2011 年研究生入学考试辅导
考研英语二 考研英语二 英语
阅读和翻译真题讲解
Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, at Sotheby’s in London on September 15th 20
  08. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than £70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy. The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising vertiginously since 20
  03. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm?double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries. In the weeks and months that followed Mr. Hirst’s sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector, they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 20
  08. Within weeks the world’s two biggest auction houses, Sotheby’s and Christie’s, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them. The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 19
  89. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more volatile. But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom.” What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 20
  06. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds?death, debt and divorce?still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.
  21.In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as “a last victory” . because A.the art market had witnessed a succession of victories B.the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids C.Beautiful inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces D.it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis
[答疑编号 995020101]
『参考答案』D 『答案解析』因为第一段段尾句 As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy. 即雷曼兄弟公司破产。
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2011 年研究生入学考试辅导
考研英语二 考研英语二 英语

  22.By saying “spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable”(Line 1-2,Para.
  3), .. the author suggests that A.collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions B.people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries C.art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent D.works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying
[答疑编号 995020102]
『参考答案』A 『答案解析』本题迷惑选项为 C,文章第三段只强调了 collectors stayed away;Sales fell,并 没有强调“收藏时尚早在这之前就已经大大降温了”。
  23.Which of the following statements is NOT true? A.Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 20
  08. B.The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum. C.The market generally went downward in various ways. D.Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come.
[答疑编号 995020103]
『参考答案』B 『答案解析』因为文章第二段只说了 The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising vertiginously since 20
  03.并没有说比别的行业更有势头冲劲。
  24.The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are A.auction houses' favorites B.contemporary trends C.factors promoting artwork circulation D.styles representing impressionists
[答疑编号 995020104]
.
『参考答案』C 『答案解析』根据最后一段的上下文的含义,上一段段尾句说:But Edward Dolman, Christie’s chief executive, says: “I’m pretty confident we’re at the bottom。”;以及 3Ds 之前的 句子,there are still buyers in the market;Christie’s revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher;not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell 能感觉到后文应 该继续表示有信心,对将来乐观。所以选 C。
  25.The most appropriate title for this text could be A.Fluctuation of Art Prices B.Up-to-date Art Auctions C.Art Market in Decline D.Shifted Interest in Arts
[答疑编号 995020105]
.
『参考答案』C 『答案解析』文章从第二段开始就说虽然大家还是有信心,但艺术收藏市场不景气。
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2011 年研究生入学考试辅导
考研英语二 考研英语二 英语
Text 2
I was addressing a small gathering in a suburban Virginia living room -- a women's group that had invited men to join them. Throughout the evening, one man had been particularly talkative, frequently offering ideas and anecdotes, while his wife sat silently beside him on the couch. Toward the end of the evening, I commented that women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them. This man quickly concurred. He gestured toward his wife and said "She's the talker in our family." The room burst into laughter; the man looked puzzled and hurt. "It's true," he explained. "When I come home from work I have nothing to say. If she didn't keep the conversation going, we'd spend the whole evening in silence." This episode crystallizes the irony that although American men tend to talk more than women in public situations, they often talk less at home. And this pattern is wreaking havoc with marriage. The pattern was observed by political scientist Andrew Hacker in the late 1970s. Sociologist Catherine Kohler Riessman reports in her new book Divorce Talk that most of the women she interviewed -- but only a few of the men gave lack of communication as the reason for their divorces. Given the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent, that amounts to millions of cases in the United States every year a virtual epidemic of failed conversation. In my own research, complaints from women about their husbands most often focused not on tangible inequities such as having given up the chance for a career to accompany a husband to his, or doing far more than their share of daily life-support work like cleaning, cooking social . Instead, they focused on communication: "He doesn't listen to me." "He doesn't talk to me." I found, as Hacker observed years before, that most wives want their husbands to be, first and foremost, conversational partners, but few husbands share this expectation of their wives. In short, the image that best represents the current crisis is the stereotypical cartoon scene of a man sitting at the breakfast table with a newspaper held up in front of his face, while a woman glares at the back of it wanting to talk.
  26.What is most wives' main expectation of their husbands? A.Talking to them. B.Trusting them. C.Supporting their careers. D.Sharing housework.
[答疑编号 995020106]
『参考答案』A 『答案解析』根据第一段 women frequently complain that their husbands don't talk to them.
  27.Judging from the context, the phrase “wreaking havoc” (Line 3, Para.
  2) most probably means . A.generating motivation. B.exerting influence C.causing damage D.creating pressure
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2011 年研究生入学考试辅导 [答疑编号 995020107]
考研英语二 考研英语二 英语
『参考答案』C 『答案解析』本题属于猜词题,从下文主要内容来看,夫妻缺乏沟通会导致离婚,即对婚姻产生破 坏作用。
  28.All of the following are true EXCEPT . A.men tend to talk more in public than women B.nearly 50percent of recent divorces are caused by failed conversation C.women attach much importance to communication between couples D.a female tends to be more talkative at home than her spouse
[答疑编号 995020108]
『参考答案』B 『答案解析』B 选项错误的原因是偷换了 50%的比率对象。文章只说了 the current divorce rate of nearly 50 percent,即目前美国离婚率为 50%,并没有说 50%的离婚率是因为缺乏沟通造成的。
  29.Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of this text? A.The moral decaying deserves more research by sociologists. B.Marriage break-up stems from sex inequalities. C.Husband and wife have different expectations from their marriage. D.Conversational patterns between man and wife are different.
[答疑编号 995020109]
『参考答案』D 『答案解析』文章主题强调男女说话交流模式不一样。
  30.In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on . A.a vivid account of the new book Divorce Talk B.a detailed description of the stereotypical cartoon C.other possible reasons for a high divorce rate in the U.S D.a brief introduction to the political scientist Andrew Hacker
[答疑编号 995020110]
『参考答案』B 『答案解析』本文围绕着男女交流不一样,导致离婚这一现象展开,所以下文具体会阐述这幅图的 细节讨论这个现象。 Text 3 Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors ? habits ? among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks or wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues. “There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hands instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can’t figure out how to change people’s habits,” said Dr. Curtis, the director of the Hygiene Center at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical
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2011 年研究生入学考试辅导
考研英语二 考研英语二 英语
Medicine. “We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically.” The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to ? Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever ? had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers’ lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines. If you look hard enough, you’ll find that many of the products we use every day ? chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins ? are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of shrewd advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands. A few decades ago, many people didn’t drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup. “Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns,” said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. “Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers’ lives, and it’s essential to making new products commercially viable.” Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through ruthless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods. .
  31.According to Dr. Curtis, habits like hand washing with soap [A]should be further cultivated [B]should be changed gradually [C]are deeply rooted in history [D]are basically private concerns
[答疑编号 995020201]
『参考答案』A 『答案解析』本题关键词 Dr. Curtis,定位于第二段,A 选项和第二段段尾句“how to create new behaviors that happen automatically” 相同含义。
  32.Bottled water, chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to . [A]reveal their impact on people’ habits [B]show the urgent need of daily necessities [C]indicate their effect on people’ buying power [D]manifest the significant
 

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