The Specialized English
Tsonghui Wang The Institute of Forensic Science
Sep.01,2003

  1. Technical Writing in English

  1.1 The Composition of Scientific Thesis

  1.
  1.1 论文内容的概述

  1.
  1.
  1.1 论文的写作要求 clear, concise, correct, courteous
  1.
  1.
  1.2 论文包含的各部份 (
  1) Title concise, brief, appropriate

  1) Solubility Study
  2) Solubility of Teflon
  3) Phase Equilibrium between Teflon and Organic Solvent
  4) A Study of the Phase Equilibrium between Teflon and some Solvent at Elevated Temperature 目前很少用 Study of , Investigation of, A Final Report on, A Complete Investigation of, etc. 一般, 一个标题不超过 12 个词,可加副标题。题目上的谦虚是写作上的错误。 (
  2) Authors, Organization(Institution, affiliation), Location, Zip code *(
  3) Abstract clarified, independent, absorbing (
  4) Keywords *(
  5) Content Accurate, Detailed, Repeatable, Vital (
  6) Summary Succinct, Essential 突出研究课题的重要性和 它的内容、方法、成果,以加深读者印象。 (
  7) Acknowledgement Just suited (
  8) Reference (
  9) Attachment (
  10) Index 学位论文应将目录加在关键词后面。
2

  1.
  1.2 关于 Abstract

  1.
  1.
  2.1 摘要的类型
分陈述性和资料性两种。

  1.
  1.
  2.2
摘要的内容
摘要的篇幅为正文的 3%, 通常不超过 200 words 的数目。摘要的内 容包括: (
  1) 重要性 (
  2) 研究的内容 (
  3) 突出的成果 它包括实验或论证中新观察到的事实和结论; 新化合物的名称、数据等物理常数;采用的方法 (
  4) 意义

