《英语词汇学教程》 英语词汇学教程》
A Survey of English Lexicology
授课对象:英语专业 授课对象:英语专业2008级 级
词汇:记还是不记? 词汇:记还是不记?
这是一个问题吗?因为: 这是一个问题吗?因为: 没有滴水无以成大海 没有泥砖无以建高楼
“Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.”
没有语法,人们可以表达的事物寥寥无几; 而没有词汇,人们则无法表达任何事物。 英国语言学家威尔金斯(Wilkins)
《英语词汇学教程》 英语词汇学教程》 A Survey of English Lexicology
? 理论指导:现代英语语言。 ? 研究对象:英语词汇。 ? 学习内容:单词的结构、构词法、单词的意义及词义关 系、英语词汇的构成、词义的历史演变、成语及词典知 识。 ? 学习目标:
  1.比较系统地掌握英语词汇的知识;
  2.比较 深入地了解英语词汇的现状及其历史演变过程;
  3.能对 现代英语词汇发展的趋势和所出现的现象作出分析和解 释,提高运用英语的能力。
How Much Do You Know About the English Vocabulary?
? 《牛津英语字典》所收英语单词是六十多 万个。 ? 《韦伯斯特大词典》所收英语单词几乎达 到一百万之多。 ? 现代英语词汇超过两百万个! ? 《汉语大字典》所收汉字五万六千个。与 英语相比,汉语的词汇量是非常小的。
? 莎士比亚大约掌握24000个词。 ? 丘吉尔能使用90000个词。 ? 一个受过高等教育的英国人一般能掌握 25000词以上。 ? 美国大学对外国学生的英语要求是掌握 4000词。 ? 学会常用的5000个词,就能理解97%左右 的内容。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
大学英语四级(CET-
  4)词汇量4500 大学英语六级(CET-
  6)词汇量5500 英语专业四级(TEM-
  4)词汇量6000 英语专业八级(TEM-
  8)词汇量8000 托福 (TOEFL)词汇量7500 雅思 (IELTS) 词汇量8000 研究生入学考试 (GRE)词汇量12000 你的词汇量……?
词汇测试
2000词汇量 高考词汇量) 2000词汇量 (高考词汇量)
? average ? expect ? score
contain suffer restaurant
divide treat damage safety
imagine honor
4000词汇量 级词汇量) 4000词汇量 (4级词汇量) ? abandon ? encounter ? schedule benefit flexible sponsor conflict merchant typical dramatic principle withdraw
6000词汇量 专业4级词汇量) 6000词汇量 (6级、专业4级词汇量) ? accumulate dilute ? edible ? judicial boundary formidable overlap coherent gorgeous subvert heritage unprecedented
词汇测试
8000词汇量 雅思、托福、专业8级词汇量) 8000词汇量 (雅思、托福、专业8级词汇量) asymmetry bilateral centrifugal dismantle epidemic hectic ingenuity opaque simultaneously variation perpetuate paralysis 8000-15000词汇量 GRE词汇量 词汇量) 8000-15000词汇量 (GRE词汇量) abrasion belligerent divulge equivocate fortuitous loquacious morbid procrastination taciturn coalesce immaculate peccadillo
龙之九子
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 长子,?? 囚牛 长子,??/囚牛 次子, 次子,螭吻 三子, 三子,蒲牢 四子, 四子,狴犴 五子, 五子,饕餮 六子, 六子,?嗄 七子, 七子,睚眦 八子,狻猊/负 八子,狻猊 负? 九子, 九子,椒图 /貔貅 貔貅
龙之九子
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 长子,??( 囚牛( 长子,??(bì xì) /囚牛(qiúniú) ) 囚牛 ) 次子,螭吻( 次子,螭吻(chīwěn) ) 三子,蒲牢( 三子,蒲牢( púláo) ) 四子,狴犴( 四子,狴犴(bì àn) ) 五子,饕餮( 五子,饕餮(tāo tiè) ) 六子,?嗄( 六子,?嗄(bā xià) ) 七子,睚眦( 七子,睚眦(yá zì) ) 八子,狻猊( 负?( 八子,狻猊( suān ní)/负?(fù xì) ) 负? )
? 九子,椒图( jiāotú)/貔貅( píxiū) 九子,椒图( 貔貅( ) 貔貅
Skill of memorizing new words
? insomnia ? Anyone can suffer from insomnia, although such problems are more common among women, the ill, the elderly, smokers, and alcoholics. ? (if you suffer from insomnia, you are not able to sleep 失眠) 失眠 ? In=not/somni=sleep ? Somnambulate=sleepwalking ? Somniloquence=sleeptalking ? In some nights awake
Skill of memorizing new words
? charisma ? Chairman Mao revealed his charisma to the whole world. ? (a natural ability and personality to attract and interest other people and make them admire you领袖魅力/气 you领袖魅力 领袖魅力/气 风采) 质/风采 风采 ? China rises Mao 中国出了一个毛泽东, (中国出了一个毛泽东, 毛就是领袖魅力的代名词!) 毛就是领袖魅力的代名词!)
Skill of memorizing new words
? Loom ? Suddenly a mountain loomed up in front of them. ? (to appear as a large unclear shape, especially in a threatening way 隐约出现 隐约出现) ? An economic crisis is looming on the horizon. ? (if a problem or difficulty looms, it is likely to happen very soon 逼近 ) ? 物体 困难就在眼前 物体/困难就在眼前 困难就在眼前100米! 米
Unit 1 英语词汇概说

