英语词汇学复习提纲
Chapter 1 Terms
  1. word
  2. vocabulary
  3. common words
  4. literary words
  5. colloquial words
  6. slang words
  7. technical words Questions
  1. What are the fundamental features of the basic word stock?
  2. How are English words classified?
  3. What are the differences between function words and content words?
  4. What are the main reasons for the rapid growth of present-day English vocabulary? Important statements
  1. The histiory of the English langague begins with the conquest and settlement of what is now England by the Angles, Saxons and the Jutes from about 450 AD.
  2. The Transitional period from Old English to Modern English is known as Middle English, which is characterized by the strong influence of French following the Norman Conquest in 10
  66.
  3. In the early stages of Modern English the Renaissance brought great changes to the English vocabulary.
  4. The heavy borrowing made the English vocabulary extremely rich and heterogeneous. Chapter 2 Terms
  1. morpheme
  2. Allomorphe
  3. free morpheme
  4. bound morpheme
  5. root
  6. affix
  7. hybrid Questions
  1. How are English morphemes classified?
  2. How are Englihs words classified on the morphemic level? Important Statements
  1. What is usually considered a single word in English may be composed of one or more morphemes.
  2. The allomorphs of a morpheme do not differ in meaning or function but show a slight difference in sound.
  3. Morphemes are important in the word-building process because the two most central and productive word-formation processes, compounding and affixation, are related to morphemes. Chapter 3 Terms
  1. partial conversion
  2. complete conversion Questions
  1. What are the three major processes of word-formation?
  2. Why are the criteria of a compound relative? Important Statements
  1. There are varioius ways of forming words, but by and large, the various processes can be classified on the basis of frequency of usage, into major or minor processes.
  2. Any rule of word formation is of limited productivity in the sense that not all words which result from the applicationn of the rule are acceptable; they are freely acceptable only when they have gained an
institutional currency in the language.
  3. Prefixes modify the lexical meaning of the base. They do not genearlly alter the word-class of the base.
  4. Suffixes usually change the word-class of the base. Chapter 4 Terms
  1. blending
  2. back-formation
  3. clipp ing
  4. neoclassical formation Questions
  1. What are the differences between initialisms and acronyms? Important Statements
  1. On the whole, clipped words are used in less formal situations than their full-length equivalents.
  2. Most of the blends are related to daily life.
  3. The majority of backformed words are verbs.
  4. Reduplicatives are characterized by being rhymed or alliterated.
  5. The majority of neoclassical formations are scientific and technical.
  6. Genuine coinage is rare.
  7. Some new words are coined by analogy. Chapter 5 Terms
  1. motivation
  2. denotative meaning
  3. connotative meaning
  4. stylistic meaning
  5. affective meaning Questions
  1. What is the relationship between word form and its senses?
  2. What are the main types of word meaning? Important Statements
  1. The test of a genuinely onomatopeic word is its intelligibility to a foreigner who has no knowledge of the language in question.
  2. Denotative meaning is the central factor in linguistic communication.
  3. Lexical meaning is dominant in content words, whereas grammatical meaning is dominant in funciton words. Chapter 6 Terms
  1. radiation
  2. concatination
  3. prima ry meanin
  4. central meaning
  5. perfect homonyms
  6. homophones
  7. homographs Important Statements
  1. One-meaning words are very rare. They are very often scientific terms.
  2. It may be said that polysemy is the rule and monosemy is the exception.
  3. In some cases, the primary meaning and the central meaning coincide.
  4. Polysemic words and homonymous words are not only good candidates for humor, they can also produce other effects such as irony or heightened dramatic power. Chapter 7 Terms
  1. complete synonyms
  2. relative synonyms
  3. hyponymy
  4. marked member
  5. unmarked member Questions
  1. In what respects do synonymous words differ? Important Statements
  1. An agreement in denotation is the most important criterion of synonymy.
  2. Two words are
totally synonymous only if they are fully identical in meaning and interchangeable in any context without the slightest alteration in connotative, affective and stylistic meanings.
  3. It is important to note that two forces militate against complete synonymy: vagueness of word meaning,and connotative, stylistic and affective meanings that cluster around words.
  4. In most cases the native word is more spontaneous, more informal and unpretentious, whereas the foreign word is learned, abstract or even abstruse.
  5. In the double scale pattern of synonyms the native term usually sounds warmer and more homely than its foreign counterpart.
  6. In the triple scale pattern of synonyms the difference in tone between the English and the French words is often slight; the Latin word is generally more bookish.
  7. Synnonyms are useful for avoiding repetition and for achieving precision in meaning and variety in style.
  8. Lexical antonymy is often stronger than syntactic negation.
  9. This semantic category obviously overlaps with hyponymy: both are involved with forming relaionships between words in the same general area of meaning. For parctical purposes, in the case of hyponymy, one should pay attention to the question of which specific term to use, while in the case of semantic field, one’s attention should be turned toward the highly probable collocations the words of each semantic field have in common. Chapter 8 Terms
  1. linguistic context
  2. ambiguity Questions
  1. What are the different types of context?
  2. What are the functions of context in determination of word meaning?
  3. What are the different types of ambiguity? Important Statements
  1. When we say that the context determines the sense we mean not that it imposes a sense but that it selects one that is already there.
  2. Words rarely can be equated on a one-to-one basis between two languages. Chapter 9 Terms
  1. historical cause of changes in word meaning
  2. social cause of changes in word meaning
  3. linguistic cause of changes in word meaning
  4. psychological cause of changes in word meaning
  5. metaphor
  6. metonymy Questions
  1. What are the mian causes of changes in word meaning?
  2. What are the tendencies in semantic change? Important Statements
  1. Usually a literal meaning of a word remains along with a new metaphorical one.
  2. Broading speaking, change of meaning refers to
the alteration of the meaning of existing words, as well as the additionnn of new meaning to established words. Chapter 10 TermsIdiom QuestionWhat points should we attention to if we want to use idioms appropriately? Chapter 11 Questions
  1. What are three stages in the growth of American English?
  2. What are the characteristics of American English? Chapter 12 Terms
  1. prescriptive dictionaries
  2. descriptive
 

