英语词汇学练习题(一)
Exercise A

  1. Write out in full the following shortened words: EEC, OPEC, NASA, PRC, TEFL, TB, AIDS, memo, fridge
EEC:European Economic Community 欧洲经济共同体。
OPEC:Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries 石油输出国组织。 NASA:National Aeronautics and Space Administration 〔美国〕国家航空和宇宙 航行局。 PRC:Postal Rate Commission (美国)邮资委员会 The People's Republic of China TEFL:teaching English as a foreign language 英语外语教学 TB:tubercle bacillus 结核杆菌。 AIDS:Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Memo:memorandum Fridge:refrigerator
Exercise B

  1. Which following diagram better illustrates the relationship of each of the following word groups? (A) (B) (C)
(D)
(E)
(
  1) Bachelors,单身汉 学士 men, tennis players (
  2) sparrows,麻雀 birds, cats (
  3) Russians, scientists, people (
  4) red-haired, females, lawyers (
  5) octopi,章鱼 porpoises 海豚, things that live in the sea (
  6) artists, painters, baseball fans
1
Exercise
C

  1. Match nouns in the left-hand column with verbs in the right-hand column: (
  1) injury a. administer b. effect (
  2) suspicion 怀疑,涉嫌 (
  3) siege 围攻说服,劝诱 c. hatch
  1.孵化,孵。
  2.创造,使发生
  3. 图谋,策划 (
  4) medicine d. assume (
  5) change e. process (
  6) scheme 计划 f. cast (
  7) tendency g. attain (
  8) leadership h. inflict (
  9) visa i. confirm (
  10) slander 诽谤,诋毁 j. explode (
  11) object k. develop (
  12) myth l. raise
Exercise
im-, non-, un-, in- , ir- . smoker security officially logical capable relevant willingness loyal practical mature legal
D
Form negatives of each of the following words by using one of these prefixes dis-, il-, obey ability agreement athletic
convenient
Exercise E

  1. Change the following words into nouns. admit accept allow enter expect warm strong persuade jealous
  2. Match Column A with Column B and give one example for each. A B Examples transbefore monoover, above superone automany subself mallittle, small multibad, badly
2
minipreex-
below across former

Exercise
proper forms. profit by / from look into come up with stand out against put down to cash in on go without
F

  1.Complete the sentences by choosing idioms from the list and using them in their approve of get over with comply with
(
  1) The union leaders the abolition of flextime. (
  2) My father did not my marriage to Mary. (
  3) If we must visit your parents today let’s go early and it. (
  4) Police are the disappearance of a quantity of uncut gems. (
  5) Scientists will have to new methods of increasing the world’s food supply. (
  6) When you become a member of a club you generally agree to the rules. (
  7) The shrewd man people’s financial difficulties and lent money at an exorbitant rate. (
  8) There was no time to lose, and they had to asking for leave. (
  9) I hope your unfortunate experience and not make the same mistake again. (
  10) His parents his failure in examination his recent laziness.
Exercise

  1. Put the following idioms into Chinese. (
  1) to burn one’s boat (
  3) to hang by a thread (
  5) castle in the air (
  7) cannot see the wood for the trees (
  9) in one ear and out the other (
  10) to make a mountain (out)of a molehill (
  11) A single spark can start a prairie fire (
  12) Misfortune never comes alone.
G
(
  2) to add fuel to the flames (
  4) to go through fire and water (
  6) to grope in the dark (
  8) a thorn in sb’s flesh
3
(
  13) Walls have ears. (
  14) Live and learn. (
  15) Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet.
Exercise
prepositions: (
  1) A soft sea breeze set at midnight.
H

  1. Fill the blanks in the following sentences with appropriate adverbs or
(
  2) He is wise enough to see all these fine pretensions. (
  3) He set all objections and granted my request. (
  4) If land is cropped and not manured, it will run . (
  5) The judge said he would hold your case until the next sitting of the court. (
  6) If the weather holds , I suggest we go out on a picnic. (
  7) As neither of us would give in, the bargain fell . (
  8) He lets his feelings run away his judgment. (
  9) He meant to put in a share of the profits. (
  10) One is not sorry to see the proud pulled . (
  11) He passes a learned man in our little community. (
  12) He will draw from what he has promised.
Exercise I

  1. Look up the following words in a dictionary to determine the language from which each has been borrowed and then translate these terms into Chinese.
yacht taboo chocolate coolie kangaroo sauerkraut Muslin kibitz
czar voodoo
kimono
shampoo

  1. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (
  1) Old English was highly inflected language. (
  2) Modern English is considered to be an analytic language. (
  3) In modern times. borrowing brings less than ten percent of Modern English vocabulary. (
  4) The most important mode of vocabulary development in present-day English is creation of new words by means of word-formation. (
  5) Middle English absorbed a tremendous number of foreign words but with little change in word endings. (
  6) The major factors that promote the growth of Modern English vocabulary are advances in science and technology as well as influence of foreign cultures and languages.
4
Exercise J
Select the pair of words related in the same way as the capitalized words are related to each other
Stove: Kitchen A. window: bedroom B. sink: bathroom C. television: living room D. trunk: attic E. kiss; groom
  1. Celebrate; Marriage A. announce: birthday B. report: injury C. lament: bereavement D. face: penalty E. easy: hard
  2. Joy: Ecstasy A. admiration: love B. weather; humidity C. happiness: sorrow D. life: hope E. youth: frolic
  3. Mystery: Clue A. book: reader B. fruit: bowl C. door: key D. detective: crime E. fly: pan
  4. Wood: Carve A. trees: sway B. paper: burn C. clay: mold D. pipe: blow E. statue: model
Exercise K
Directions: Some of the following statements are true, and the others are false. Mark your answer by writing T or F on your Answer Sheet.
  1. If a word has synonyms, naturally it has antonyms.

  2. While referring to somebody, we sometimes use the idiom “a small potato” which is a metaphor.

  3. Snakes chatter while magpies hiss.

  4. The phrase “burn one’s boat” means “to warm oneself” in English.
  5. Motivation can explain why a particular form has a particular meaning.
  6. Polysemy is the result of long semantic development.
  7. Homonyms are words whose meanings are closely related.
  8. A semantic field is a meaning area where words share the same concept.
5
基本拟声词
Apes gibber Asses bray Bulls bellow Camels grunt Ducks quack Eagles scream Geese cackle(gabble) Goats bleat Larks warble Lions roar Owls hoot/screech Pigeons coo Ravens croak Snakes hiss Wolves howl Bears growl Cats meow/miaow Flies buzz Horses neigh(snort) Magpies chatter Pigs squeal/grunt Thrushes whistle Beetles drone Dogs bark Frogs crack Hens cluck Mice squeak Puppies yelp Turkeys gobble
常见英美拼法及用词部分差异
英国英语 waggon traveller enroll programme cigarette honour defence pretence license practise(v.) enquire judgement acknowledgement connexion inflexion centre masque cheque catalogue draught aesthetic analyse plough grey pyjamas gaol 美国英语 wagon traveler enrol program cigaret honor defense pretense licence practice inquire judgment acknowledgment connection inflection center mask check catalog draft esthetic analyze plow gray pajamas jail 英国英语 rhyme moustache pavement petrol film lift tin post railway call-box taxi sweets parliament shop autumn maize first year student trousers colour neighbour metre theatre storey tyre kerb pedlar 美国英语 rime mustache sidewalk gas movie elevator can mail railroad telephone-booth cab candy congress store fall corn freshman pants color neighbor meter theater story tire curb peddler
6
 

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