English Language Teaching Methodology (Part
  1) 英语教学法
Anqin TV University
Produced by Xuan Sheng-li
1
Objectives
You`re respected to have :
reflected up how and why you are teaching English; reflected up how and why your students are learning English; understood the main trends in the recent history of English language teaching; mastered some fundamental concepts and theories of language learning and teaching; understood the beliefs upon which the methodology you are using is based; reflected up your own development as a teacher. 2
Concepts of language and implications

  1) Language is a system of structures: structural learning, formal instruction of grammatical structures
  2) Language is a means of communication: instruction focused on the functions and notions of language; learning through using
  3) Language is the reflection of cultures: instruction on cultures and focus on appropriateness of speech
  4) Language is the reflection of human thought process: learning is the thought-provoking process; to improve cognition of learners
  5) Language is performance: application of authentic materials ; learning language as it is used
  6) Language is full of varieties: instruction of dialects, register, gender, discourse to improve the 3 appropriateness of language use.
Characteristics of learning

  1) learning is goal-oriented
  2) learning is needs-motivated
  3) learning is strategic
  4) learning is both explicit and implicit
  5) learning is contextualized
  6) learning is rule-governed
  7) learning is directed
  8) learning is interactive
4
Objectives of teaching and learning

  1) develop linguistic competence
  2) develop communicative competence
  3) develop discourse competence
  4) develop learning competence to promote learner`s autonomy
  5) develop test-tackling competence
5
Unit 1 Introduction
Activity 1 Learning and Teaching English in China Activity 2 Developments in English Language
Teaching Methodology
Activity 3 About Language Activity 4 Course Design Activity 5 Your Own Development as a
Teacher
6
Activity 1 Learning and Teaching English in China
Part 1: Why are our children Learning English? Language is a means of communication with other people. Chinese schoolchildren English because…
7

  1. The Ministry of Education insists, so they have to pass exams in it.
  2. It’s necessary if they want to enter university.
  3. One can’t succeed in China these days without proficiency in English.
  4. It gives them greater access to scholarships abroad.
  5. Once they are professionals, they need English to keep in touch with what is going on in their profession world- wide.
  6. If they eventually get a better job in trade, in tourism or education, English will be very important to them.
  7. So that they can help foreign visitors in their district.
  8. Learning a language is an intellectual challenge, so English is learnt in order to train certain intellectual 8 skills.

