The Attributive Clause 定语从句
定义
在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫 做定语从句,定语从句有时也可以修饰一个句子。 被定语从句所修饰的词叫“先行词”。 形式:先行词+关系词+从句 This is the book that I want.
关系词
关系代词: that, which, who, 关系词 whom, whose, as
关系副词: when, where, why
关系词的作用: 关系词的作用:

  1、连接主句和从句; 连接主句和从句;
  2、替代先行词; 替代先行词;
  3、在从句中充当成分。 在从句中充当成分。
关系代词的用法
关系代词在从句中可以: 关系代词在从句中可以:
指人 that which who whom 指物 主语 宾语
何时可以省略? 何时可以省略?
关系代词的用法
关系代词在从句中可以: 关系代词在从句中可以:
指人 that which who whom 指物 主语 宾语
√ √ √
√ √
√ √ √
√ √ √ √
何时可以省略? 何时可以省略? 宾语时可以省略 做宾语时可以省略
关系代词的用法练习
  1.The eggs were not fresh. I bought them yesterday. The eggs (that/which) I bought were not fresh.
  2.The friend was not hungry. He came to supper last night. The friend who/ that came to supper last night was not hungry.
  3.He likes the cheese. It comes from his parent’s farm. He likes the cheese that / which comes from his parent’s farm.
  4.The noodles were delicious. You cooked them. The noodles( which/ that )you cooked were delicious.
  5.I don’t like the people. They smoke a lot. I don’t like the people that / who smoke a lot.
介词+关系代词的情况 介词 关系代词的情况 1
The man The city
whom you spoke
to was a scientist.
which she lives in is far away.
介词+关系代词的情况 介词 关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right?
The man who/whom you spoke to was a scientist. The city that/which she lives in is far away.
介词+关系代词的情况 介词 关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?
The man to who/whom you spoke was a scientist. × The city in that/which she lives is far away. × 可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后 、 可见
介词+关系代词的情况 介词 关系代词的情况 4
下面两句中的介词能提前吗? 下面两句中的介词能提前吗
Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better . 在固定短语中介词不能提前
关系副词
when表示时间,作状语; where 表示地点, 作状语;why表示原因,作状语。 I still remember the day when I came here. This is the house where I lived last year. There are many reasons why people like traveling.
I still remember the day. I came here on the day. 替换on the day,用when, 定语从句为 I still remember the day when I came here. 若只是替换the day,因为 因为the day 做的是 的 做的是on 若只是替换 因为 宾语,所以用which,定语从句为 宾语,所以用 定语从句为 I still remember the day on which I came here. 结论:在此句中可以用on which来替换 when.
关系副词可变为“介词+which”
I still remember the day when I came here. on which =when This is the house where I lived last year. in which= where There are many reasons why people like traveling. for which =why 应根据句子的意思选用合适的介词。 应根据句子的意思选用合适的介词。
当先行词虽然表示时间、地点或原因, 而关系词在从句中作主语、宾语而不是 状语时,不可用when, where 或why, 而 应该用that 或which。 I like the city where there is a beautiful lake.
which/that I like the city has a beautiful lake.
The reason he didn’t come to school why yesterday is that he was ill. The reason he gave isn’t true. which/that
when I will never forget the day my son was born. which/that I will never forget the day I spent with Chairman Mao.
几种易混的情况 when
  1.I’ll never forget the days
we worked together.
及物动词
which/that
  2.I’ll never forget the days we spent together.

