry an umbrella with them, the umbrella will be very useful to them, for it protects them from being influenced by the bad weather. In most people's minds, the word "umbrella" is always linked with safety and protection. While the customers are traveling, there are some unpredictable factors existing during their journey. Just imagine that no matter what happens, there are always someone waiting for customers, listening to customers and comforting customers. They are not anyone else and they are the staff of "Umbrella". By using metaphor, the company's image is more vivid. The advertisement would leave a deep impression on the customers. There is another an example: "Breakfast without orange juice is like a day without sunshine" This is an advertisement for "orange juice". It can be found that in this advertisement, "orange juice" is "the tenor" and "sunshine" is "the vehicle". The word "like" signals that the advertisement makes use of the rhetoric device?simile. Thus by using simile, the advertisement makes the product's characteristic more vivid and lively. If the "orange juice" really has such an effect, the customers are eager to drink this kind of juice at breakfast. Precisely, this advertisement is a good example in simile craftsmanship. It can not be imagined what the world will be look like without sunshine. The importance of "orange juice" is no less than "sunshine". Since the significance of this kind of "orange juice" is so great, nobody would refuse to drink it. Thus this advertisement touches the customers' heart and greatly promotes the sale of this kind of "orange juice". There is another example: "Today, it is like a thriving sakura". This is an advertising for a bank. It makes the dull ad very vivid and interesting by employing simile. we can
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render it into like this "Today,this bank is growing like a fourishing cherry". thus it remains original meaning and exoticism.
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  1.2 Personification By definition,personification is a figure of speech that gives human form or feelings to animal or life. Personification is one of the most frequently used rhetoric devices in English advertisement, for it can greatly shorten the distance between the advertisement composer and customers, creating a kind of harmonious atmosphere between them. For example: "Flower by Interflora speaks from the heart". This is an advertisement for "Interfloa" flower. In this advertisement, "Interfola" flower was personified by the advertisement composer. The advertisement composer endows this kind of flower with life. In most people's minds only close friends speak to each other from the heart. By using personification, this advertisement makes the customers feel cordial. This advertisement touches the customers' hearts. The advertisement sets a good example in using personification.
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  1.3 Rhyme "Rhyme is identity of sounds between words or verse lines extending back from the end to the last fully accented vowel not further". People often associate rhyme with poetry. Actually, rhyme also occurs in advertisements. For example:"My goodness! My Guinness!". This is an excellent example of rhyme. The two words "goodness and guinness" rhyme the same sound / nis/. It is an ad for beer which is very vivid by using rhyme. The
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consumer would say "my godness, this beer is fantastic!" when he is drinking. Another example: "Pepsi-cola hits the spot. Twelve full ounces, that's a lot. Twice as much for a nickel, too. Pepsi-cola is the drink for you". This is an advertisement for Pepsi-cola. The advertisement employed the rhetoric device?rhyme, that is, the words with same sound. Rhyme can affect the customers' ears pleasantly. Rhyme also can enhance meaning, for it rhymes key words, and the advertisement composer can draw attention from the customers. In the advertisement, the word "Pepsi-cola" is repeated, which makes the advertisement memorable. The two words?"spot" and "lot" end with the same letters?"ot", which gives customers a deep impression and further promote the sale of this kind of drink. There is no doubt that the advertisement sets a good example of using rhyme in English advertisement. In terms of rhyme, it mainly includes alliteration and consonance. "The repetition of the same sounds in the first accented syllables of word is called alliteration. Since the sound repeated is usually the initial consonant sound, it is sometimes also called front rhyme". Alliteration is also a typical characteristic of many advertisements. For example: "Sea, sun, sand, seclusion?and Spain". This is an advertisement for "Spain" hotel. The advertisement composer describes beautiful and romantic scenery in only a few words. By using alliteration, the advertisement composer uses the simple words to express complex meanings. All those four words?"sea", "sun", "sand", and "seclusion" begin with the same letter "s". All those four words rhyme the same sound /s/. And the following is an excellent English advertisement that can well demonstrate the
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charm of rhyme. "Hi-Fi, Hi-Fun, Hi-Fashion, only from Sony". This is an advertisement for Sony's products. In this advertisement, the repeated sounds of "Hi" not only give the customers a deep impression and make it memorable, but also emphasize the quality of the product at the same time. In this advertisement, alliteration is used effectively. By using rhyme, Sony's products win customers' hearts in a short time.
