高三英语语法知识难点整理
I. 要点
  1、 一般现在时 (
  1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态,常与 sometimes, always, often, every day 等时间状语连用。如: Sometimes, we go swimming after school. (
  2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如: The earth goes round the sun.
  2、 现在进行时 (
  1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与 now, at present 等时间状语连 用。如: What are you doing now? (
  2) 和 always, continually 等连用,表一种经常反复的动作,常含有某种情感。 如: He is always doing good deeds.
  3、 现在完成时 主要表示动作发生在过去,对现在仍有影响,或动作一直延续到现在,或可能 还要继续下去,常与 just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如: Have you ever been to Beijing?
  4、一般将来时 表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 tomorrow, next year 等连 用。如: I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning. We're going to see a film next Monday.
  5、一般过去时 表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago 等词连用。如: It happened many years ago.
  6、过去进行时 表示过去某一时刻或某一时期正在发生的动作。如: What were you doing this time yesterday?
  7、 过去完成时 表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。如: The train had already left before we arrived.
一切为了学生的发展 一切为了家长的心愿
8、一般过去将来时 表示说话人从过去的角度来看将来发生的动作。如: He said he would come, but he didn't. 9、被动语态 被动语态的时态,以 give 为例。 时/式 一般 进行 完成 现在 am is given are am is being are has been given have 过去 was given were was being given were had been given 将来 shall be given will shall have been given will 过去将来 should be given would should have been given would II.例题 例1 I learned that her father in 19
  50. A had died B died C dead D is dead 解析:该题正确答案为B。从句中的谓语动词动作虽然发生在主句谓语动词的 动作之前,但因从句中有明确的过去时间状语 in 1950, 所以不用过去完成时态, 而用一般过去时态。 例2 The five-year-old girl by her parents. A is looked B has looked for C is being looked for D has been looked 解析:该题正确答案为C。在带有介词的动词短语用于被动语态句中,介词不 能省,否则就变成了不及物动词短语,而不能用于被动语态的句子中。 (五)动词虚拟语气 I. 要点 表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事
一切为了学生的发展 一切为了家长的心愿
实相反的假设等。一般常用于正式的书面语中。 1、 虚拟语气的构成 情景 条件从句的谓语动词 主句的谓语动词 与现在事实相反 动词过去式 (be 要用 were) should +动词原形 would 与过去事实相反 had +过去分词 should +have+过去分词 would 与将来事实相反 1、动词过去时 2、should +动词原形 3、were to +动词原形 should +动词原形 would 注:如果条件从句谓语动词包含有 were 或 had, should, could 有时可将 if 省去, 但要倒装。如: Had you (If you had) invited us, we would have come to your party. 2、 虚拟语气在各种从句的应用 (1) 在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、 惋惜、 理应如此等, 其谓语形式是"should(可 省) +动词原形",常用于以下三种句型中。 句型一:It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc) that… 句型二:It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc) that… 句型三:It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc) that… 如: It is strange that he (should) have done that. It is a pity that he (should) be so careless. It is requested that we (should) be so careless. (2) 在宾语从句中用于 suggest, propose, move, insist, desire, demand, request, order, command 等动词后的宾语从句中,表间接的命令和建议。其谓语形式是 "(should)+动词原形"。如: I suggest that we (should) go swimming. (3) 在表语从句中,表示间接的命令,要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句 中的主语通常是 suggestion, proposal, request, orders, idea 等。从句谓语形式是 "(should)+动词原形"。如: His suggestion is that we (should) leave at once. (4) 在同位语从句中,谓语形式是"(should)+动词原形"。如:
一切为了学生的发展 一切为了家长的心愿
We received order that the work be done at once. (5) 在 It is time that…句型中,其谓语动词形式是"动词的过去式"或 "should +动词原形",should 不可省。如: It's time that we went ( should )go to school. II. 例题 例1 We had hoped that he longer. A stays B have stayed C stayed D would stay 解析: 该题正确答案为D。 hoped 表示"本希望", had 同样用法的动词还有 think, expect 等,后面的句子需用虚拟语气 例2 "Mary wants to see you today". "I would rather she tomorrow than today." A comes B came C should come D will come 解析:该题正确答案为B。would rather 后面的从句需用虚拟语气,用动词过 去时表示。 例3 Had she been older, she it better. A had done B might have done C might do D would do 解析:Had she been older = If she had been old. 故该题正确答案为B。 (六)短语动词 I. 要点 英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有 的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。英语短语动词的 构成主要有以下六种: (1) 动词+介词 常见的有 look for, look after, send for, care about, ask for, laugh at, hear of (from), add to, lead to 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如: Don't laugh at others. I didn't care about it. (2) 动词+副词 常见的有 give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in, point out 等。这类短语动 词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称 代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如: You'll hand in your homework tomorrow. Please don't forget to hand it in.