  1.
  1.
  2.3
摘要的注意事项
(
  1) 使用标准术语,不使用缩写字; (
  2) 用第三人称和避免各种时态的混用; (
  3) 不宜与他人工作进行对比,除非是在他人工作的基础上发展 的,才提及别人的研究工作; (
  4) 论点必须具体、鲜明,不能笼统; (
  5) 论文必须考虑一些读者得不到原文。
3
从卵蛋白中分离的 L-β-天门冬酰胺糖类的质谱分析 β 天门冬酰胺糖类的质谱分析
T.H.Wang, T.F.Chen and D.F.Barofsky Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA 摘要 用卵蛋白作为起始材料,我们分离和?化了相当量的已知糖肽,把它们作为模型以研究和 发展分析这类化合物的质谱过程。在这进程中我们在卵蛋白的 L-β-天门冬酰胺糖类发 现了七个新的化合物。在 KRATOS MS50-TC 质谱仪上得到的正、负快原子轰击质谱图 确认找到的色谱峰相当于尚未鉴定的,分子量范围为 1000 到 3000 的新化合物。某些未 知化合物质谱图中存在的碎片离子峰能根据已知糖基天门冬酰胺结构所建立的离子碎 裂谱型予以合理解释。 关键词 卵蛋白,L-β-天门冬酰胺糖类,正、负快原子轰击,离子碎裂,结构
ABSTRACT Using ovalbumin as a starting material, we have isolated and purified relatively large stocks of known glycopeptides for use as models with which to investigate and develop mass spectrometric procedures for the analysis of this class of compounds. In the process, we have discovered six new components in the L-β-aspartamido carbohydrate fraction of ovalbumin, Positive and negative fast atom bombardment mass spectra, produced on a KRATOS MS50-TC, confirm that the newly found chromatographic peaks correspond to as yet unidentified compounds in the molecular weight range of 1000-30
  00. Fragment ion peaks present in the mass spectra of some of the unknown compounds can be rationalized in terms of the fragment ion patterns established from the structures of the known glycopeptides.
4
蛇毒液中透明质酸酶的 电喷雾质谱测定
汪聪慧 、Supason Pattannargson2 马龙华 New York
I
John Roboz
( Div. of Neoplastic Disease, Dept. of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 10029,VSA, l 公安部物证鉴定中心,100038,2 Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkom Univ., Bangkok, Thailand )
透明质酸酶(hyaluronidase, hyalase)是活体组织和生物体液中一种普遍存在的酶。 从 不同来源制备的hyalase有不同的作用机理。在蛇毒液中它具有’扩散因子’的作用, 促进毒素扩散到患者的组织中, 断裂结缔组织中的葡糖胺聚糖和强化毒素的局部出血作 用。有关蛇毒液中hyalase分子量测定的情况很少有介绍。目前仅有五步蛇的hyalase 分子量的报导[1],使用凝胶色谱和SDS聚丙烯酷胺凝胶电泳方法测出约3300O Da,和蜥 蜴毒液的分子量为63000 Da左右[2]。 众所周知,ESI方法测定生物大分子的分子量,其精度远远高于SDS PAGE或者GPC方法, 前者的质量测定误差在
  0.01∽
  0.1%,而后者为1∽10%,即使用MALDl-TOFMS法也只能在
  0.1%左右。显然,用ESI方法测定蛇毒液中hyalase具有很大的优势,本文首次报导这方 面的结果。
由于没有已知分子量的hyalase供使用,我们从市售的来自bovine testes和leeches制 备的hyalase作为分析的'标准物'。表1罗列了分析结果,例如bovine testesVIII和lS 分别为15588 Da和15583 Da, 标准偏差为
  2.5 Da, 用平均偏差表示测定的重复性为
  0.013%. 上述二个hyalase得到了MALDI-TOFMS的辅证,测定的数据分别为15578 Da和15576 Da。
5
同样,leeches的hyalase,其分子量约为2850O Da,这是制造商提供的,而ESIMS测定 的数据29035 Da应更为正确。 蛇毒液的粗产品用凝胶 HPLC 方法分离,用毛细管电泳技术测定 hyalase 的活性,由此 收集所需的馏分,然后用毛细管 HPLC-ESIMS 实现分子量测定。在 black cobra 蛇毒液 的凝胶 HPLC 图上,保留时间在 11∽12 分钟之间的馏分,称以 NO.
  11,具有 hyalase 活 性。该馏分的 HPLC-ESIMS 的 TlC 图上有二个峰,获得的 ESIMS 多电荷谱经转化后,分 别为 7114 Da 和 49395 Da 的分子量,前者是属于蛇毒液中存在的低肤物质。因为在有 活性的 NO.11 馏分的前后,即 NO.1O 和 NO.12 馏分并无活性;49 KDa 的成分在它们中并 未检测到, 7 KDa 成份均能找到, 但 由此证实 49 KDa 的成份为 hyalase 的分子量。 KDa 49 的成份来自于一个有裂分的峰,经过五次重复实验,得到分子量的平均值为 49377 Da, 测定的重复性为
  0.028% 。在 Thai cobra 蛇毒液的凝胶 HPLC 图上,保留时间在 10∽11 分钟之间的馏分,标以 NO.10 ,同样具有 hyalase 的活性。经 HPLC-ESIMS 分析有三个 峰。峰 l(RT
  2.2 分钟)的分子量为 6706 Da,峰 2(RT
  2.8 分钟)的分子量为 6740 Da, 峰 3(RT
  4.8 分钟)含有 60265 Da 和 31233 Da 二个组分。峰 3 在图中为主峰,峰 3 中 6O KDa 的组分是主成分。 C4 柱 HPLC 一 ESIMS 的 TIC 图上, 3 的跨度为
  4.2∽
  5.2 分钟, 在 峰 在
  4.2’处仅有 3l KDa 组分,在
  5.1’处仅有 6O KDa;在凝胶 HPLC 图上,在 NO.10 馏分 后面的且没有活性的 NO.11 馏分中,并没有检出 6O KDa 的组分,而仅检出 32 KDa 的组 分,由此证明,NO.10 馏分中峰 3 的 3l KDa 的组分不应归属于 hyalase。Thai cobra 蛇毒液中 hyalase 的分子量应为 6O Ka。与此同时,用 MALDI-TOFMS 获得 60868 Da 的数 据也得以辅证。在 ringhals cobra 蛇毒液中也同样获得 NO.11 馏分具有活性。它在 HPLC-ESIMS 图上获 49722 Da 的峰,它代表该蛇毒液中 hyalase 的分子量。
ELECTROSPRAY MS OF HYALURONIDASE IN SNAKE VENOMS
T.H.WANG', Supason PATTANNARGSON 2, L.H.MA , John ROBOZ (Div. of Neoplastic Disease, Dept. of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA, 'Inst. of Forensic Science, Muxidi Nanii, Beijing 100038, China
2
Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok, Thailand)
6
ABSTRACT
Hyaluronidases (hyalases) from bovine testes and leeches were used as "standard". The constituents of crude snake venoms-hyalases were separated by size exclusion HPLC. Molecular masses of hyalases from snake venoms, determined by on-line capillary HPLC-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization, were: Naja melanoleuca (black cobra) 49377 Da, Naja Kaothia(Thai cobra)60265 Da, Sepedon hemachatus (ringhals cobra) 49722 Da. The mass determinations were repeatable within
  0.03%.
7