  1.1 Language, Linguistics and Lexicology
? What is language?
? Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. It is a specific social action and a carrier of information.
“Language is man’s way of communication with his fellow man and It is language alone which separate him from the lower animals”
? What is linguistics?
? Generally speaking, linguistics can be defined as the scientific study of language. To be more exact, linguistics studies the general principles upon which languages are constructed and operate as systems of human communication
? What is lexicology?
? Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. It deals with words, their origin, development, structure, formation, meaning and usage.

  1.2 Aims and Significance of the Course
? The role of vocabulary in the language system
? Vocabulary is the building material of the language system. It is one of the three essential elements of language: speech sounds, grammar and vocabulary. ? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” ? “…there is a sense in which learning a foreign language is basically a matter of learning the vocabulary of that language. Not being able to find the words to express yourself is the most frustrating experience in speaking another language.”
Aims of the course
? Give a systematic description of the English vocabulary. ? Offer an insight into the origin and development of the English vocabulary. ? Discuss the problems of word-structure and word-formation ? Study the use of English words , their meanings and changes in meaning, their sense relations.
The significance of the course
? Develop your personal vocabulary and consciously increase your word power (active vocabulary). ? Understand word-meaning and organize, classify and store words more effectively. ? Raise your awareness of meaning and usages, use words more accurately and appropriately. ? Develop your skills and habits of analyzing and generalizing linguistic phenomena in your learning experiences. ? Ultimately improve your receptive and productive skills in language processing as well as language production.

  2.1 The structure of English words
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Entry(词条) (词条) Lexeme(词位):列入词典的每个词条 ):列入词典的每个词条 (词位): Word form(词形):词的不同形状 ):词的不同形状 (词形): Lexical unit(词汇单位):一个词形跟一个意义的结 ):一个词形跟一个意义的结 (词汇单位): 合 词是能独立运用的、最小的、有语义的语言单位。 词是能独立运用的、最小的、有语义的语言单位。 Function word(功能词)e.g. pro. prep. (功能词) Content word(实意词)e.g. v. n. adj. adv. (实意词) I (pron.我) 我 Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis (n.肺尘病) 肺尘病) 肺尘病
What Is a Word?
? The definition of a word
? It is quite difficult to state the criteria by which a word can be defined; so far no completely satisfactory definition has been given. ? In brief, a word may be defined as a fundamental unit of speech and minimum free form; with a unity of sound and meaning (both lexical and grammatical meaning), capable of performing a given syntactic function. Therefore, from the lexicological point of view, a word is a combination of form (phonological) and meaning (lexical and grammatical). In addition, a word acts as a structural unit of a sentence.
? The definition of a word
? To sum up, the definition of a word comprises the following points
? ? ? ? A minimal free form of a language A sound unity A unit of meaning A form that can function alone in a sentence
Compare:
? Book books bookish bookcase ? Tolerate tolerance tolerant toleration tolerable intolerable ? Telephone telegram telescope telecommunication
? book+s book+ish book+case ? Toler+ate toler+ance toler+ant toler+ation toler+able in+toler+able ? -ate ? Tele? -phone

