定语从句 一、关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that引导定语从句 关系代词 , , , , 引导定语从句 可在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等句子成分。 时,可在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等句子成分。who代指 代指 作主语或宾语; 代指人, 人,作主语或宾语;whom代指人,作动词宾语或介词宾 代指人 代指人(= 或物(= 语;whose代指人 =of whom)或物 =of which),作定语; 代指人 或物 ,作定语; which代指物,作主语或宾语;that代指人或物,作主语、宾 代指物, 代指人或物, 代指物 作主语或宾语; 代指人或物 作主语、 语或表语。 语或表语。 This is the detective who came from London. The book which/that I am reading is written by Thomas Hardy. The desk whose leg is broken is very old. He is no longer the boy that he used to be two years ago. 使用关系代词时应注意以下几点: 使用关系代词时应注意以下几点:
(
  1)“介词+关系代词”可以引导定语从句,但关系代词只可用 介词+关系代词”可以引导定语从句, 介词 whom或which,不可用 或 ,不可用who或that。 或 。 The room in which there is a machine is a workshop. In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person to_whom she could , turn for help. (
  2)“whose +n.”引导定语从句时,可换成“the +n.+ of 引导定语从句时, 引导定语从句时 可换成“ + whom/which”或“of which + the +n.”。 或 。 He lives in a big house whose window faces the sea. He lives in a big house the window of which faces the sea. He lives in a big house of which the window faces the sea. (
  3)which引导的定语从句还可修饰前面整个主句,此时which相当于 引导的定语从句还可修饰前面整个主句,此时 相当于and 引导的定语从句还可修饰前面整个主句 相当于 this。 。 He succeeded in the competition,which made his parents very , happy.
The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than , we could expect. 【注】判断定语从句用什么引导词的关键是看先行词在从句中 作什么成分。 作什么成分。 I’ll never forget the day that/which I spent with you on the farm.(先行词 先行词the day作spent的宾语:I spent the day with you on 的宾语: 先行词 作 的宾语 the farm.) I’ll never forget the day when I worked together with you on the farm.(先行词 先行词the day在从句中作状语:I worked together with 在从句中作状语: 先行词 在从句中作状语 you on the farm on that day.) He works in the factory which makes color TV sets.(先行词 先行词the 先行词 factory在从句中作主语:The factory makes color TV sets.) 在从句中作主语: 在从句中作主语 He works in the factory where color TV sets are made.(先行词 先行词the 先行词 factory在从句中作状语:Color TV sets are made in the factory.) 在从句中作状语: 在从句中作状语
二、关系副词引导的定语从句
  1.关系副词 关系副词when,where,why在定语从句中分别表示时间、地点 在定语从句中分别表示时间、 关系副词 , , 在定语从句中分别表示时间 或原因。关系副词 在从句中充当时间状语, 或原因。关系副词when在从句中充当时间状语,where充当地点 在从句中充当时间状语 充当地点 状语, 充当原因状语。 状语,why充当原因状语。当先行词在定语从句中作状语时,引 充当原因状语 当先行词在定语从句中作状语时, 导词要用关系副词。 导词要用关系副词。 I will never forget the day when I met Mr. Lin. This is the place where we lived for 5 years. I know the reason why he came late.
  2.关系副词常可换成“介词+关系代词”。when可换成 关系副词常可换成“介词+关系代词” 可换成on/in/by 关系副词常可换成 可换成 which等,where可换成 等 可换成at/in/from which等,why换成 换成for which。 可换成 等 换成 。 This is the factory where I paid a visit the other day.
This is the factory to_which_I_paid_a_visit the other day. This is the factory that/which_I_visited the other day.
  3.that有时可以代替关系副词引导定语从句,此时that可以省去, 有时可以代替关系副词引导定语从句,此时 可以省去, 有时可以代替关系副词引导定语从句 可以省去 不过这是一种非正式用法。 不过这是一种非正式用法。 It happened on the day (that/when) I was born.
  4.way后面的定语从句不能用 后面的定语从句不能用how引导。如way在从句中作状语, 引导。 在从句中作状语, 后面的定语从句不能用 引导 在从句中作状语 应用in 引导, 应用 which或that引导,甚至还可省略引导词;如作主语或宾 或 引导 甚至还可省略引导词; 语应用that或which引导。 或 引导。 语应用 引导 I don’t like the way (in which/that) he talks. The way that/which he thought of to solve the problem might be helpful.
  5.from where为“介词+关系副词”结构,它也可以引导定语从句。 为 介词+关系副词”结构,它也可以引导定语从句。 Tom hid himself behind the door,from where he could hear the , steps of his mother clearly.

  6.as引导的定语从句 引导的定语从句 as有“正如,就像”之意,可引导非限制性定语从句,从句可位 有 正如,就像”之意,可引导非限制性定语从句, 于 主句的前面、中间或后面; 主句的前面、中间或后面;但which引导的非限制性定语从句一 引导的非限制性定语从句一 般只能放在主句之后。 般只能放在主句之后。 As had been expected,the England team won the football match. , The result of the experiment was very good,which we hadn’t , expected.
  7.非限制性定语从句与并列句的识别 非限制性定语从句与并列句的识别 非限制性定语从句与主句之间要用“逗号”分隔, 非限制性定语从句与主句之间要用“逗号”分隔,并且不能加 入 and,but,so等连接词。并列句一般由 等连接词。 等词连接, , , 等连接词 并列句一般由and,but,so等词连接, , , 等词连接 或中间用“分号”隔开。 或中间用“分号”隔开。 He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows,most of which , hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows,and ,
He paid the boy ?10 for washing the windows;most of them ; hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.
  8.定语从句与同位语从句的区别 定语从句与同位语从句的区别 同位语从句是位于名词answer,belief,doubt,decision, , 同位语从句是位于名词 , , , explanation,fact,hope,idea,information,news,order, , , , , , , , problem,promise,truth等后的句子,并对这些名词进行补充 , 等后的句子, , 等后的句子 说明或解释;从句一般是一个完整的句子,引导词that只起引导 说明或解释;从句一般是一个完整的句子,引导词 只起引导 作用,不作句子成分, 不可省略; 作用,不作句子成分,且that不可省略;同位语从句不可用 不可省略 which引导。而定语从句通常是一个不完整的句子,缺少主语或 引导。而定语从句通常是一个不完整的句子, 引导 宾语等。 宾语等。 The fact that she hasn’t known the result of the examination is clear. The fact (that/which) she told me yesterday is very important.
过关落实