  1.
  1.
  2.4 关于“详细摘要”
Summary 的内容加上图和/或表格。
ELECTROSPRAY MS OF HYALURONIDASE IN SNAKE VENOMS
T.H. WANG , Supason PATTANNARGSON , L.H. MA and John ROBOZ Div. of Neoplastic Diseaes, Dept. of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA 1 Inst. of Forensic Science, Muxidi Nanii, Beijing 100038, China 2 Dep{. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok, Thailand
1 2
Hyaluronidases (hyalase) are ubiquitous enzymes in living tissues and fluids, such assperm, skin, snake venom, heads of leeches, pneumococci, hemolytic streptococci,staphylococcus aureus, clostridium welchii etc. There are significant variations in the substrate specificity and mechanism of action of hyalase prepared from different sources. It has been suggested that in snake venoms hyalase functions are as a "spreading factor", facilitating toxin diffusion into the tissues of the prey by cleaving glycosaminoglycans in the connective tissues, and potentiating the local hemorrhagic effects of toxins. Relatively little is known about the molecular masses of hyalases in snake venoms.The molecular mass of hyalase in five pace snake was reported by Xu et.al. as 33 kDa and in lizard venom was reported by Tu et.aU2! as 63 kDa. In these studies gel filtration and SDS PAGE have been used to estimate molecular masses. Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, alone and in combination with HPLC has become a major new tool for the determination of the molecular masses Of biomacromolecules. The mass measuring capability of ESI is order of magnitude better than that of the SDS PAGE or size exclusion HPLC techniques; typically, mass errors with ESI are in the
  0.01% to
  0.1% range while 1% to 10% range for the latter. To our knowledge, the technique has not yet been applied to the determination of the molecular masses of hyalase in snake venoms. In the
8
present study, constituents of crude venoms were separated by size exclusion HPLC, fraction were collected and hyalases activity established. Relative molecular masses of hyalases were determined by on-line capillary HPLC-ESI-MS. Because no hyalase with well established molecular weight is available, commercially available hyalase prepared from bovine testes and leeches were selected as "standard" for testing the analytical approach. The ESI results and available information ire summarized in Table
  1. Repeatability experiments for one of the hylase standards gave resuls within
  0.013% error. The molecular masses obtained by ESI for the bovine testes type VIII and S samples were confirmed by TOFMS with MALDI ionization, yielding 15 5 78 Da and 15 576 Da, respectively. As well known, the mass error with MALDI-TOFMS is greater than
  0.1%. The molecular mass of the hyalase sample from leeches, 2903 5 Da, was in agreement with 28500 Da, the molecular weight provided by the supplier (unpublished data). After run HPLC-ESI-MS of fraction No. 11 (i.e. the collection at RT ll-12mm.in size exclusion HPLC with hyalase activity) of the black cobra venom, the raw ESI spectrum corresponding the main peak in TIC revealed a number of multiply charged ions, whose transformed mass spectrum gave 493 95 Da as the molecular mass of hyalase from black cobra. There was no other peak presented in this fraction, and those fractions taken at higher and lower RT did not show comparable hyalase activity and did not contain the 49 kDa peak. The determination of the 49377 Da (average molecular mass, n=5 ) was repeatable within
  0.028% error. In the case of the. Thai cobra venom, size exclusion HPLC collection No. 10 (11-12 min.) was the fraction that showed hyalase activity using th CE test. The TIC monitoring profile of this fraction revealed a broad peak, indicating the potential presence of several constituents. The major components were detected in the transformed spectra, i.e. one at 31 kDa and one at 60 kDa. The fraction No. 11 did not show any hyalase activity and revealed only the 32 kDa peak. Accordingly, it was concluded that the molecular mass of hyalase from the Thai cobra venom is 60265 kDa. It was also confirmed by MALDI-TOFMS, yielding 60868 Da. The situation was similar in the case of the ringhals venom. Here the fraction
9
No.11 exhibited hyalase active. Based on the mass spectrometric and chromatographic evidences, it was concluded that the 49 kDa peak, determined by ESI as 49722 Da, represents the molecular mass of hyalase in the ringhals cobra venom.
Table1
SAMPLE
Molecular weights of "standards" and snake venoms
MOLECULAR MASS (Da) Found 15588 15583 31770 29035 28500 Reference 14000 14000 15588±
  2.5, n=8 REPEATABILITY
Standard
Bovine testes, type VIII Bovine testes, type I-S Bovine testes, type VI-S Leeches
Snake Venom
Black cobra Thai cobra Ringhals cobra
REFERENCES [1] X.Xu etal., Toxicon, 20 , 973,1982 [2] A.T.Tu etal., Comp. Biochem. PhysioL, 7 , 377,1983 49377 60265 49722 49377±
  16.6, n=5
10

