英语的基本时态和基本句型
这篇文章是给只蹦词不成句的人的,包括时态,基本句型两部分。
一般时态、进行时态、完成时态 一般时态: 一般时态: 一般现在时态:表示经常或习惯动作,现在的状态或者普遍真理。 一般过去时态:过去发生的动作或情况。 一般将来时态:将要发生的动作或情况。 进行时态: 进行时态: 现在进行时态:现在这段或这点正在发生的。 过去进行时态:过去某段或某点正在发生的。 将来进行时态:将来某段或某点正在发生的。 完成时态: 完成时态: 现在完成时态:现刻以前发生的动作或情况。和现在有密切的联系,可从时间 上或从后果上和现在联系起来
  1.到现在为止的这一时期中发生的情况(可能是多次动作的总和,也可表示 状态和习惯性动作)
  2. 对现状有影响的某一已发生的动作 过去完成时态:截止到过去某一时间所完成的动作或情况 将来完成时态:截止到将来某一时间所完成的动作或情况 一般现在时 do I go to shopping every day. 一般过去时 did I went to shopping yesterday. 一般将来时 will do /be going to do I will go shopping tomorrow. / I am going shopping tomorrow. 现在进行时 be doing
基本时态部分
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he is playing basketball. 过去进行时 was/were doing He was playing basketball at 7:00 yesterday. 将来进行时 will be doing He will be playing basketball tomorrow afternoon. 现在完成时 have done I have finished my homework. 过去完成时 had done I had finished my homework by yesterday. 将来完成时 will have done I will have finished my homework when you come back tomorrow.
补充例句: 补充例句:
一般现在时
  1) They go to work by bike every day.
  2) Does the moon move around the sun? Yes, it does.
  3) He doesn't love sports.
  4) We are all teachers from the country.
  5) The children don’t have enough food in Africa.
  6) Do you go to see your uncle every other day? 一般过去时
  1)My mother wasn't in last night.
  2)We didn't watch TV last night.
  3)The girl cried just now.
  4)We were middle school students last year.
  5)Were you at home last night? Yes, I were.
  6)Did you wash clothes last night? No, I didn't. 一般将来时
  1)When will you be able to visit us again?
  2)I won't be free tonight.
  3)My sister will finish her middle school this year. 现在进行时
  1)They are showing us around the farm.
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  2)Are the students reading now?
  3)It isn't raining hard.
  4)We are leaving on Friday. 过去进行时
  1)I was reading at night yesterday morning.
  2)We weren't planting trees this time yesterday.
  3)Were they singing when the teacher came? Yes, they were. 将来进行时
  1)What will they be doing tomorrow evening?
  2)It won't be long before we will be making such a good train.
  3)I won't be leaving until
  12. 现在完成时
  1)How many words have you learnt today?
  2)He hasn't got up yet.
  3)I have been to England. 过去完成时
  1)He said he hadn't collected 300 stamps.
  2)Had you learnt 280 new words by the end of last month ?
  3)When I rushed to the cinema, the film had begun. 将来完成时
  1)We will have finished our middle school next July.

  2)Will he have finished writing the novel by the end of next month? Yes, he will.

  3)We won't have finished the job when you turn back.
学句子要先弄清楚句子的成分:
  1)句子成分: 主语、谓语、表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 主语: 主语:句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。 School is over at six. 六点钟放学。 The rich should help the poor.夫人应该帮助穷人。 谓语: 谓语:说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放
基本句型部分
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在主语之后。 He went to the supermarket yesterday. He is in the room. She has a straight hair. 表语: 用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词 (如 be, become, 表语: get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。 The class is over. It looks nice. The flower grows well. The weather has turned cold. The speech is exciting. 宾语: 宾语:表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面 They went to see a movie yesterday. I like to listen to popular music. 宾语补足语:有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语, 才能使句子的意义完整。 His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) 定语: 定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句。 Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 状语: 状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征。 Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) 状语种类如下: How about meeting again at six?(时间状语)
Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语)
I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr. Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great are.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语)
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I am taller than he is.(比较状语)
简单句,并列句,复合句: 简单句:只有一个主语和一个谓语句子。 并列句:由并列连词或分号把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起的句子。 复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含: A.名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句) B.定语从句 C.状语从句 (
  1)简单句 主- 系- 表 ; 主- 谓- 宾 (
  2)并列句 句 1 + 连词 + 句 2 (
  3)复合句 主句 +连词 +从句 ; 连词 +从句 ,主句

  2)基本句型:
简单句的五种基本句型

  1、主语+系动词+表语:e.g. He is a student.
  2、主语+不及物动词:e.g. We work.
  3、主语+及物动词+宾语:e.g. Henry bought a dictionary.

