1. Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.人文主义是文艺复兴的核心。
  2. the Greek and Roman civilization was based on such a conception that man is the measure of all things. 人文主义作为文艺复兴的起源是因为古希腊罗马文明的基础是以“人”为中心,人是万物之灵。
  3. Renaissance humanists found in then classics a justification to exalt human nature and came to see that human beings were glorious creatures capable of individual development in the direction of perfection, and that the world they inhabited was theirs not to despise but to question, explore, and enjoy.人文主义 者们却从古代文化遗产中找到充足的论据,来赞美人性,并开始注意到人类是崇高的生命,人可 以不断发展完善自己,而且世界是属于他们的,供他们怀疑,探索以及享受。
  4. Thomas More, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare are the best representatives of the English humanists.托马斯.摩尔,克利斯朵夫.马洛和威廉.莎士比亚是英国人文主义的代表。
  5. Wyatt introduced the Petrarchan sonnet into England.怀亚特将彼特拉克的十四行诗引进英国。
  6. The first period of the English Renaissance was one of imitation and assimilation.英国文艺复兴初期只 是一个学习模仿与同化的阶段。
  7. The goals of humanistic poetry are: skillful handling of conventions, force of language, and, above all, the development of a rhetorical plan in which meter, rhyme, scheme, imagery and argument should all be combined to frame the emotional theme and throw it into high relief.人文主义诗歌的主要目标是对传 统习俗的熟练运用,语言的力度与气概,而最重要的是发展了修辞模式,即将格律,韵脚(式) , 组织结构,意象(比喻,描述)与议论都结合起来勾画出情感主题,并将其极为鲜明生动的表现 出来。
  8. The most famous dramatists in the Renaissance England are Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson.文艺复兴时期英国最著名的戏剧家有克利斯朵夫.马洛,威廉.莎士比亚与本.约翰 逊。
  9. Francis Bacon (1561-16
  26), the first important English essayist.费兰西斯.培根是英国历史上最重要的 散文家。 (I)Edmund Spenser 埃德蒙.斯宾塞
  10. the theme of Redcrosse is not “Arms and the man,” but something more romantic-“Fierce wars and faithful loves.”《仙后》的主题并非“男人与武器” ,而是更富浪漫色彩的“残酷战争与忠贞爱情” 。
  11. It is Spenser’s idealism, his love of beauty, and his exquisite melody that make him known as “the poets’ poet.”正是斯宾塞的理想主义,对美的热爱以及精美优雅的诗文韵律是他成为“诗人中的诗人” 。 (II)Christopher Marlowe 克利斯朵夫.马洛
  12. As the most gifted of the “University Wits,” Marlowe composed six plays within his short lifetime. Among them the most important are: Tamburlaine, Parts I & II, Dr.Faustus, The Jew of Malta and Edward II.马洛是当时“大学才子”中最富才华的人,在他短暂的一生中,他完成了六部剧本的创 作。其中最负盛名的是: 《帖木尔》《浮士德博士的悲剧》《马耳他岛的犹太人》以及《爱德华二 , , 世》 。
  13. Marlowe’s greatest achievement lies in that he perfected the blank verse and made it the principal medium of English drama.马洛的艺术成就在于他完善了无韵体诗,并使之成为英国戏剧中最重要 的文体形式。
  14. Marlowe’s second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English drama.马洛的第二项 贡献是他创造了文艺复兴时期的英雄形象。
Part one: English Literature The Renaissance period(14 世纪至十七世纪中叶)文艺复兴 ( 世纪至十七世纪中叶)

  15. His brilliant achievement as a whole raised him to an eminence as the pioneer of English drama.他对戏 剧发展的贡献是不可磨灭的,为此,它被后世尊为英国戏剧的先驱。
  16. The passionate shepherd to his love 激情的牧人致心爱的姑娘 This short poem is considered to be one of the most beautiful lyrics in English literature.这首短诗是英 国文学诗中最优美的抒情诗。 (III)William Shakespeare 威廉.莎士比亚