  9. Computers are used more commonly these days, and
if you have English you can more easily extend your use of computers.
  10. In a few years nearly all Chinese people will be able to travel abroad, so English will be useful for that purpose.
  11. Master of English gives them access to more information and can improve their knowledge of the world.
  12. They might even have the opportunity to study abroad.
  13. They might see learning English as a means to progress educationally and move out of their local community, or bring trade into it.
  14.They might learn English for enjoyment: for reading books, newspapers, and magazines in their local library; for listening to English-medium radio or pop 9 songs; or for watching films or TV program in English.
Activity 2 Developments in English Language Teaching Methodology
Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Part 5: Part 6: Part 7: The Grammar Translation Method A Functional-Notional Approach Total Physical Response (TPR) Community Language Learning Suggestopedia the Audio ?lingual Method the Natural Order
10
Part 1 The Grammar Translation Method
A: How did it come about: Language teaching was first formalized in the west for the teaching of Ancient Greek and Latin. It was considered important for well-educated students to learn these classical languages in order to understand the bases upon which western democratic society was founded; In order to truly understand the writings of the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers it was considered that they had to be read in the original. They would lose something essential if read in translations.
11
B: The general method used in the classroom:
  1. The text would be the basis of the lesson.
  2. The syllabus was designed around grammatical structures. Its vocabulary were drawn out and explained in the mother tongue.
  3. Some practice was done with translation sentences containing these structures and words.
  4. The text would be read aloud sentence by sentence and each one would be translated.
  5. The students would normally be tested by having to perform translations. It’s a language teaching method based on the study of texts in the target language, which have to be explained and analyzed in the mother tongue and then translated.
12
Part 2 A Functional-Notional Approach
A: How did it come about?
The formation of the European Union, as it is now called, had a great effect on encouraging. The citizens of Europe study each other’s language in a very practical way so that they would be able to live and work in each other’s countries. The main aim would be on communication, which would include all four language skills, and there was a common language syllabus drawn up for all European language, described in notions and functions.
13
B:
What is the functional?notional syllabus?(p
  11) The language taught would be described in only grammatical forms but also topics, situations, functions (things you do with the language)
14
Example one: The same expression has different forms and is addressed people differently. In English they might be:
  1. Tom , open the door for me .(your child )
  2. Sir ,do you think we could have the door open please ? (your teacher)
  3. Excuse me, would you mind opening the door? (a strange on a train or some place)
  4. Betty ,could you open the door please ? (your 15 friend)
Example two: Similarly one form can have many functions. The expression “Is there any more coffee?” has the following functions:
  1. “May I have some more, please.” (you’re the guest )
  2. “Shall I make some more?” (you’re the host )
  3. “Do I need to buy more (you ask your husband /wife if you need buy more tea )
  4. “I want to buy some more” (you‘re in the shop and ask the shopkeeper if there any more.)
16
The Humanist Approach /School
(Total Physical Response; Community Language Learning)
The humanistic methods arose in the 70s in particular in North America and in Europe, which were concerned with treating not just as a student in the classrooms, but a human being with feelings and emotions . They aimed to lower the inhibitions of the language learner. They gave the students the situation, in which they feel completely at ease, relaxed, happy and not worried by any errors they might produce .The emphasis is on acceptance and encouragement . 17
Part 3 Total Physical Response (TPR) (by James Asher)
In the method, you only have to listen and act on commands in the foreign language until you feel comfortable enough to give the commands to sb.. Advantages to others : This combinations of language use and action responses is meant to combine both hemispheres of the brain and so help the learner to memorize the language better . Disadvantages: The teacher cannot teach the complexities of a language only by a means of giving and responding to instructions. It seems to be more 18 suited to young learner than adults.
Part 4 Community Language Learning (by Charles A. Curran)
In this method, students sit around a table with in comfortable chairs and with a tape-recorder in the middle. When a students wants to say something, he whispers it in his mother tongue to the teacher who is standing behind him, who then translates it into the target language and the students repeats that while it is being recorded on a tape. With the help of teacher , students can convey more information in English . At the end of this students created discussion, the tape is replaced and the tape script is worked on in the lesson. The text is totally controlled and created by the 19 students.
Advantage: Students learn to say exactly what they want to say. They choose the topic and talk about what interests them . This keeps them motivated and interested in the lesson . Disadvantage: Students may want to say things way above level of proficiency in the language, so the teacher sometime has to simplify what they say. It is not suitable to use with a very big class but with small groups who want to learn the language for their own interest.
20
Part 5 Suggestopedia: (Georgi Lozanov)
Comfort of the classroom, the learning environment: The lights are soft, the chairs are comfortable, there is soothing music playing in the background, texts are read to the students gently by the teacher, while they have their eyes closed and use their imagination to bring the text to life. Finally the texts are given to the students with a parallel translation in their mother tongue and they work through it asking the teacher questions about things they don’t understand in 21 it.
Advantage: It’s the attention paid to the comfort of the students and the pleasant of the classroom. The translations of the texts help the learners make sure he has gained the full meaning of the text. It means to develop the students conversational competence in double quick time. Principally speaking, the aim of teaching is not memorized but solve the problems understandingly and creatively. Disadvantage: It is not practicable in normal 22 state-run schools.
Part 6 the Audio?lingual Method :
The Audio?lingual Method involved giving the learner stimuli in the form of prompts, and praising the correct response or punishing an incorrect response, until the right one was given. Behaviorist psychology was the basis of it.
23
Part 7 the Natural Order
The Natural Order, as defined by Krashen, consists of Listening to a great deal of meaning language input, then Speaking, then Reading to a great deal of meaningful input, which is formally taught, and finally Writing. It’s based on first language all question. It was based on first language acquisition, as having a silent period while the learner listened to the language in meaningful situations, followed by a period when the learner uttered words and phrases in the language. The learner` listening skills developed first, and so eventually his speaking skills would follow.
24
An Eclectic Approach
It means there is not really one method that is used, but teachers take what they think is useful and important from different methods. Or: Teachers often tend to adopt parts of certain approaches, methods, or techniques that they feel would suit the interests and needs of their classes. Eclectic means “a bit of everything” or methods choosing, accepting freely from various sources.
25
Activity 3 About Language
Part 1: Social Aspects of Language Part 2: Parallels Between First And Second Language Learning A. Language acquisition B. Language learning C. the generative?transformational grammar D. Differences between language system
26
Part 1 Social Aspects of Language
A: Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society , including the social functions language fulfils in a society. The teaching language would be the application of Sociolinguistics to foreign language teaching. It covers the social situations in which language is used and the effect it might have .
27
B: Applied Linguistics: Research done in Applied Linguistics in the 1950s?1970s made it clear that it was not enough to know only the grammatical forms of the language, and that the user of a language also needed to know whom to use them with and in which situations. These are matters of politeness and familiarity. (using the expressions appropriate to the situation) Dell Hymes added the terms “communicative competence” to the language of it, to show that “linguistics competence (knowledge of the language systems and forms) was not enough if we wanted to be able to use a language appropriately, He also stressed that appropriacy was as important as accuracy in language use . 28
Part 2 Parallels Between First and Second Language Learning
A . Language acquisition is defined as gaining use of language without consciously and formally learning, such as the way babies acquire their mother tongue. B . Language learning involves putting conscious effort into it, rather than just absorbing it / It requires some formal training and conscious effort.
29
Comparison of features of acquisition and learning
Items Process Learning Conscious Acquisition unconscious/subconsciou s meaning natural fluency
30
Focus Input Emphasis Setting
Forms Selected Accuracy
formal/controlled informal/natural
C. Advantages and disadvantages between learning the first and second language
Advantages: One already has a knowledge system when one learns the second language and so can draw similarities and differences between the two. The second language learner has the advantage of knowing one language thinking in th
 

