1. He enjoys the liberties hard won over centuries by the alliance of philosophic genius and political heroism, consecrated by the blood of martyrs (烈士) ; he is provided with comport and leisure by the most productive economy ever known to mankind; science has penetrated the secrets of nature in order to provide him with the marvelous life like electronic sound and image reproductions he is enjoying.
  1、他享受着数世纪来哲学天才和政治英雄们联合取得的自由,这是被烈士的鲜血神圣 化了的自由;着人类有史以来最发达的经济提供的舒适与休闲;科学解开了自然的奥秘,使他 能享受神奇逼真的音响和影像效果。
  2. Each highbrow did and does congratulate himself on being unique in his unlikeness to other men; and conversely each lowbrow now congratulate himself on being in some mystical way unique in his likeness?on being, so to say, outstandingly average and extraordinarily ordinary.
  2、 每个有学问的人庆幸着自己与其他人的不一般;反过来没有学问的人则正庆幸着自己 说不清的与别人的相似性??对于存在,这么说吧,杰出的大众化和非凡的普通。
  3. As for the lowbrows’ claim to be specially “human”, I for one have never been able to understand why it should be “inhuman” to use the faculties that distinguish us from pigs and geese and “human” to use those which we share with the lower animals.
  3、对于没学问者自称特殊的“人类” ,有一点我一直搞不明白,为什么是“非人类”去 使用那些设施来将我们和猪啊、鹅啊划分,而“人类”去使用那些我们与低等动物共享的东 西。
  4. There is no disputing, says the proverb, about taste?though, in fact, human beings spend at least half their leisure doing nothing else?and if highbrowism and lowbrowism were exclusively ( as it is certain that they are in great part) matters of individual taste, there would be no more to say about them than what I have said in the preceding lines.
  4、谚语中说对于口味来说,是没有争议的??尽管在事实上,人类一?至少在一半的 休闲时间里什么也不做??并且如果阳春白雪和下里巴人对于个人口味的问题是排外(这一 点在很大程度上是肯定的),那么对于他们来说,除了我在前面讲的,就没什么说的了。
  5. Thus I desire a great deal less pleasure from jazz and thrillers than from the music, let us say, of Beethoven(贝多芬) or the novels, for example, of Dostoievsky; and the sex appeal of the girls on the covers of magazines seems to me less thrilling than the more complicated appeal to a great variety of feelings made by a Rubens, an EI Greco, a Constable, a Seurat.
  5、因此我从爵士乐和刺激性事物中找到的乐趣需比音乐里的少得多,比如说,贝多芬 的或者是 Dostoievsky 的小说;杂志封面上的性感女郎比 Rubens,Greco,Constablet Seurat 所 创造的精细复杂的情感对于我来说要逊色得多。
  6. One need only ask first-year university students what music they listen to , how much of it and what it means to them, in order to discover that the phenomenon is universal in America, that it begins in adolescence or a bit before and continues through the college years.
  6、 只要问问大学一年级的学生他们听什么音乐, 那对他们有多重要或者说意味着什么, 就可以发现在美国是个普遍现象,它开始于青春期或更早的时候但会延续整个大学时代。
  7. They start, like the pharisee in the parable , by thanking God that the are not as other men are, and proceed to paint a picture of those other men, hardly more flattering than that which Swift painted of the Yahoos.
  7、像寓言中的古法利赛人一样,他们感谢上帝??他们与普通人不一样,去画那些人 的图画,几乎比 Swift 画的人形兽还要好看。

  8. Each time the dream was a promise out of our ancient articles of faith, phrases from the constitution, lines from the great anthem of the nation, guarantees from the Bill of Rights, all ending with a vision that they might one day all come true.
  8、每一次梦想都是来自于古老的忠诚的承诺,宪法中的词句,国歌中的歌词,****法 案所保证,都是以希望有一天它能成为现实的期望来结束的.
  9. For many the day seemed an adventure, a long outing in the late summer sun?part liberation from home, part Sunday school picnic, part political convention, and part fish fry.采集 者退散
  9、对于许多人来说,这一天像冒险活动,在盛夏和阳光下长时间等着??有的是从家 里出来轻松,有的是学校周日野炊,有的是政治会议,有的烤鱼吃。
  10. It may not “look to it” at once, since it is looking to so many things, but it will be a long time before it forgets the melodious(悦耳的) and melancholy (忧郁的) voice of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther Jr., crying out his dreams to the multitude(大众).
  10、也许不能注意到它,因为在注意着许多事情,但是很长时间后也很难忘记 Rev、 Dr、Martin、Luther.Jr.,用悦耳忧郁的声音向大众呼喊出他的梦想
  11. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights, and thus they seek to accentuate(强调) contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature.
  11、大喜剧家们认为真理需要各种启示,因此他们开始强调社会活动中的各种矛盾,而 不是掩饰或者通过非社会象征的神圣结局和喜剧目的、自然规律来超越它。
  12. The hydrologic(水文地质的) cycle, a major topic in this science, is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes, beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation (降水(量)), thence along and into the ground surface, and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration(散发).
