英语范文背诵 Suburbanization
If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840's were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by(由……拉动) the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating(增生扩散) mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted(v.邻接,毗邻) the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment (侵蚀) and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed(并吞,附加) most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders. With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.
英语范文背诵 Schooling and Education
It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless(然而,不过), it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.
Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds(教育被认为是没有界限的). It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or
in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe(整个世界) of informal learning. The agents(代理) of education can range from a revered (尊敬的)grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished(著名的) scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability(可预言的), education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.
Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned(所要学习的本质上是。 。), whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities(举个例子,高年级学 生知道在他们的课堂中不太可能会涉及到他们政党中存在的政治问题的真相) or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.(在这种正式的学校教学过程中有明确的周边环境)
英语范文背诵 The Definition of Price
Prices determine how resources are to be used.(价格决定多少资源被使用) They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers.(它们也是有限的产品和服务在购买者之间按比例分配的依据) The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of(无数的) services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the “system” of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.
If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define “price”, many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words that price is the money values of a product or service as agreed
upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. (为了在任一个特定的交易中透彻地了解价格的 含义,需要了解除钱的数量之外所涉及的更多内容) Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts(折扣) that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges(特权,特别待遇), and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total “package” being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price. (换句话说,为 了能够评估一个给定的价格,买者和卖者都应该完全清楚组成这个总的“包裹”的所有因素, 这个总的“包裹”是用来和标定的钱数来交换的)
英语范文背诵 The Language of Music
A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous(艰辛的) a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal 声音的) chords ( (和音) would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm?two entirely different movements. Singers and instruments have to be able to(能够,可以) get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.
This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical(狂热的) but selfless authority. (with A but B,是 A 而不是 B)
Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.
 

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