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英语国家概况 Part one The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
英国的历史分四部分:
  1.The Origins of a Nation
  2.The Shaping of the Nation
  3.Transition to the Mordern Age
  4.The Rise and Fall of the British Empire 1 取关键词 Origins 的字头 O 2 取关键词 Shaping 的字头 S 3 取关键词 Morderrn 的字头 M 4 取关键词 Empire 的字头 E 连起来就是 OSME=O+S+ME=O(哦),S(是)ME(我)! 接着每个部分的标题串在一起,用一句话来记忆.要好好记住每句话里所包括的每个字母代表的是什么标题.可以 看几遍这个情景对话,熟悉了之后可以不费吹灰之力就能记住整个英国历史的线索.有了这条线,你再把主要的记 忆点,象珠子一样地穿起来,这样回忆就非常容易了.可谓既见树木,又见森林.一切尽在掌握. History of UK (O.S.M.E) 哦(O) ,是(S)我(ME) O: Early settlers -> Roman Britain -> Anglo-Saxons -> the Viking and Danish Invations -> the Norman Conquest O(哦) :eravidan=era(时代)+vida(维达,女名)+n(诺曼征服) 句子: (老公看着一本英语国家概况在那里自言自语)哦,原来英国的新时代是伟大的维达小姐实现诺曼征服之 后开始的. S: Norman Rule -> the Great Charter -> the Hundred Years' War with France -> the Blackdeath and the peasant uprising S(是):ng(拼音:ng=嗯)+hb(hubby 丈夫,的缩写)[N+G+H+B] 句子: (老婆在看电视,漫不经心地说)是的,嗯, 老公. M: the English Reformation -> Elizabeth I -> the English Renaissance -> James I -> Charles I -> the Civil War -> the commonwealth -> the Glorious Revolution M(我): reelrejam cha cw cw revolution = re+el+re+jam+cha+cw+cw+revolution reel(卷轴)re(又)jam(果酱) cha(茶)cw+cw (与 wc 厕所相反)revolution(革命,旋转)
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句子: (老公一边看书一边倒着果酱,突然果酱洒了)不好了,我(ME 的第一个字母 M)的卷轴又洒满果酱了, 赶快拿点茶去 WC 洗洗,啊?怎么两个 WC 都写反了(CW+CW),快旋转回来! E(我): Two parties (Whigs and Tories) -> Agricultural changes -> the Industrial Revolution -> the Chartist Movement -> Trade unions and the Labour Party -> Colonial Expansion -> in the two World Wars E:TAICHA TCW=T+A+I+CHA+T+C+W 句子: (老婆赶紧跑过来说)我(ME 的第二个字母 E)的天啊,这什么厕所呀,简直太(TAI)差(CHA)了嘛, 我踢(T)这个该死的 CW!
Chapter 1 Land and People
第一部分:Different Names for Britain and its Parts
  1. 选择题/ 简答题: The official name of the United Kingdom is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  2.选择题/ 简答题: The British Isles are made up of two large islands-Great Britain (the larger one) and Ireland, and hundreds of small ones. 不列颠群岛由两个大岛?大不列颠岛(较大的一个)和爱尔兰岛,及成千上万个小岛组成. There are three political divisions on the island of Great Britain:England, Scotland and Wales
  3.简答题: Why do people tend to use "England" and "English" when they mean "Britain" and "British"? England is the largest, most populous and generally speaking the richest section. So people tend to use "England" and "English" when they mean "Britain" and "British".
  4.名词解释: the Commonwealth of Nations 或 the British Commonwealth The Commonwealth is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. Member nations are joined together economically and have certain trading arrangements. The Commonwealth has no special powers. 英联邦是一个由许多独立国家组成的自由组织, 这些国家都是大不列颠国以前的殖民地, 成员国都是出于经济原 因结合在一起的并有固定的贸易往来.英联邦没有什么特权. (1931: British Empire was replaced by the British Common-wealth or the Commonwealth of Nations (1931: 二次世界大战削弱了英国,帝国虽大,依旧散矣. .[1931])
第二部分:Geographical Features
  1.选择题/ 简答题:
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Britain is an island country. It is surrounded by the sea. It lies in the north Atlantic Ocean off the north coast of Europe.
  2. 选择题/ 简答题: Britain is separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel in the south and North Sea in the east.