一切为了学生的发展
一切为了家长的心愿
(3) 动词+副词+介词 常见的有 look down upon, go on with, break away from, add up to, catch up with 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如: All his money added up to no more than $1
  00. After a short rest, he went on with his research work. (4) 动词+名词+介词 常见的有 take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。 这类短语动 词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如: You should pay attention to your handwriting. We should make full use of our time. (5) 动词+形容词 常见的有 leave open, set free, cut open 等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词, 则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词, 则必须放在形容词前边。如: The prisoners were set free. He cut it open. (6) 动词+名词 常见的有 take place, make friends 等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如: This story took place three years ago. I make friends with a lot of people. (
  7)辨析 give away(让给,暴露) 和 give up(放弃,停止) put away(放起,收起) 和 put out (扑灭) turn up(出席,放大) 和 turn on (打开) keep out(阻止) 和 keep off (不让靠近) make up(编造,补上) 和 make out(辨认) take off(脱,起飞) 和 take out(拿出) II. 例题 例1 It is wise to have some money for old age. A put away B kept up C given away D laid up 解析:该题正确答案为A。意为"存";keep up 意为"继续";give away 意为"分 发";lay up"贮藏"。 例2 Here's my card. Let's keep in . A touch B relation C connection D friendship 解析:该题正确答案为 A. keep in touch 为短语动词,意为"保持联系"。
一切为了学生的发展
一切为了家长的心愿
例3 ! There's a train coming. A Look out B Look around C Look forward D Look on 解析:该题选 A. look out 意为"小心"。 (七)动词不定式 I. 要点 1、 不定式的形式。以动词 write 为例。 式|语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 to write to be written 完成式 to have written to have been written 进行式 to be writing 完成进行式 to have been writing 2、 不定式的句法功能 (1) 作主语 To hear from you is nice. To be a good teacher is not easy. 不定式作主语时,为了保持句子的平衡,往往以 it 作形式主语,而不定式置于 谓语动词后。如: It's nice to hear from you. It's not easy to be a good teacher. (2) 作宾语 通常用于 want, hope, wish, like, need, hate, begin, start, remember, agree, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help 等词后。如: I forgot to lock the door. Please remember to write to me. (3) 作表语 My job is to pick up letters. He seemed to have heard nothing. (4) 作定语 不定式作定语时,须放在它所修饰的名词或代词后。如: I have two letters to write. I have a lot of work to do. (5) 作宾补 通常用于 want, wish, ask, order, tell, know, help, advise, allow, cause, force 等词 后。如: He ordered her to leave at once. He was forced to obey his order.
一切为了学生的发展
一切为了家长的心愿
(6) 作状语 He got up early to catch the first bus. He worked hard to catch up with the other students. (7) 作独立成分 To tell you the truth, I told a lie. (8) "疑问词+不定式"结构。 如: I don't know how to choose them. I cannot decide where to go. (
  9)不定式的否定式。如: I decided not to go. (
  10)不定式的完成式。如: He seemed to have cleaned the room before I came in. The boy is said to have been sent to the hospital last week. (
  11)too…to 结构。如: He was too excited to go to sleep. He was only too glad to go. (他太高兴了,乐意去) (
  12)主动表被动。如: The book is easy to read. I have a book to read. II.例题 例1 I haven't got a chair . A to sit B for to sit on C to sit on D for sitting 解析:该题选 C。不定式 to sit on 在句中作定语,修饰名词 chair. 因为不定式 和它所修饰的名词间是"动宾关系",所以不定式必须是及物动词,故此处 on 不 能省略。 例 2 He was made . A go B gone C going D to go 解析:该题选 D。make sb. do sth. 如果是被动形式,不定式 do 前的 to 不能省 略。 例 3 A new factory is very soon. A to be built B built C to build D to building 解析:该题选 A。is to be built 意为"将要被建"。 (八)动名词 I. 要点 动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。
一切为了学生的发展
一切为了家长的心愿
1、 动名词的形式,以 write 为例。 式 | 语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 writing being written 完成式 having written having been written 否定式 not +动名词 2、 动名词的用法 (1) 作主语 Playing football is my favorite sport. Travelling with friends at weekend is fun. 作主语的动名词结构复杂且长时,可用 it 作形式主语。如: It is fun travelling with friends at weekend. (2) 作宾语 I enjoy playing PC game. He gave up writing five years ago. (3) 作表语 What he hated most was doing nothing. Seeing is believing. 动名词作表语时,句子的主语常是无生命名词或 what 引导的名词性从句。 (4) 作定语 There's a dining room in my school. All the people watching laughed. (5) 动名词的复合结构"物主代词(或名词的所有格)+动名词"。如: Tom's going home late made her mother angry. Would you mind my opening the window? 不过,动名词的逻辑主语在遇到以下情况时,必须用名词的普通格(或人称代 词的宾格) 。 ①无生命名词 The girls were afraid of the door suddenly closing. Fire burns better by oxygen being at work. ②有生命名词,但表泛指。 Have you ever heard of girls smoking? ③两个以上的有生命的名词并列。 Do you still remember my parents and me coming to see you that day?
  3.后面常接动名词的动词和短语 mind, enjoy, finish, consider, practise, imagine,
一切为了学生的发展 一切为了家长的心愿
keep, suggest, advise, allow, permit, be worth doing, be used to doing, be busy doing, can't help doing, it is no good doing, it is no use doing, look forward to doing, stick to doing, pay attention to doing, devote to doing, lead to doing II.例题 例1 She says she doesn't feel like out with you. A going B to go C for going D went 解析:该题正确答案为 A。 feel like = want, 此处 like 为介词,后面要接名词 或动名词作宾语 例2 The garden needs . A water B watering C to water D watered 解
 

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