  4、主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) :e.g. My father bought me a car.

  5、主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) :e.g. Tom made the baby laugh.
并列句的类型

  1、表示连接两个同等概念: 常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接。 e.g. The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John.
  2、表示选择: 常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等。 e.g. Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.
  3、表示转折: 常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等。 e.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting.
  4、表示因果关系:
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常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等。 e.g. August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.
复合句的类型

  1. 名词性从句 主语从句: 主语从句:
  1、主语从句在复合句作主语。 e.g. Who will go is not important.
  2、用 it 作形式主语,主语从句放在句末。 e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not.
  3、that 引导主语从句时,不能省略。 e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised. 表语从句
  1、表语从句在复合句中作表语,位于系动词之后。 e.g. The question was who could go there.
  2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。 e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work. 宾语从句
  1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省 略。 e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right.
  2、介词之后的宾语从句,不可用 which 或 if 连接,要分别用 what 或 whether。 e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work. I’m interested in what you’ve said.
  3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句,常可互换。但下面情况不能 互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时,只用 if,不用 whether。 e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解,就要用 whether。 e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go. 此句如果把 whether ( 改成 if,容易当成条件句理解)
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③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用,就不能换成 if;不直接连用,可 换。 e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not. ④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句,还可引导让步状语从句,以上均 不能换成 if。但引导条件从句时,只能用 if,而不能用 whether。 e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time. They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time. 同位语从句 同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语, 一般位于该名词 (如: news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等)之后,说明该名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
  2. 定语从句 (一)定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导
  1、关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that, as
  2、关系副词:when, where, why 关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句句首。 e.g. She is the girl who sings best of all.(关系代词 who 在从句中作主 语) The comrade with whom I came knows French.(whom 在从句中作 介词 with 的宾语) (二)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句
  1、限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不 完整。 e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.(去掉定语 从句,意思就不完整)
  2、非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词的关系不密切,去掉定从句, 意思仍然完整。 形式上用逗号隔开,不能 that 用引导。
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e.g. Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night. (who 引导非限制性定语从句,整个句子可分成两句来翻译)
  3. 状语从句 (一)时间状语从句 表示时间的状语从句可由 when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或 the moment ), by the time, no sooner … than, hardly (scarcely) … when, every time 等引导。 e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting. He started as soon as he received the news. Once you see him, you will never forget him. No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep. (二)原因状语从句 原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的, 最常用的连词是 because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列 连词,语气不如 because 强。 e.g. He is disappointed because he didn't get the position. As it is raining, I will not go out. Now that you mention it, I do remember. (三)地点状语从句 引导地点状语从句的连词是 where 和 wherever 等。 e.g. Sit wherever you like. Make a mark where you have a question. (四)目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是 so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。 e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you. She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons. He left early in case he should miss the train. (五)结果状语从句 结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句, 通常主句是原因, 从句是结果。 由 so that (从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so … that, such … that 等引导。 e.g. She was ill, so that she didn’t attend the meeting.
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He was so excited that he could not say a word. She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her. (六)条件状语从句 条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事 实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的 词(组)主要有 if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的 if 不能用 whether 替换。 e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch. You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean. So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months. You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don’t go too far away from the river bank. If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her. (七)让步状语从句 让步状语从句可由 although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether … or, no matter who (when, what, …) 等引导。注意:as 引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。 e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot. Child as he is, he knows a lot. Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I’ll never change my mind. (八)方式状语从句 方式状语从句常由 as, as if (though), the way, rather than 等引导。 e.g. You must do the
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