  3.名词解释/ 简答题: The English Channel between England and France is quite narrow and the narrowest part is called the Straits of Dover, which is only 33 km across. 非常狭窄的英吉利海峡位于英国和法国之间,最窄的部分只有 33 公里,叫做多佛海峡. (这么狭窄的海峡,鸽子[Dove]扇扇 [33 km] 翅膀就飞过去了.)
  4.名词解释:Chunnel Chunnel stands for channel and tunnel which was cut under the Straits of Dover. With it England and France join together by road. The "Chunnel" was open to traffic in May 19
  94. ("Chunnel": 英吉利海峡隧道(铁路) May 1994 通车. (英吉利海峡隧道通车的时候车上载了无数的五月[May] 花,一[1]路瓢香,久久[99]不能消逝[4]. )
  5. 选择题/ 简答题: The north and west of Britain are mainly highlands. The east and southeast are mostly lowlands. (这种地理特点和我国基本一样,好记吧.西部北部高,东部东南低.)
  6. 选择题/ 简答题: England: 130,000 平方公里 (英格兰经常下雨,所以英格兰人经常站在雨伞[13]下东张西望[万],哈哈.这样就 记住了英格兰的面积了. ) The Pennines are the principal mountain chain. 奔宁山脉是主要的山系 The highest peak of England is Scafell , in the Lake District in north-west England. 英格兰的最高峰是 Scafell, 位于英格兰西北部的大湖区. (Pennines(奔宁山脉)是主要的山脉,英格兰最高峰 Scafell(978m)在 Lake District. (笨[奔宁]啊,爬那么高,不怕[Scare]掉[fell]进湖[Lake District]里去啊,喝酒[9]压惊,心里还是七上八下[78].)
  7.识记要点: Ben Nevis (1343m), the highest mountain in Britain is located in Scotland. 位于苏格兰的本尼威斯山是大不列颠的最高山. (书[苏格兰]本[Ben]好高好大,像座山,拿[Ne]在手里很费事[vis],读的时候要一想[13]再想,使[4]劲想[3])
  8. 选择题/ 简答题: There are three natural zones: the Highlands in the north, the central Lowlands , and the southern Uplands. 苏格兰从地理上被分为三部分:北部的高地,中部低地和南部高原.
  9. 选择题: Snowdonia in the northwest is the highest mountain in Wales. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. 威尔士的最高的山是位于西北部的 Snowdonia 山脉,威尔士的首府是卡迪夫. (Wales: 以 pasture 牧场为主,所以叫 Wales,喂二食,就是喂草给两种动物吃,牛和羊.哈哈. 最高峰是 Snowdonia (1085m)首府是 Cardiff (威尔士遍地牛羊,牧羊的时候是开着车[car]满地[di]乎乎[ff]乱跑,远处白茫茫的羊群,乍一看还以为下雪[snow]
3
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了,其实是逗你[donia]玩儿呢.看这么多的羊群,要有十[10]八[8]般武[5]艺才行啊.)
  10. Northern Ireland: Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland. 第三部分:Rivers and Lakes
  1. Rivers in Britain do not freeze in winter. * East coast rivers: Tweed / Tyne / Tee / Thames (4 "T" 谐音:退堂提堂) West coast rivers: Clyde / Mersey / Severn (顺着西岸的河流直下,7[Severn] 个客人来到[Clyde]沙漠西部[Mersey])
  2. The longest river is the Severn River which is only 338 km long 不列颠最长的河流是塞汾河,长 338 千米. (7[Severn]条河流里面最长的一条.河面上飘着两把雨伞,[33]一只叭[8]儿狗拼命游在雨伞的后面.)
  3. The second largest and most important river in Britain is the Thames River (336km). 大不列颠的第二大长河是泰吾士河,长 336 公里,也是最重要的河 (就因为比 Severn 少 2 米,所以排名第二.)
  4. 识记要点: Oxford is also on the Thames. River Clyde is the most important river in Scotland.
  5. 选择题: The largest lake in Britain is the Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland. 英国最大的湖,不过却在北爱尔兰. (Lough Neagh 的缩写 LN,多像爱尔兰的"LAN"啊)
  6. 选择题/简答题: The Lake District is one of the popular tourist attractions in Britain. It is well known for its wild and beautiful scenery and 15 lakes. the Lake District and the Lake Poets:湖区是 19 世纪三个 Lake 诗人的故乡,William Wordsworth / Samuel Taylor Coleridge / Robert Southey (想象湖面上芦苇[William]随风摇摆,虾苗[Samuel]们在悠闲地啃着白色的大萝卜 [Rober].真是如诗如画啊.) 第四部分:Climate
  1. 识记要点: Though it seems that people are always complaining about the weather in Britain because it is rainy and so changeable and unpredictable, the climate in Britain is in fact a favorable one.