  17. The first period of his dramatic career, he wrote five history plays: Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III, Richard III, and Titus Andronicus; and four comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, and Love’s Labour’s Lost.在他戏剧创作生涯的第一个阶段,他创作了五部 历史剧: 《亨利六世》《理查三世》《泰托斯.安东尼》以及四部喜剧: , , 《错误的戏剧》《维洛那二 , 绅士》《驯悍记》和《爱的徒劳》 , 。
  18. In the second period, he wrote five histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V; six comedies: A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar.在第二阶段,他写了五部历史剧: 《理查三世》《约翰王》《亨利四世》《亨利五世》 , , , 以及六部喜剧《仲夏夜之梦》《威尼斯商人》《无事生非》《皆大欢喜》《第十二夜》《温莎的 , , , , , 风流娘儿们》 ,还有两部悲剧: 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《裘利斯.凯撒》 。
  19. Shakespeare’s third period includes his greatest tragedies and his so-called dark comedies. The tragedies of this period are Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus. The two comedies are All’s Well That Ends and Measure for Measure.第三阶段诞生了莎翁 最伟大的悲剧和他自称的黑色喜剧(或悲喜剧) ,悲剧有: 《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》《李尔王》 , , 《麦 克白》 《安东尼与克利奥佩特拉》 《特罗伊勒斯与克利西达》及《克里奥拉那斯》 。两部喜剧是《终 成眷属》和《一报还一报》 。
  20. The last period of Shakespeare’s work includes his principle romantic tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest; and his two plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen.最后一个时期的作品主要有浪漫悲喜剧: 《伯里克利》 《辛白林》 《冬天的故事》与《暴风 雨》 。他最后两部剧是《亨利八世》与《鲁克里斯受辱记》 。
  21. Shakespeare’s sonnets are the only direct expression of the poet’s own feelings.这些十四行诗都是莎翁 直抒胸臆的成果。
  22. Shakespeare’s history plays are mainly written under the principle that national unity under a mighty and just sovereign is a necessity.莎翁的历史剧都有这样一个主题:在一个强大英明的君主统领下的国 家,统一是非常必要的。
  23. In his romantic comedies, Shakespeare takes an optimistic attitude toward love and youth, and the romantic elements are brought into full play.在他的浪漫喜剧中,莎士比亚以乐观的态度对待爱情与 青春,并将浪漫色彩渲染到极致。
  24. The successful romantic tragedy is Romeo and Juliet, which eulogizes the faithfulness of love and the spirit of pursuing happiness.莎翁在其成功的浪漫主义悲剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》 ,颂扬了对爱的忠贞 及对幸福的追求。
  25. Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies are: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth. They have some 《哈姆雷特》 《奥 characteristics in common. Each portrays some noble hero.莎士比亚的四大悲剧是: 赛罗》 《李尔王》 《麦克白》
  26. “The King’s government must be carried on”?but carried on for the good of the nation, not for the
pleasure of the king.“国王的统治一定要万古不变”但是这种流传百世万古不变的统治是有利于 国家利益的,而不是只为国王自己服务。
  27. Thus, he finds no way to solve the social problems. In the end, the only thing he can do as a humanist is to escape from the reality to seek comfort in his dream.正因如此,他才无力寻求到医治各种社会痼疾 的灵丹妙药,最后,他作为人文主义所能做的唯一事情便是逃避现实,从梦幻中找安慰。
  28. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality.他认为文学应该是真善美的结合,应该反映天性与现实。
  29. Shakespeare is above all writers in the past and in the present time.古往今来,没有一个作家能与莎士 比亚媲美,他对后世文学家的潜移默化也是无可估量的。
  30. Almost all English writers after him have been influenced by him either in artistic point of view, in literary form or in language.在他之后几乎所有的英国文学家都在艺术观点,文学形式及语言技巧方 面受到他的影响。