相关内容

英语词汇学

   《英语词汇学》Page184~204(全册翻译完毕) 英语词汇学》Page184~204(全册翻译完毕) 完毕 2009 年 04 月 01 日 09:54 Page184~204 Etymology 词源学 Lexicology 词典学 Ultimately 最终 Survey 调查 第十章 英语词典 词典对英语说者最重要的意义在于是按照字母顺序展示英语单词的书本, 还有关 于他们拼写发音意义用法语法规则的记录,在某些词典中,还有他们的词源。它 和词典学紧密相关,词典学处理相同的问题:形式 ...

英语词汇学笔记

   Lexicology(英语词汇学 英语词汇学) English Lexicology(英语词汇学) Lexicology: Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, inquiring into the origins and meanings of words. lexicology: The Nature and Scope of English lexicology English lexicology aims at investigating a ...

计算机专业英语复习提纲

   计算机专业英语复习提纲 考试题型: 考试题型: 词汇) 一.Vocabulary( 词汇 (一).Translate the following words and expressions into Chinese(写出下列词组的汉语 汉语。) 汉语 (二).Fill in the blanks with the corresponding English abbreviations.(根据汉语写出相应的 英语缩写。) 英语缩写 (三).Translate the following Chi ...

如何加强小学英语词汇学习

   浅谈小学英语词汇学习 我们说的每一个句子,每一段话都是由一个个词语组成的,在学习语言的初级阶段,积 累一定量的英语词汇是非常重要的。词汇好比是基石,基础打牢了才能进一步学习语法,进 行阅读。有学者把语法分为词汇和句法,从这个意义上,我们也看出了词汇学习的重要性。 学习英语是从学习英语词汇开始的,对于小学生而言,课本的编排与学生生活紧密相联, 都是由浅入深的。小学生学习词汇离不开记忆,那么记忆词汇是不是词汇学习的全部呢?不 言而喻,答案自然是否定的。 针对小学生,学习词汇可以归纳为七个层次:第 ...

大学英语词汇学习策略研究

   21 0 0年 8月  长 治 学 院 学 报  Ju o mM fC a gh  ie  ̄  o  h n z i Unvmi A g 2 0 u .,01   Vo .7. . 12 No4  第2卷 7 第4 期  大学英语词汇学 习策略研究  孙 丽艳  ( 山西青年管理干部学院 应用外语 系, 山西 太原 摘 000 ) 30 1  要: 在大学英语 词汇学习中, 存在 一些问题 , 针对存在的 问题 , 文章提 出词汇教学的策略 : 强语音教 学, 加 学习词法 、   单词辨析 ...

浅谈初中英语词汇学习策略

   浅谈初中英语词汇学习策略 摘要:词汇教学是英语教学中的一个重要组成部分,《英语新课程标准》对 初中英语词汇教学提出了更高的要求. 本文通过简介词汇和词汇学习策略的重要 性,分析当前初中英语词汇教学中存在的一些问题,并提出了初中英语词汇学习 的若干策略,以利于提高学生英语学习词汇的效率,从而有效地促进英语学习. 关键词:词汇教学 一,词汇的重要性 词汇和语音,语法一起构成了语言学习的三大基本要素,它是语言学习的必 要因素之一,是构成语言的基本材料.词汇在语言学习(特别是二语学习)和应用 中的地 ...