  2.2 Morphemes
? The definition of a morpheme
? The morpheme( 词 素 ) is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not dividable or analyzable into smaller forms. A word is the smallest unit of a language that stands alone to communicate meaning. Structurally, however, a word is not the smallest unit because many words can be separated into smaller meaningful units. Words are composed of morphemes. What is usually considered a single word in English may be composed of one or more morphemes:
Example
? One morpheme: nation ? Two morphemes: nation-al ? Three morphemes: nation-al-ize ? Four morphemes: de-nation-al-ize

  2.3 Types of Morphemes
? Free morphemes (自由词素 自由词素) 自由词素
? Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free. Free morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. Therefore, we might as well say that free morphemes are content morphemes or free roots (自由词根 自由词根). 自由词根
? man, earth, wind, faith, red, write….
? Bound Morphemes (粘着词素 粘着词素) 粘着词素
? Morphemes which cannot occur as separate words are bound. They are so named because they are bound to other morphemes to form words. Unlike free morphemes, they do not have independent semantic meaning; instead, they have attached meaning (un-kind, hope-ful) or grammatical meaning (cat-s, slow-ly, walking, call-ed). They are also called grammatical morphemes.
? Types of bound morphemes
? Bound roots (粘着词根 A bound root is that part of 粘着词根): 粘着词根 the word that carries the fundamental meaning just like a free root. Unlike a free root, it is a bound form and has to combine with other morphemes to make words. For example: ? dict- conveys the meaning of ‘say or speak’--contradict, predict, contradiction, prediction, dictate, diction, dictionary…. ? dur- conveys the meaning of ‘ continuous’during, duration, durable, endure
? Types of bound morphemes
? Affixes (词缀 Affixes are forms that are 词缀): 词缀 attached to words or word elements to modify meaning or function. According to the functions of affixes, we can put them into two groups: inflectional and derivational affixes.
? Inflectional affixes (曲折词缀 曲折词缀) 曲折词缀
? Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional, thus known as inflectional morphemes. For example: cats, walked, walking, John’s book…
? Derivational affixes (派生词缀 派生词缀) 派生词缀
? Affixes added to other morphemes to create new words. They can be further divided into prefixes and suffixes ? Prefixes (前缀 前缀) 前缀 ? Suffixes (后缀 后缀) 后缀
? Diagram of morphemes
Free Morphemes Bound root Bound Affixes Derivational Suffix Inflectional Prefix

  2.4 Allomorphs
? An allomorph (词素变体 is any of the 词素变体) 词素变体 variant forms of a morpheme as conditioned by position or adjoining sounds. For example:
? The morpheme of plurality {-s}: /s/ after the sounds /t, p, k/; /z/ after /d, b, g, l/; /iz/ after /s, z, …/ ? go: went, gone
? -ion/-tion/-sion/-ation are the positional variants of the same suffix. ? Verbs ending with the sound /t/ usually take ?ion (as in invent, invention); ? verbs ending with consonants other than /t/ take ?tion (as in describe, description); ? verbs ending in ?ify and ?ize take ?ation (as in justify, justification; modernize, modernization); ? verbs ending in ?d, -de, or ?mit, take ?sion (as in expansion, decision, omission); there are exceptions: attend, attention; convert, conversion, etc.
? A prefix like im- occurs before p, b, or m (imperfect, imbalance, immobile); its allomorphs are ir- before
 

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