相关内容

大学英语教学法论文

   大学英语教学法论文: 大学英语教学法论文:基于交互式教学法的大学英语听力教学 【摘要】 如何在听力课堂上增强听力教学的交互性,从而改变教学的单一现状,激发学生 学习兴趣,调动学生学习热情,使每一节听力课都能真正收到良好的教学效果。 【关键词】大学英语听力;交互式语言教学;交互式听力教学 0 引长期以来,大学英语听力教学模式都是以教师为中心,教师的“一言课堂”的传统 教学模式。在这样的教学模式中,教师成为教学的主体,学生基本处于被动状态,师生之间 缺乏感情沟通和知识信息的交流,课堂气氛枯燥,学 ...

论商务英语教学中案例教学法的运用

   外语教学研究 论商务英语教学中案例教学法的运用 宋晓漓 摘要:作为专门用途英语的一个分支,商务英语是一门实践性很强的学科,其教学目的是培养学生用英语从事国际商务 交际活动,但是传统的课堂授课法在实践性方面有一定的局限性。本文基于笔者商务英语的教学实践,对案例教学的特征, 案例教学在商务英语中的适用性,在商务英语课程中的基本环节以及案例教学的局限性做了探析。 关键词:实践性;商务英语教学;案例教学 ,作者简介:宋晓漓(1981一),女,四川雅安人,华北电力大学外国语学院,讲师,主要研究方向:商 ...

_翻i圣教学法在大学英语教学巾的应用 的

   高中英语教学中的 高中英语教学中的翻译教学实践初探 上海市青浦高级中学 2010-9 [摘要] 培养高中生的语言应用能力是高中英语教学的首要任务, 也是时代发展的必 然要求。 伴随着各种新教学法的应用, 传统的翻译法受到强烈的冲击, 几经沉浮。 21 世纪应用语言学和翻译学理论不断发展,人们开始重新审视翻译教学法。高 考英语中句子翻译的在总卷分数中占到 20 分,这说明了翻译作为写作能力的基 础体现,越来越受到关注。证明在高中英语教学中有效的使用翻译教学法,能促 进高中学生写作技能的提高。 ...