  1.Some pre-school children go to a day care center, they , learn simple games and songs. A.then 答案: 答案:D
  2.He was educated at the local high school, he went on , to Beijing University. A.after which C.in which B.after that D.in that B.there C.while D.where 解析:where引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作地点状语。 解析:where引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作地点状语。 引导非限制性定语从句
解析: which引导定语从句 which指上面的句子 引导定语从句, 指上面的句子He 解析:after which引导定语从句,which指上面的句子He was school,表示“ educated at the local high school,表示“在当地高中受教 育后上了北京大学”。 育后上了北京大学” 答案: 答案:A

  3.Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity sight matters more than hearing. A.when B.whose C.which D.where 解析:先行词是activity,关系词在从句中作地点状语, 解析:先行词是activity,关系词在从句中作地点状语,表示 activity where。 “在这种活动中”,故选where。 在这种活动中” 故选where 答案:D 答案:
  4.?Where did you get to know her? ?It was on the farm we worked. A.that 答案: 答案:D B.there C.which D.where 解析:where引导定语从句修饰the farm,在从句中作地点状语。 解析:where引导定语从句修饰the farm,在从句中作地点状语。 引导定语从句修饰

  5.The book was written in 19
  46, the education system , has witnessed great changes. A.when C.since then B.during which D.since when
解析:1946是先行词,when引导定语从句,由句意可知, 解析:1946是先行词,when引导定语从句,由句意可知,关系 是先行词 引导定语从句 词前应加since,译为“自从那时……”。 词前应加since,译为“自从那时 since 。 答案:D 答案:
  6.By serving others,a person focuses on someone other than , himself or herself, can be very eye-opening and , rewarding. A.who 答案: 答案:B B.which C.what D.that 解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作主语。 解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作主语。 引导非限制性定语从句

  7.I was given three books on cooking,the first I really , enjoyed. A.of that B.of which C.that D.which
解析: which指 cooking;of结构提 解析:of which指of the three books on cooking;of结构提 前,指物时关系代词用which。 指物时关系代词用which。 which 答案:B 答案:
  8.The Beatles, many of you are old enough to , remember,came from Liverpool. , A.what B.that C.how D.as
解析:as引导非限制性定语从句。 解析:as引导非限制性定语从句。 引导非限制性定语从句 答案: 答案:D

  9.We saw several natives advancing towards our party,and one of , them came up to us, we gave some bells and glasses. , A.to which C.with whom 答案: 答案:B
  10.I saw a woman running toward me in the dark.Before I could recognize who she was,she had run back in the direction , she had come. A.of which C.in which 语 从句时from提前, which引导定语从句。 从句时from提前,用which引导定语从句。 from提前 引导定语从句 答案: 答案:D B.by which D.from which B.to whom D.with which
解析:当介词结构(to)提前,指人时,关系代词用whom。 解析:当介词结构(to)提前,指人时,关系代词用whom。 (to)提前 whom
解析: 从哪个方向来” direction, 解析:“从哪个方向来”为come from the direction,变为定

  11.It is far better for one to drink milk, one gets healthful , nutrients,than to drink coffee, contains no , , nutrients at all. A.what;what B.where;as ; ; C.from which;which D.in which;what ; ; 解析:根据句意“人们从牛奶中得到有益健康的营养成分” 解析:根据句意“人们从牛奶中得到有益健康的营养成分”可 第一个空应填from which; 知,第一个空应填from which;两个从句都是非限制性定语从 指物时,关系代词用which 故选C which, 句,指物时,关系代词用which,故选C项。 答案: 答案:C
  12.Last October China launched its second manned spaceship Shenzhou Ⅵ, two Chinese astronauts traveled in space for five days. A.in which B.at which C.by which D.from which 解析:先行词为Shenzhou Ⅵ,定语从句表示“ 解析:先行词为Shenzhou Ⅵ,定语从句表示“两名宇航员来此 飞船……”,故用in which。 飞船 ,故用in which。 答案: 答案:A

  13.?The authors of computer viruses are geniuses. ?I agree.They can apply their wisdom to other net technology human beings can benefit. A.in which C.on which B.through which D.from which
解析: from, 中获益, 解析:benefit from,从……中获益,获得好处;from提前且 中获益 获得好处;from提前且 定语从句先行词为物时, which。 定语从句先行词为物时,用which。 答案: 答案:D
  14.Today’s Sichuan has become a representative of the west development,a place hopes and opportunities have , replaced poverty and backwardness. A.which 答案: 答案:C B.that C.where D.there 解析:where引导定语从句,且在句中作地点状语。 解析:where引导定语从句,且在句中作地点状语。 引导定语从句

  15.Their goods are exchanged for such machinery
 

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