  1.
  1.3 关于 Content
正文要求准确、详尽、可重复性。要学会用材料说明自己的观点;要 有逻辑性;要用好的词章,即指写作的技巧和修辞,它包括用词和句 子,避免枯燥。 词章的组织方法: (
  1)由感性认
 

相关内容

英语讲课1-3 语法和修辞

   1.3 Grammar & Diction 1.3.1 正确的语法 1.3.1.1 人称 We carried out several studies which ...... ( It was carried in several studies that ...... ) First, you adjust the dial at the top of machine to the temperature you wish, then you turn the switch “o ...

英语口语讲课

   Transportation Contents 1 2 3 4 Learning Objectives Background Information Transportation Role-Play Transportation Learning Objectives: Get to know some basic information about transportation Grasp some expressions to improve communicative competen ...

英语专业论文终极模板10-1-12

   Abstract What is context and what are speech acts? How can context influence speech acts? These questions have aroused many linguists’ interests for a long time and will be demonstrated in this paper. This thesis aims at influence of context on spe ...

英语

   英语 百科名片 英语(English)是联合国的工作语言之一,也是事实上的国际交流语言。英语 属于印欧语系中日耳曼语族下的西日耳曼语支, 并通过英国的殖民活动传播到世 界各地。由于在历史上曾和多种民族语言接触,它的词汇从一元变为多元,语法 从“多屈折”变为“少屈折”,语音也发生了规律性的变化。根据以英语作为母 语的人数计算, 英语可能是世界上第三大语言, 但它是世界上最广泛的第二语言。 世界上 60%以上的信件是用英语书写的,上两个世纪英国和美国在文化、经济、 军事、政治和科学上的领先地位使 ...

英语

   浅谈英语文章阅读 一、阅读英文文章的技巧 1、扩大阅读视野 、 所谓阅读视野是指眼睛在“凝视”的瞬间所能接收或覆盖的印刷符号。 普通读者眼睛停顿 时可接收两个英语单词, 阅读能力强的读者一眼可以看四个左右的单词, 但能力差的读者一 眼只能接收一个或者不到一个的单词。因此,在相等的阅读时间里,视野狭窄的读者所看到 的单词要少得多,如果再经常复视,读速肯定快不了。 我们阅读时应该特别注意词的整体性, 要把注意力放在句子中较大的单位上, 而不要放 在一个个孤立的单词上。例如,下面的句子可以分成三个 ...

英语

   Could 'Japanglish' be a legitimate language " "We wish all the time to be able to provide you fresh bread and to propose you a joy of eating life with bread," says the sign in my local bakery. "Especially, we want to be a host at di ...

