Contents
Abstract 摘要 Introduction
  1. The theory of translation equivalence
  2. Translation as the medium for propagation of culture and communication
  3. The correlation between translation and culture and language and culture
  4. The Difficulty of combining source language and target language cultures
  5. Culturally-loaded words in translation processing
  5.1 Literal translation to retain source language national characteristics
  5.2 Free transliteration to reject source language national characteristics
  5.3 Combination with literal translation and free translation
  5.4 Transliteration
  5.5 The union of transliteration and free translation
  5.6 Interpretive method
  5.7 Reusing
  5.8 Making up vacancy
  5.9 Seeking common ground while reserving the difference
  5.10 Alienation and adaptation Conclusion Bibliography Acknowledgements
i
Abstract
Culture is a complex while language is an important part and carrier involved in the culture. Culturally loaded words & expressions are loaded with specific national cultural information and can best reflect cultural differences between different nations. In translating or interpreting, we should not only pay attention to vocabulary and grammar, but also lay more focus on national cultural meanings of vocabulary, such as historical cultural meaning, cultural-customs meaning, and geographical environmental meaning. We should try best to lessen the deviation caused by translating through equivalent transformation of cultural meanings between different languages to promote communication between different peoples. The basic difference between Chinese and the Western language is in vocabulary form, and the difficulty in translating is in the translation of Culturally loaded words & expressions words. This article takes the Nida’s equivalent translation as the foundation, and analyzes the phenomenon of translating words from many angles. Key word: cultural difference; translation equivalence; culturally-loaded words & expressions;
ii
摘要
文化是一个复合体, 语言是文化的重要组成部分和载体。不同民族语言有着不同的文 化负载。翻译作为不同文化间思想交流的主要手段, 除注意准确选词, 使用准确的句法形 式外, 更应注意添加在词汇上的历史文化、民情风俗、地理环境等文化色彩语义, 即文化 负载。翻译必须注意文化负载并讲究译法, 通过对文化负载的等值转换, 最大程度地减少 因翻译带来的信息差, 尽可能做到等效翻译, 更好的促进文化间的交流, 实现翻译的真 正价值。中西语言的根本差别在词汇形态上, 而词汇翻译的难点是外来语中文化负载词的 翻译。本文以 Nida 的翻译等值论为基础 ,从多度视角来剖析译词现象。 关键词: 关键词: 翻译等值;文化负载词;翻译方法
iii
On Translation Equivalence from the Perspective of Culturally-loaded words & expressions
Introduction In the recent 20 years, the translation studies had two obvious trends: First, the translation theory has deeply gotten the communication theory brand; second, translators put more emphasis on cultural than language. These two kinds of tendency's union indicated that the translation no longer is regarded as the verbal symbol transformation, but cultural pattern transformation. As a result, it naturally has had between the language and the cultural relational question. Just like Juri Lotman says, “No language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have at its corner the structure of natural language.”(Juri Lotman, 19
  78) It is not difficult to see, the language and the culture are inalienable. If no language, the culture is impossible to be able to manifest and to exist. But the language also has the significance when reflecting its culture. This requests the translator must have the profound cultural consciousness when carrying on the language operation. Also it decides a successful translation or not, in particular when source language culture and target language have great cultural differences.

  1. Translation as the Medium for Propagation of Culture and Communication
Philosophically, “culture” is the process of creative labor through which human beings obtain self-recognition, self-organization, understanding and the reforming of the objective world. The process through which mankind has continuously sought spiritual accomplishments in social activities and understood this objective world from a cultural perspective is the process through which mankind evolved and developed into a civilized society characterized by the development of culture. Historical significance, inheritance, evolution, compatibility and optimization are the fundamental features of human culture. Due to the sustainable evolution of mankind it self and unceasing changes in human society, culture does not exist and spread within its original domain only. Culture needs continuous spreading, exchanging, updating and optimizing beyond its original domain in order to maintain its vitality. The diffusion of culture is a forceful dynamic process from one culture to another or to diversified cultures. It is because of multicultural
1
features and the diversification of the mingling of the cultures that have produced a series of complex cultural phenomena known as “cultural interaction”, “cultural suitability”, “cultural blending”, ”cultural interchange”, “cultural conflict” and “cultural interference”. Although in the cultural space of nations there are some general characteristics, since the language, the carrier of the culture, varies, the characteristics of the culture of a specific nation and the diversification of its language are often bigger than the general characteristics. In particular, the diversification and discrepancy between eastern and western cultures exceptionally highlights Linguistic heterogeneity. So we have to resort to translation to conduct communication. Obviously, translation, in essence, is the medium of the spreading of culture and communication and interculturalism and interdisciplinary studies are its major features.