  3.I went to the town lived ten years ago.
where
I
which/that
  4.I went to the place I visited ten years ago. 及物动词
why
  5.This is the reason he was late.
which/that
  6.This is the reason he gave. 及物动词
定语从句分类
The Restrictive Attributive Clause 限制性定语从句: 限制性定语从句:先行词在意义上不可 缺少的定语,如果去掉, 缺少的定语,如果去掉,主句的意义就 不完整或失去意义。 不完整或失去意义。这种从句和主句的 关系十分密切,写时不可用逗号分开。 关系十分密切,写时不可用逗号分开。 The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause 非限制性定语从句: 非限制性定语从句:从句与主句的关系不十 分密切,只是对先行词作些附加的说明, 分密切,只是对先行词作些附加的说明,如 果去掉,主句的意义仍然很清楚。 果去掉,主句的意义仍然很清楚。这种从句 和主句之间往往用逗号分开,一般不用that 和主句之间往往用逗号分开,一般不用
定 语 从 句
考点:连接词which的用法
Which引导非限定性定语从句,其先行词可是一个词,也可是整个 引导非限定性定语从句,其先行词可是一个词 也可是整个 引导非限定性定语从句 主句或主句的某一部分。 主句或主句的某一部分。
B e.g.
  1. She heard a terrible noise, brought her heart into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that
  2. The weather turned out to be good, was more than we could expect. B A. what B. which C. that D. it
as 可以指人或物,也可以指代整个句子,常用于 如: same…as”等结 “such…as”, “as…as”,“the same…as” such…as”, as…as”, 构中 as 具有正如之意,与之搭配的动词一般是固定的, 具有正如之意,与之搭配的动词一般是固定的, 如: as you know/ as you see/as we planned/ expected等 as we expected等 This is not such a book as I expected. As anybody can see, this road is like a snake.
as 引导的定语从句
the same as 与the same that的异同 的异同
Please compare:
This is the same book as I lost. 这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。 这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。 This is the same book that I lost.
这本书就是我丢的那本。 这本书就是我丢的那本。
关系代词that 与which的区别 关系代词 的区别
而不用which which的情况 用that 而不用which的情况

  1.先行词为不定代词 先行词为不定代词all, much, little, 先行词为不定代词 everything, anything, nothing, none, few, one,any等 Is there anything that I can do for you?
  2. 先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词修饰 先行词前有形容词最高级、 时,用that。 。 This is the best book that I’ve ever read. This is the first thing that I want to say.

  3.当先行词被 当先行词被the only, the very, the 当先行词被 same, little, few, no, any等修饰时 等修饰时. 等修饰时 It is the only thing that I like to do.
  4. 当先行词包含了指人和物两方面的含义 先行词包含了指人和物两方面的含义 时。 They talked about the things and persons that they knew in the school.

  5.在疑问词 在疑问词who、which、what开头的句 在疑问词 开头的句 子中 Who is the man that spoke to you at the gate? Which is the star that is nearest to the earth?
用which而不用that 的情况 which而不用that 而不用

  1.在非限制性定语从句中
  2.关系代词前有介词时 This is the room in which Lu Xun lived.
  3.先行词本身是that The clock is that which tells the time. 钟表是告诉人们时间的。
引导非限制性定语从句时 as与which的区别 与 的区别
as引导的从句可位于句首或句末,而 which引导的从句,只可放在主句后面。As
anybody can see, this road is like a snake. This road is like a snake, as anybody can see. Asas还有“正
如…”,“正象…”之意,而which没有。
As Engels pointed out, labour created man himself . The clock struck thirteen, which made everyone laugh.
that , which
  1.He did all / everything he could to help me. that
  2.This is the very thing I am after. that
  3.We talked about the men and the things that we remembered at school. that
  4.He is the only man can do the work.
  5.This is the first thing I want to say. that
  6.He is the finest man I have ever worked that with.
  7.Who is the man spoke to you at the gate. that
  8.Which is the star is nearest to the earth. that
that , which ,whose, whom
that
  9.Is there anything else you want to say?
  10.Any person has the money can join the that group.
  11.He often speaks the role he played in the play, which made others upset. whom
  12.The man to I spoke is a famous scientist. whose
  13.The boy mother is dead was brought up by his father.
Exercises
在下列短文中分别填入where,when,why或that.
I worked in a machinery factory I where worked for three years. The year I when was 19 years old was very important to me. I where was admitted to a college I learned why English. The reason I chose to learn English is quite simple. I like it.
解题要领: 解题要领:
根据定语从句中所缺成分来确定是用关 系代词还是关系副词,决不要因为先行词是时 系代词还是关系副词, 间名词就用when, 是地点名词就用where. 间名词就用when, 是地点名词就用where.
选择引导词的总原则: 选择引导词的总原则:
将引导词放入定语从句中, 将引导词放入定语从句中,看其充当的 成分,如果充当主、 用关系代词; 成分,如果充当主、宾、表,用关系代词; 如果充当状语,用关系副词。 如果充当状语,用关系副词。根据其在从句 中的搭配选择相应的介词+which +which。 中的搭配选择相应的介词+which。
 

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