英语

   在英语教学中重视文化教育 浙江省湖州中学弁山校区英语组 姜海礁 [摘 要] 语言和文化有着密不可分的内在联系,英语文化的学习是英语课程的一个重要 组成部分。学习英语的过程就是对英语国家文化知识了解和掌握的过程,掌握英语必须跨 越英汉两种语言文化, 才能进行得体的交际, 所以教师在教学中必须重视英语文化的导入。 [关键词] 素质教育 文化教学 关键词] 跨文化交际 一、问题的提出 语言是文化的载体,是文化的主要表现形式,语言的本质差异就是文化差异。语言是 随着民族的发展而发展的, 它是社会民族 ...

英语

   5.写作 新增的作文是一篇 100 字左右的应用性短文,文体包括有信件、便笺、备忘录等。满 分 10 分。其实,2003 和 2004 年的大纲都强调了要会写应用文,如书信、简历摘要和备忘 录, 但同学们在复习中一般不会将其作为重点来抓, 老师讲课的时候也主要以议论和记叙描 述类为主,且历年真题命题情况也是如此。但 10 大纲对写作部分的新要求我们要正视应用 文, 所以同学们平时要注意应用文写作的特定的格式要求, 有意识的掌握各类应用文的写作 方法。按照大纲的要求,要注重写作内容信息点覆盖的 ...

英语

   学号课程号开始退出医院管理 医生编码 毕业院校 最高学历 学生信息年龄 月薪+津贴+奖金-医疗保险-养老保险 字符型(6) 字符型(30) 字符型(10) 实发工资 华中科技大学 外国语学院英语二学位教学计划 [ 作者:wzhw 来源:华中科技大学外国语学院 点击数:638 更新时间:2006-2-11 文章录入: wzhw ] 【字体: 】 课程名称 学时/学分 二下 (2-6 月) 二下暑假 (7 或 8 月) 32 开课时间 三上(9-次年 元月) 32 三下 (2-6 月) 三下暑假 ...

英语

   英语学习方法 ?语言重运用,功到自然成 林语堂学英文要诀 林语堂先生(1895-1976), 现代文学家、翻译家,一生共出 版中文集三种,英文著作36种。 他从中国人学习英语的实际出发, 提出了一系列的英语教学方法和 英语学习方法,至今仍然值得我 们借鉴。 林语堂学英文要诀 " 一、学英文时须学全句,勿专念单字。学 时须把全句语法、语音及腔调整个读出 来。 " 二、学时不可以识字为足。识之必然兼用 之。凡遇新字,必至少学得该字之一种正 确用法。以后见有多种用法,便多记住。 " 三、识字不可 ...

热门内容

新概念英语必背文章

   Archaeology Archaeology is a source of history, not just a bumble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts, Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist ...

英语中常见的缩写

   常用缩写 1. AAA :1). American Accounting Association 美国会计协会 3). American Arbitration Association 美国商务仲裁协会 2. AAL:American Airlines 美国航空公司 11. AGM:annual general meeting(公司股东)年度大会 2). American Advertising Association 美国广告协会 3. A.B.C.C.:Association of Br ...

全国小学英语课堂教学优秀案例教案

   HOME 全国小学英语课堂教学优秀案例一等奖(课堂实录) 安徽 王磊 一,Warm?up 1,Have a great T: Hello! Boys and girls, I'm glad to meet you here. At first I'll introduce myself. My first name is Wang, so you can call me Mr . Ss: Wang. T: Ok. Now please show me a hand and say hello ...

德州扑克英语词汇词典

   德州扑克英语词汇词典 Aces Full 满堂红,是三张 A 带一个其他对子。 Ace-High 五张散牌,带一张 A。 Aces Up 有两个对子,大对子是一对 A。 Act 试图给别人假象的玩法。比如明明自己是一付同花,却假装是一对 A 地玩法,试图诱骗那些牌在两者之间 的对手上当。 Action 指包括看注/下注/跟注的各种行动。有时候,"action"游戏被用来指玩家反复下注跟注而导致底池巨大的 情况。 Active Player 还没有封牌的玩家。 Aggres ...

英语词典 B

   background backward bacterium badge badminton bag baggage bait bake balance balcony bald ball ballet balloon ballot band bandage bang bank bankrupt banner banquet bar barbecue barber bare barely bargain bark barn barrel barren barrier baseball base ...