高考英语短文改错解题技巧
短文改错对考生的要求较高, 是对语言知识综合运用能力的考查, 考生在该项上往往失分较 多,那么如何做好改错题,结合自己数年的教学经验,笔者认为要想在短文改错上取得理想 的成绩,除了平时打好基础外,在应考时还要做到以下几点: 一、先通读全文。认真阅读短文,在做题之前确保已经弄清原文大意。根据短文大意和上下 文逻辑关系,对文章进行逐字逐句的分析,检查句子的结构是否完整,语气是否连贯,启承 转合是否符合文意等。 二.综合运用所学语言知识,根据各行不同的错误情况分别进行答题(即改词、加词或 减词)。在短文改错中常出现的错误主要有以下几类:
  1. 名词: 单复数用错, 可数与不可数名词的混用。 大多数短文改错都会有此类的错误。 如: Happy birthday, Peter, and many happy return of the day! (2000 北京春考), 此句中 return 虽然可以作可数名词也可做不可数名词,但此处显然为可数名词,故应用其复 数,returns。 (
  1) the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful. 81 On (NMET 20
  02)句中 picture 应为 pictures (
  2)Their word were a great encouragement to me.
  85(NMET 20
  03) 句中 word 应为 words (
  3) …but after class we become stranger at…83 (NMET 20
  04) 句中 stranger 应为 strangers
  2. 动词:时态和语态,常出现在总体时态为过去或现在时,中间杂有不适的另一时态 的现象;或是及物动词后无宾语,或是不及物动词后加了宾语;需要接 ing 形式的接了 to, 或相反等。如: (
  1)Around the world young people are spending a lot of money in listening pop music. 本句中 listen 是不及物动词,不能直接接宾语,应在其后加 to。 (
  2)She liked it very much and reads it to the class. All said the story was a good one.84 (NMET 20
  03) 句中 reads 应为过去式 read (
  3)As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories.80 (NMET 20
  02) 此句 visiting 应为 visited (
  4)One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. 83 (NMET 20
  03) 此句中 showed 是及物动词,其后要加 it 作其宾语。 (
  5) Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express me in simple English. 81 (NMET 20
  03) 句中 talk 应为 talking, 因为 enjoy 后接 doing.
  3. 形容词副词:常出现需形容词的地方用了副词或相反;关系副词 where, when, why
等的缺失或错用,如: (
  1) I would describe myself as shy and quietly.
  77(NMET 20
  04) 句中副词 quietly 应改为形容词 quiet (
  2) It was about noon ˇwe arrived at the foot of the mountain. 78 (NMET 20
  02) 此句 we 的前面缺了关系副词 when, when 在此处引导一个时间状语从句。 (
  3) I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. 89 (NMET 19
  97) 此句中,where 应改为 which,因为关系副词不能在句中定语从句中做主语。
  4. 介词:主要是介词的多余或缺失,错用。这一部分需要平时多多积累,弄清常用介 词的搭配。 (
  1)We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ˇourselves.92 (NMET 19
  98) 此句中 instead 和 ourselves 之间需加上 of, 因为 instead 是副词,本身不可以接名词。 (
  2) I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow. 85 (NMET 20
  02)句中 at 多余。 (
  3) The main problem was in that I always thought in Chinese…
  77(NMET 20
  03) 句中 in 多余。 (
  4) I’m a newcomer here of a small town.
  76(NMET 20
  04) 句中 of 应改为 from
  5. 主谓一致性:第三人称单数漏掉 s,或主语为复数,谓语动词用了单数;再就是就 近原则对主语的影响。 Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.(NMET 20
  00) 此句中主语是 my picture and the prize, is 应改为 are.
  6. 冠词:定冠词 the 的多余或缺失,如季节,月份,星期,球类及三餐活动,称呼头 衔前等不能加 the 的地方加了 the,或是 same 等常和 the 一起使用的词却漏税掉了 the;a, an 的混用,特别注意:hour, honest 等虽然首字母不是元音字母,但其发音却是以元音素开头, 故用 an,而 useful, university, European, one-hour 等虽然首字母是元音字母,但却以辅音音 素开头,故用 a。如: As everyone knows, it’s ˇfamous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. 76 (NMET 20
  02) 此处 famous 前应加上冠词 a
  7. 数词:主要是序数词与基数词的混用和错用,如分数的分子大于一时分母没有用 复数等,基数词的复数形式如几百 hundreds of,几千 thousands of 漏掉了 s,或是当其前有 具体数字或 several 时加了复数,如 seven hundred,写作 seven hundreds。
  8. 连词:不合句中的逻辑关系。如需转折连词(如 but)的时候用了承接连词(so),或 相反等等。如: (
  1)The food was expensive and the service was good.
  84(NMET 20
  02) 根据句意,此句中连词 and 应改为 but 。 (
  2) I am trying to improve the situation since it doesn’t seem to work. 84 (NMET 20
  04) 此句中 since 应改为 but。
  9. 代词:主要是代词的格与数的错用。如男性用了女性代词,单数用了复数代词或
相反;应当用形容词性的物主代词用了宾格,主格或相反,关系代词的错用或缺失。如只能 用 that 引导的用了其它,或在不能用 that 的地方却用了 that,或是在“介词+关系代词”结构 中漏掉了介词等。如: (
  1) …I always thought in Chinese and tried to translate anything into English. 78 (NMET 20
  03)此句中不定代词 anything 应改为 everything (
  2) I was learning to express me in simple English.
  82(NMET 20
  03) 此句中 me 应改为其反身代词 myself。
  10. 常用固定短语或固定用法用错。 (
  1)Before my classmates, it seems always difficult for me to do things well as them.78 (NMET 20
  04) 此句中,well 前应加 as ,as well as 是固定搭配 (
  2)Like most of my schoolmates, I have neither brothers nor sistersin any other words , I’m an only child . (NMET 20
  01) 此句中,in any other words 应改为 in other words ,属固定短语。 (
  3)Can you tell me about what I should do?
  85(NMET 20
  04) 应去掉 about ,tell sb+wh 从句,是固定用法,而 tell sb.+ of/about 后需接 sth. 三、验证答案。改完后,要回过头来重读一遍全文,查看改过后是否能使语气通顺,时 态一致,合乎逻辑。再次通读可以在初改时感觉不顺的地方集中精力,仔细推敲,使答案更 加准确。 因为有时就一个句子来看可能在两个地方修改都说地过去, 但在上下文中可能只能 在一处修改才正确。
 

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