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  1.4 Pun
Pun is an amusing use of a word or phrase that has two meanings which is called polysemy or of words with the same sound but different meanings which is called homonymy. Pun, the game of words, will leave a deep impression on readers by its readability, wit and humor. However, to make a successful and impressive pun is not easy. Except for its own meaning, the word used as a pun is usually closely related to the characteristics of a certain product or the brand name of the product. Such coincidence doesn't occur often. There are many words in the English language which look or sound alike. For example: "I'm more satisfied". This is an advertisement for the cigarettes of "More". Some people hold that pun is only a kind of literature game. However, in fact, it is a traditional rhetoric device in advertisement. By using pun, advertisements will easily be remembered by the readers. In addition, filled with wit and humor, puns help advertising products win favor from readers. In this advertisement, "More" not only refers to this kind of cigarette, but also implies that this kind of cigarette can bring customers pleasure and a feeling of happiness and satisfaction. The advertisement
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composer grasped the characteristics of this kind of product and made use of the rhetoric device?pun. This advertisement has a strong humorous sense and attracts customers' attention, strengthening the effect of advertisements. "More satisfied" means that this kind of cigarette can give customers more pleasure and happiness than the other kinds of cigarette. Thus this advertisement makes a sharp comparison between its products and the other products. By this kind of comparison, the customer will choose this kind of cigarette undoubtedly. It goes without saying that this advertisement sets a good example of using pun in English advertisement. The next coming advertisement is also an excellent advertisement in the fields of using pun in English advertisement. For example: "From sharp minds, come sharp products". This is an advertisement for "Sharp" typewriter. It means that owing to "sharp minds", "sharp products" come into being. In the sentence, the word "sharp" has two levels of meaning. The superficial meaning refers to "sharp" typewriter; the deep meaning refers to those persons who design this kind of typewriter and those who use this kind of typewriter. By using pun, this advertisement effectively shortens the distance between the advertisement composer and the customers. Under such kind of occasion, the customers can not help buying this kind of product?the "Sharp" typewriter. They can not resist the charm of "Sharp" typewriter since it exaggerates its product appropriately. The advertisement makes the customers' attention shift from other objects to Sharp typewriter in a short time. This advertisement motivates the customers to buy "Sharp" typewriter. What a magic power pun has!
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  1.5 Parallelism "In parallel construction it is necessary to balance word for word (noun with noun, verb with verb, adjective with adjective, etc) phrase with phrase, clause with clause, sentence with sentence." Traditionally, to work out a good advertisement, this kind of rhetoric device? parallelism will not be neglected by advertisement composers. It is reported that parallelism is one of the most frequently used of all English rhetorical device. For example:"For dreamers it's paradise. For romantics it's true bliss. For $199 a night it's absolutely irresistible". This is an advertisement for a travel agency?Monaco; the three sentences talk about three different kinds of fields. In the advertisement, the advertisement composer revealed his advertisement by three parallel sentences, each of which contains a simple sentence with the similar structure. Monaco's charm is greatly enhanced by the unity and balance of these parallel structures. By using parallelism, the advertisement composer can add clarity and coherence to the advertisement. Parallelism helps the advertisement composer better communicate with the customers
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  2.1 The approach of brand name translation The importance of brand name translation
With the rapid development of China's economy, more and more foreign commodities will enter Chinese market. If one wants to stand out in this big market, he faces one of the big challenge problems the translation of trademark, because brand name reprensents enterprise's image. Owing to different cultural backgrounds and consumption concepts between us and
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western countries. On one hand, trademark reflects product attribut. On the other hand, it also a kind of social culture. It is like a bridge which links eastern and western culture. we will analyze some common translation approaches and principles in this chapter based on Chinese traditional culture. Therefore, translation on advertisement, we have to choose an appropriate approach to make the translation suitable for the target language readership and promote the selling of product. When it comes to translation, we cann't help thinking of two far-fatching western translation theorists called Eugene Nida and Peter Newmark. Fir
 

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