  12、水文地质循环是这一科学里面的一个重要课题,它是水的完全循环过程。这一过 程从水蒸汽开始中,以降水量的形式成为液态或者固态水,这样就到了地表,最后又通过蒸 发或者散发方式回到水蒸汽的状态。
  13. My point is that its central consciousness?its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people’s lives?owes much to that earlier literary heritage, a heritage that, in general, has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics.
  13、我认为它的关键意识??它对于阶级和性的深远理解对人们的生活有着重要影响 ??很大程度上归功于文化遗产,总的来说,当代的文艺批评家并未对此给予足够评价。
  14. In the early 1950’s historians who studies preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 18
  00) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite (精华) : the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates (要人) who had hitherto (迄今) usually filled history books.
  14、早在 20 世纪 50 年代,许多研究前工业时代欧洲(我们可将其粗略定义为 1300 年至 1800 年间的欧洲)的历史学家们开始研究更多的欧洲人群,而不仅仅局在只占人口总数 2% 到 3%的那些至今还充斥着历史书籍的政治、社会、精英人物:国王、将军、法官、贵族主 教和地方要人。
  15. The historian Frederick J. Tuner wrote in the 1890’s that the agrarian(农民) discontent (不满) that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been
precipitated (加速) by the closing of the internal frontier?that is , the depletion (枯竭) of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system.
  15、历史学家 Frederick J Tuner 在 19 世纪 90 年代写道:自 1870 年以来美国农民的不 满一直在缓慢增长,直到 1870 年关闭了内部前沿以后就被加速了??就是说,用于扩张农 业系统的新土地资源已经枯竭了。
  16. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beure’ blindness to the real nature of great writing, found the s essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments, and allowed these to take over in a steadily developing novel.
  16、Fallois 提出 Proust 1908 年就开始写小说了,因为 Saint-Beure 对于写作的真实性质 的忽视,他把小说放置了。后来开始流行个人回忆录和科幻小说,这些东西和小说一起稳步 地发展。
  17. The best evidence for the layered mantle (地幔) thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands, islands believed to result from mantle plumes (地柱) arising from the lower mantle, are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the midocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle.
  17、分层地幔的最好证据就是在海岛上发现的火山岩这一明显的事实。岛屿被认为是 从低层地幔升起的地柱形成的, 它构成的基本成份与海中的山脊系统根本不同, 许多地质学 家认为它起源于上层地幔。
  18. In October 1838, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on, from long continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that, under these circumstances, favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed.
  18、1838 年 10 月,我随便读了《马尔萨散人口论》 ,很欣赏书的到处都有的生存竞争, 经过对动物和植物生存习性的长期观察, 我忽然想到这种环境下, 有利于生存的变化被保留 了,而不利于生存变化被消除了。
  19. But these beliefs about peptide hormones (肽激素) were questioned as laboratory after laboratory found that antiserums(抗血清) to peptide hormones, when injected into the brain, bind in places other than the hypothalamus(下丘脑), indicating that either the hormones or substances that cross-react with the antiserums are present.
  19、但是这些对于肽激素的信仿,被一个又一个的实验室质疑,他们发现抗血清被注 入大脑后,并不在下丘脑那里才凝固,显示出肽激素和与抗血清反作用的物质都不存在 20 Proponents(支持者)of the so-called Golden Quadrangle (金四角),which would link areas of Bruma, Laos, Thailand and China's Yunnan province, are seeking an Asian Development Bank feasibility study of joint development and business projects that could free the region's hinterlands(内地)from their notorious dependence on the heroin trade.
  20、连接着缅甸、老挝、泰国和中国云南省的区域构成了所谓的金三角,它的支持者 们正寻求亚洲发展银行进行合作开发的可行性研究, 以此来使其区域内地摆脱对臭名昭著的 海洛因贸易的依靠。
  21. Thus in addition to the chances of going away from the right path outlined above, the scientific investigator shares with the ordinary citizen the possibilities of falling into errors of reasoning in the ways we have just indicated, and many others as well.
  22. He made a hole and peering through, could see jewellery, and other objects stacked in piles in the shadows that extended beyond the beam of light penetrating the interior.
  22、他掏了个洞往里瞥去,能看见珠宝,在透进去的光线之外的阴影里面,还有些堆成 堆的其他东西。
  23. Neither Ayat nor the Rassoul brothers noticed, however, that most of the pieces they were selling were of a type not previously seen in the marketplace?pieces whose existence had been suspected but which had not yet been discovered by archaeologists.
  23、 阿雅特和罗索尔兄弟都不知道他们销售的大部分都是以前在市场上面没有人见过的 东西??只被人们猜想过它的存在,但从来没有考古学家真正发现过。
  24. “The biggest construction project of this century”, explained French President Francois Mitterand in January, 1986 as he and then British prime minister Margaret Thatcher jointly announced that the two countries would finally overcome ancient quarrels and prejudices and forge a link across the narrow Channel separating them.
  24、1986 年 1 月,法国总统弗兰西斯?密特朗解释说: “这是本世纪最大的建设项目。 ” 当时,他和英国首相玛格丽特?撒切尔一起宣布两国将克服一直以来的争论和偏见,铺设一 条横穿分隔两国的狭长海峡的地下隧道。
  25. Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae(水藻) of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankto



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