  31. Sonnet 18 is one of the most beautiful sonnets written by Shakespeare.十四行诗第十八首诗莎翁最出 色的十四行诗。 (IV)Francis Bacon 弗兰西斯.培根
  32. The most import works of his first group include The Advancement of Learning, Written in English; Novum Organum , an enlarged Latin version of The Advancement of Learning.培根的作品可分为三 类:第一类中最重要的作品有《学术的进展》 (用英文著述) 《新工具》 (是《学术的进展》的拉丁 文增补版)
  33. One is the knowledge obtained from the Divine Revelation, the other is the knowledge from the workings of human mind.他将知识分为两种:一种是通过神的启示获得的知识,另一种是通过人类 用脑思考而获得的知识。
  34. According to Bacon, man’s understanding consists of three parts: history to man’s memory, poetry to man’s imagination and creation, and philosophy to man’s reason.培根认为,人类的认识与学问分为三 部分:基于人类回忆的历史学,基于人类想象力创造力的诗歌与基于人类理性的哲学。
  35. Bacon, as a humanist intellect, shows the new empirical attitudes toward truth about nature and bravely challenges the medieval scholasticist.作为人文主义者的培根展示了自己对于自然界真理的实验主义 态度,并向中世纪的经院哲学家们提出挑战。
  36. Bacon’s essays are famous for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness.培根的散文以简洁,紧凑, 有力度而著名。
  37. The essays are well-arranged and enriched by biblical allusions, metaphors and cadence.这些散文不仅 结构巧妙还大量使用了《圣经》的典故,隐喻和基调。
  38. Of Studies 论学习 Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.读书使人充实,讨论使 人机智。 (V)John Donne 约翰.邓恩
  39. The imagery is drawn from the actual life.诗中的意象都是从现实生活中提取的。
  40. His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moods.他的诗歌给人一种固有的戏剧性, 展 示了看上去零散多样的经历与观念,以及漫无边际的情感与心境。
  41. The Sons and Sonnets, by which Donne is probably best known, contains most of his early lyrics.《歌与 短歌》是邓恩最有名的诗集,囊括了他早期大多数爱情诗作。

  42. In his gloomy poem “Farewell to love,” we can see his disillusionment.在忧伤的诗作《告别爱情》中, 我们就可以感受到他对爱情幻想的破灭。
  43. With the brief, simple language, the argument is continuous throughout the poem.议论依附于一种简洁 平白的语言,并贯穿于整首诗作。 (VI)John Milton 约翰.弥尔顿
  44. he was entirely occupied with the thoughts of fighting for human freedom.他头脑中充满了为人类自由 而战的思想。
  45. Milton’s literary achievements can be divided into three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets and the great poem.弥尔顿的文学作品可分为三类:早期诗作,中期的散文小册子和后期 的伟大诗作。
  46. Milton wrote his three major poetical works: Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, and Samson Agonistes. 他的三部伟大诗作: 《失乐园》 《复乐园》和《力士参孙》 。
  47. The theme of Paradise Lost is the “Fall of Man”. In the fall of man Adam discovered his full humanity. 失乐园的主题是人类的沉沦。在沉沦之中,亚当发现了自己身上的人性。
  48. Milton held that God created all things out of Himself, including evil.他认为上帝是按照他自己的样子 造出的世界,其中也包括罪恶。
  49. It opens the way for the voluntary sacrifice of Christ which showed the mercy of God in bringing good out of evil.为基督自愿献身开辟了道路, 这也显示出上帝欲将人类从罪恶与苦难中拯救出来的同情 心。
  50. In Samson Agonistes, the whole poem strongly suggests Milton’s passionate longing that he too could bring destruction down upon the enemy at the cost of his own life.在力士参孙中, 整首诗都强烈暗示着 弥尔顿渴望他自己也能像参孙一样,以生命为代价,与敌人同归于尽



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