  2. 简答题: 请简要描述英国的气候状况. It has a favourable maritime climate-winters are mild, not too cold and summers are cool, not too hot, and it has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year.
  3. 简答题: 影响英国气候的三个主要因素:[风水流(风水轮流转)] (
  1) The surrounding waters 大不列颠岛周围的海域 (
  2) The prevailing south-west winds 盛行的西南风 (
  3) The North Atlantic Drift 北大西洋暖流
  4. 简答题:
4
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英国气候有那些特点?为什么会有这些特点? Since Britain's climate is of the maritime type, it is characterised by cool temperatures, frequent cloudy days and rainstorms.
  5. 识记要点: Britain has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year.
  6. 识记要点: The average annual rainfall in Britain: over 1000mm.
  7. 识记要点: As a result of the rainfall distribution in Britain there is a water surplus in the north and west, and a water deficit in the south and east.
  7. 识记要点: Most cities in Britain have introduced "Clean air zones" , whereby factories and households are only allowed to burn smokeless fuel. 英国的很多城市都有"洁净空气区" ,在这些地区工厂和家庭只能燃烧无烟燃料. 第五部分 The People
  1. 识记要点: 90% of the population is urban and only 10% is rural
  2. 识记要点: There is a great concentration of population in England.
  3. 选择题/简答题: The English are Anglo-Saxons, but the Scots, Welsh and Irish are Celts.
  4. 选择题: The Celts came to Britain after 700 BC. Later they were conquered by the Romans.
  5. 选择题/简答题: The Germanic conquerors give England it's name "Angle" land.
  6. 选择题/ 简答题: It was from the union of Norman conquerors and the defeated Anglo-Saxons that the English people and English language were born. 正是由于诺曼征服者与被击败的盎格鲁?撒克逊人的结合,英国人和英语诞生了.
  7. 识记要点: The English have many differences in regional speech. The chief division is between southern England and northern England. Generally speaking southerners speak the type of English closer to BBC English.
  8. 名词解释:Cockney (伦敦东区人)
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A Cockney is a Londoner who is born within the sound of Bow Bells--the bells of the church of St. Mary LeBow in east London.
  9. 选择题: Regional speech is usually "broader" in northern England than that of southern England.
  10. 选择题: The ancestors of the Welsh were the ancient Britons. The Welsh are emotional and cheerful people. They are music lovers and proud of their past.
  11. 选择题/ 简答题: Welsh is an ancient Celtic language. It was given equality with English for all official use in Wales in 19
  65.
  12. 名词解释: Eisteddfodau 或 The National Eisteddfod (想象和谐音:威尔士人爱吃的食物 [Eisteddfod]是诗歌,音乐和唱歌. ) The National Eisteddfod is the great event of the year in Welsh, on these occasions competitions are held in Welsh poetry, music, singing and in this way they keep the Welsh language and Welsh culture alive. 此节日是威尔士人一年中重大的节日,在这些时候威尔士人会用威尔士语举行诗歌,音乐,唱歌的各种比赛,以 这种方式来保留威尔士语和威尔士文化.
  13.选择题: Scots are pround that the English never conqured them.
  14. 选择题: Many Scottish names begin with M', Mc or Mac, which means "son of" in Gealic, the old Celtic language of the Scots.
  15. 识记要点/课后第十题答案: Hundreds of years ago Scots and English Protestants (新教徒) were sent to live in Northern Ireland. Since then there has been bitter fighting between the Protestants who are the dominant group, and the Roman Catholics (天主教徒) , who are seeking more social, political and economic opportunities. The British Government and Government of Ireland are now working together to bring peace to Northern Ireland.
本章重点课后题:

  1. What are the differences between Britain and the British Isles, Great Britain, England, the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth? The British Isles, Great Britain and England are geographical names, not the official names of the country, while the official name is the United Kingdom, but the full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The British Commonwealth is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain.
  3. Whereabouts in Great Britain are mostly highland and
 

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