2
The correlation between translation and culture and language and culture
Being an indispensable element of culture and also as the carrier of culture, language has been keeping synchronous development with culture throughout the whole process of human cultures coming into being and their subsequent development. In every nation such things as the way of thinking, values, social awareness, religious beliefs, habits and customs can be embodied and reflected in its language. Therefore, there is a close relation between language and culture that can never be separated. The communication between different cultures can only be achieved through translation. The written signs and language are not the only forms of culture. In addition their expression has its limitations to an extent. Many of the functions of language and its implications (for example, the cultural image and psychological experience) cannot be “translated” at all in terms of literal meaning, but have to resort to analysis to bring out the deeper implications that they contain, thereby “shifting” the meaning of the original. That is to say, we must establish a kind of corresponding cultural context based on a sufficient and thorough understanding of culture of the target language. This further extends the concept of “translation”. Translation means not merely the conversion of literal meaning, but also the cultural communication of the language families and mutual transfer of the different information(Xiao Liming, 2001:
  14);By translation, it is not merely meant to transfer the meaning of the original, but also to shift its communication values (Zhang Meifang, Huang Guowen, 2002:
  4).So it is not merely an act of interlingual transference, but, as its essential nature is
2
concerned, it is a matter-spirit communication closely related to every aspect of the subjective world. To a certain extent, translation acts are acts of response, communication, perception and understanding interacting with the human being and the physical world. Therefore the relation of culture and translation is undoubtedly characterized by their indivisibility. Susan Bassnett, the contemporary senior British translator and translation theoretician, compares language to the heart of a cultural organism. Justa Holz Manttari (1984:
  17), a German functionalist scholar even uses “intercultural cooperation” or the fabricated terms “translatorial action” to replace the word “translation” while Christane Nord(19
  91) prefers to with the expression “intercultural communication”. In terms of the comprehensiveness and intercultural characters, within the horizons of translation, “culture” should cover all these domains and gradations associated with translation; and, in the first place, the translator should have a thorough understanding of the operation target ?the language. Without being fully aware of the nature of language, it is impossible to discuss culture from the view point of translation.
3
The Difficulty of combining source language and target language cultures
The Limitation and influence that culture exerts on translation comes mainly from two aspects. First, the text to be translated permeates all the characteristics of the culture of the Culture finds its reflection in words, the cultural image, the mode of
source language.
expression and the discourse. It is no easy job to translate the whole text into the target language accurately without “damaging” the original, both in words and in syntax so that it could be well received by the readers. If the translator does not have a good grounding in both languages artistic accomplishment, rich knowledge, literary taste and certain translation experience, it is highly unlikely that he or she will be able to translate a text rich in cultural connotation successfully. Second, such factors as the political, economic and cultural conditions, the viewpoint on values and aesthetic perspective of the country of the target language are vital elements which decide whether the translation can be processed successfully. The selection and adoption of translation strategies are also directly limited by the target language system. Since the translator has been imbued with the naturally deep-rooted influence of the culture and society in which he or she Lives, his or her translation theory and practical work will inevitably reflect the instinctive cultural and social characteristics in which he lives(Tan Zaixi,20
  00).Therefore we
3
hold that the inseparable relation between translation and culture lies in the following three basic aspects:(
  1) translation, as the media of cultural transmission as well as a typical intercultural action, is the outcome of social cultural environment. Translation is in chided in culture and also under restriction of culture. (
  2) The source language is imbued with abundant cultural information, plenty of which exists in nonverbal form. The translator must excavate this information and transmit cultural information through creating corresponding cultural discourse. (
  3) In translating, the translator’s motivation, viewpoint, values, implicit cultural preference, mode of thinking, artistic appreciation, Literary taste, aesthetic conception and translating ability 20
  02, are all working as crucial factors which decide the quality of the translated text. (张友平,
  50)Additionally, the social and cultural background influences or governs the translator’s motivation and psychology in the process of translation. For this reason, from the angle of translation in culture, we should study and define the function and role that translation plays in cultural aspect as well as the influence and restriction that social cultural environment exerts upon translation. Also from the angle of culture in translation, we should probe into such problems closely related to translation: verbal meaning, the meaning potential of culturally-loaded words, zero of equivalent word, cultural default, discourse, semantic clash, conjunction, domestication and foreignization. In terms of the relations of culture and translator, we can also discuss a series of related problems such as the context and the translator, the translator and reader, the translator and the author, the standard for translation appraisement and aesthetic specifications.
4
The theory of translation equivalence
As to the study of language and the culture, it contains rich content which involves the psychological consciousness representing to one language, the culture forming process, the historical custom tradition and the region characteristic and so on a series of complex factor. But after Nida’s “the translation equivalent theory” bringing to our country, it has the positive function to China's translation study. Nida once divided the linguistic and cultural characteristic into five categories: (
  1) Ecology; (
  2) Material Culture;
4
(
  5) Social Culture; (
  4) Religious Culture; (
  5) Linguistic Culture (Nida,19
  86) Therefore, Nida proposed “Dynamic Equivalence” and pointed out that so-called “the equivalent” in the translation is not mechanically done by sentence, but the true equivalence should be in the respective cultural meaning, the fu
 

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