英语词汇学复习提纲
Chapter 1 Terms
  1. word
  2. vocabulary
  3. common words
  4. literary words
  5. colloquial words
  6. slang words
  7. technical words Questions
  1. What are the fundamental features of the basic word stock?
  2. How are English words classified?
  3. What are the differences between function words and content words?
  4. What are the main reasons for the rapid growth of present-day English vocabulary? Important statements
  1. The histiory of the English langague begins with the conquest and settlement of what is now England by the Angles, Saxons and the Jutes from about 450 AD.
  2. The Transitional period from Old English to Modern English is known as Middle English, which is characterized by the strong influence of French following the Norman Conquest in 10
  66.
  3. In the early stages of Modern English the Renaissance brought great changes to the English vocabulary.
  4. The heavy borrowing made the English vocabulary extremely rich and heterogeneous. Chapter 2 Terms
  1. morpheme
  2. Allomorphe
  3. free morpheme
  4. bound morpheme
  5. root
  6. affix
  7. hybrid Questions
  1. How are English morphemes classified?
  2. How are Englihs words classified on the morphemic level? Important Statements
  1. What is usually considered a single word in English may be composed of one or more morphemes.
  2. The allomorphs of a morpheme do not differ in meaning or function but show a slight difference in sound.
  3. Morphemes are important in the word-building process because the two most central and productive word-formation processes, compounding and affixation, are related to morphemes. Chapter 3 Terms
  1. partial conversion
  2. complete conversion Questions
  1. What are the three major processes of word-formation?
  2. Why are the criteria of a compound relative? Important Statements
  1. There are varioius ways of forming words, but by and large, the various processes can be classified on the basis of frequency of usage, into major or minor processes.
  2. Any rule of word formation is of limited productivity in the sense that not all words which result from the applicationn of the rule are acceptable; they are freely acceptable only when they have gained an
institutional currency in the language.
  3. Prefixes modify the lexical meaning of the base. They do not genearlly alter the word-class of the base.
  4. Suffixes usually change the word-class of the base. Chapter 4 Terms
  1. blending
  2. back-formation
  3. clipp ing
  4. neoclassical formation Questions
  1. What are the differences between initialisms and acronyms? Important Statements
  1. On the whole, clipped words are used in less formal situations than their full-length equivalents.
  2. Most of the blends are related to daily life.
  3. The majority of backformed words are verbs.
  4. Reduplicatives are characterized by being rhymed or alliterated.
  5. The majority of neoclassical formations are scientific and technical.
  6. Genuine coinage is rare.
  7. Some new words are coined by analogy. Chapter 5 Terms
  1. motivation
  2. denotative meaning
  3. connotative meaning
  4. stylistic meaning
  5. affective meaning Questions
  1. What is the relationship between word form and its senses?
  2. What are the main types of word meaning? Important Statements
  1. The test of a genuinely onomatopeic word is its intelligibility to a foreigner who has no knowledge of the language in question.
  2. Denotative meaning is the central factor in linguistic communication.
  3. Lexical meaning is dominant in content words, whereas grammatical meaning is dominant in funciton words. Chapter 6 Terms
  1. radiation
  2. concatination
  3. prima ry meanin
  4. central meaning
  5. perfect homonyms
  6. homophones
  7. homographs Important Statements
  1. One-meaning words are very rare. They are very often scientific terms.
  2. It may be said that polysemy is the rule and monosemy is the exception.
  3. In some cases, the primary meaning and the central meaning coincide.
  4. Polysemic words and homonymous words are not only good candidates for humor, they can also produce other effects such as irony or heightened dramatic power. Chapter 7 Terms
  1. complete synonyms
  2. relative synonyms
  3. hyponymy
  4. marked member
  5. unmarked member Questions
  1. In what respects do synonymous words differ? Important Statements
  1. An agreement in denotation is the most important criterion of synonymy.
  2. Two words are
totally synonymous only if they are fully identical in meaning and interchangeable in any context without the slightest alteration in connotative, affective and stylistic meanings.
  3. It is important to note that two forces militate against complete synonymy: vagueness of word meaning,and connotative, stylistic and affective meanings that cluster around words.
  4. In most cases the native word is more spontaneous, more informal and unpretentious, whereas the foreign word is learned, abstract or even abstruse.
  5. In the double scale pattern of synonyms the native term usually sounds warmer and more homely than its foreign counterpart.
  6. In the triple scale pattern of synonyms the difference in tone between the English and the French words is often slight; the Latin word is generally more bookish.
  7. Synnonyms are useful for avoiding repetition and for achieving precision in meaning and variety in style.
  8. Lexical antonymy is often stronger than syntactic negation.
  9. This semantic category obviously overlaps with hyponymy: both are involved with forming relaionships between words in the same general area of meaning. For parctical purposes, in the case of hyponymy, one should pay attention to the question of which specific term to use, while in the case of semantic field, one’s attention should be turned toward the highly probable collocations the words of each semantic field have in common. Chapter 8 Terms
  1. linguistic context
  2. ambiguity Questions
  1. What are the different types of context?
  2. What are the functions of context in determination of word meaning?
  3. What are the different types of ambiguity? Important Statements
  1. When we say that the context determines the sense we mean not that it imposes a sense but that it selects one that is already there.
  2. Words rarely can be equated on a one-to-one basis between two languages. Chapter 9 Terms
  1. historical cause of changes in word meaning
  2. social cause of changes in word meaning
  3. linguistic cause of changes in word meaning
  4. psychological cause of changes in word meaning
  5. metaphor
  6. metonymy Questions
  1. What are the mian causes of changes in word meaning?
  2. What are the tendencies in semantic change? Important Statements
  1. Usually a literal meaning of a word remains along with a new metaphorical one.
  2. Broading speaking, change of meaning refers to
the alteration of the meaning of existing words, as well as the additionnn of new meaning to established words. Chapter 10 TermsIdiom QuestionWhat points should we attention to if we want to use idioms appropriately? Chapter 11 Questions
  1. What are three stages in the growth of American English?
  2. What are the characteristics of American English? Chapter 12 Terms
  1. prescriptive dictionaries
  2. descriptive
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