中职生英语词汇学习策略研究

   科技信息 ○ 外语教研 ○ SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION 2008 年 第 30 期 中职生英语词汇学习策略研究 苏楚博 徐 菲 曹世清 (鲁东大学外国语学院 山东 烟台 264000 ) 【摘 要】自 20 世纪 70 年代以来,语言学习策略逐渐成为二语习得领域一个新兴的研究课题 。 许多研究因研究目的、对象、方法、策略分类 等方面的不同,得出的结论也不尽相同。 同时,大部分词汇学习策略的研究多集中在大学生、研究生和高中学生,很少研究涉及中等职业 ...

高一英语必修模块一、二复习提纲

   高一英语必修 I unit 1 复习提纲 I.根据中文意思写出单词。 .根据中文意思写出单词。 点,分数 n. 列出 vt. ( ) ( ) 在户外,在野外 adv. 松散的 adj. ( ) ( ) 欺骗,作弊 vt & vi. & n. 理由,原因 n. ( ) ( ) 分享 vt. 份额 n, 感觉,感情 n. ( ) ( ) 疯狂的,狂热的 adj. 自然界 n. ( ) ( ) 雷声 n.; 打雷 vi 完全地,整个地 adv. ( ) ( ) 信任,信赖 vt.& ...

服装英语词典

   本软件下载自 Http://Soft.Studa.Com 学生大软件站 本站默认解压密码:soft.studa.com 服装英语词典 [新手必背]常用服装英语词汇 颜色 纱线 面料 针织布 裁床 车缝 服装部位名词 服装标准术语 常用服装英语缩写 服装专业名词国粤英语对照 度尺部位词汇 服装机械词汇 常用包装物料和车缝物料 常见的洗水方法 各种样板(Sample,样办) 服装品质控制(QC)词汇 织疵(布疵)的英文表达 针织基础知识 纺织品与服装测试项目 皮革 帽子 其它 使用方法:按“Ct ...

服装英语词典

   服装词典 3-plys export carton 三坑出口纸箱 a pair of braces 一副裤子背带 accessory 辅料 acetate lining 亚沙迪里布,亚沙地里布 air freight 空运费 allover embroidery 全身绣花,[粤]全身车花 anti-pilling agent 抗起毛剂 antistatic finish 防静电处理 automatic lock (zip) 自动锁拉链 apparel 成衣 applique 贴布绣 appe ...

热门内容

俞敏洪透露的高效英语单词记忆法

   本文由论道的天下贡献 doc文档可能在WAP端浏览体验不佳。建议您优先选择TXT,或下载源文件到本机查看。 俞敏洪谈英语词汇记忆法 李:俞老师,您好!很高兴今天能采访您。我们都知道词汇是语言的基础,在外语 学习和外语考试中,词汇也是重要的突破口,尤其是在 GRE 考试中,词汇是重头戏。所以 外语学习者非常关心单词记忆法的问题。 英语单词记忆方法多种多样, 您认为在运用这些方 法时要注意什么? 俞:对一般的英语学习者来说,如果希望达到比较高的英语水平,就不仅仅是一个背单词的 问题 ...

英语试卷1

   英语一单元 Unit 1 How Tall Are You ? 一、 写单词 更高的 更大的 二、填空 1 .I am (tall) than my brother . 2. How (tall) are you ? 3. You are 4cm (tall) than me . 4. The brown monkey is (strong) than the yellow one. 5. The little monkey is (funny) than the yellow one . ...

英语课程 介绍名人,名企成长之李彦宏

   brief introduction of LiYanhong: English name: Robin Chinese name:李彦宏 Date of birth :1968/11/17 Property:9.4 billion Works : 《人生可以走直线》 《硅谷商 战》 Profession: Baidu Chairman and CEO 1968 -~~~~ Makers:Jihaowei Geteng and so on 下一? GO where you want to g ...

中山大学英语专业考研真题---2007基础英语

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

广东2011高考英语一轮复习:选修6 Unit2(新人教版)

   选修 6 Unit 2 Poems 能力演练 一、语法填空 When you treat people and things in a kind, 1 (consider),and polite way,you are being respectful.Respect 2 very important 3 home,at school,and everywhere you go.When you show 4 care 5 other people,s feelings or ,you sh ...