翻i圣教考学法在大学英语教学巾的应用 试

   高中英语教学中的 高中英语教学中的翻译教学实践初探 上海市青浦高级中学 2010-9 [摘要] 培养高中生的语言应用能力是高中英语教学的首要任务, 也是时代发展的必 然要求。 伴随着各种新教学法的应用, 传统的翻译法受到强烈的冲击, 几经沉浮。 21 世纪应用语言学和翻译学理论不断发展,人们开始重新审视翻译教学法。高 考英语中句子翻译的在总卷分数中占到 20 分,这说明了翻译作为写作能力的基 础体现,越来越受到关注。证明在高中英语教学中有效的使用翻译教学法,能促 进高中学生写作技能的提高。 ...

英语教学

   一、“情景教学、让学生如亲临其境” 今天听了五年级的一节新授课。 教师站在讲台上,一副信心十足的样子,让我预测到这节课的成功率很高,果然不出 所料。这位老师克服了她以往的弱点,而且整节课无论是设计,还是实施操作,都让我感到她的 进步。摘录两点最成功的做法并予以点评: 这节课主要解决的学习重点是:“what country does he/she come from? he/she comes from.... what language does he/she speak? he/she s ...

英语教学

   小学英语课堂小游戏 1、“碰地雷”:在英语单词教学中,学生不太愿意跟读。用此法不错。在一个词下放一个地雷, 这 碰地雷” 在英语单词教学中,学生不太愿意跟读。用此法不错。在一个词下放一个地雷, 个词是不能读的,如果学生不小心跟读,就是踩到雷了。 three,bomb,向他砸过 个词是不能读的,如果学生不小心跟读,就是踩到雷了。大家一起数 one two three,bomb,向他砸过 去!有趣,气氛也好,学生在玩中也学得扎实! 有趣,气氛也好,学生在玩中也学得扎实! 2、补全句子:在学习句中 ...

英语教学案例

   英语教学案例 一.教学设计理念: 教学设计理念: 1、运用任务型语言教学模式,训练培养学生对语言的综合运用能力,教学进度整体把握, 、运用任务型语言教学模式,训练培养学生对语言的综合运用能力,教学进度整体把握, 教学形式不拘一格。 教学形式不拘一格。 2、课堂以学生为主体,以任务为主线,重视体验参与,教师起到“设计者、研究者、促 、课堂以学生为主体,以任务为主线,重视体验参与,教师起到 设计者 研究者、 设计者、 进者、协调者 的作用 正视个体差异,倡导过程激励,以多层次、多角度、 的作用, ...

英语教学叙事

   英语教学叙事 一次英语课上,我让学生介绍自己的日常生活和习惯。教授 get up, go to school, go to bed, play football, go home 等短语时, 我常会使用一些肢体语言来帮助学生理解,但是 have breakfast, have lunch, have dinner 这几个短语却让我有些犯难。 经过几番思考,我灵机一动,迅速在黑板上画出一条鱼,指着图 问学生: “这是早餐、午餐、还是晚餐?” “午餐。 ”学生们回答。接 着,我问道: “Why? ...

小学英语教学法

   小学英语教学法 一 年幼的语言学习者 二 教学方法与语言技能 三 资源世界 四 教师的管理技能 五 教师个人与专业发展 思考题 1 小学生学习英语有哪些心理特点? 2 在英语学习过程中,小学生具有哪些有利条件? 3 什么是学习风格?有哪几种? 4 小学生的基本学习策略有哪些? 5 小学英语教育的文化目标是什么? 6 你对年龄对英语学习的影响的看法是什么? 7 如何高效地进行小学英语教学?你的看法? 8 一个好的英语教师的品质是什么?(What is the quality of a good ...

大学英语教学改革

   大学英语教学改革 《大学英语精读》课程建 大学英语精读》 设情况介绍 目 录 一,大学英语教学改革的总原则 大学英语" 二,大学英语"1515"教改模式 教改模式 三,大学英语精读课程改革的总体思路 四,大学英语精读课程教学的特色 五,大学英语精读课教学任务设计的原则 大学英语精读课教学任务设计的原则 大学英语精读课"任务型 任务型" 六,大学英语精读课 任务型"教学模式及其实施步骤 七,大学英语精读课教学实验的具体安排 八,大学英 ...

热门内容

第一个月复习计划??英语四级

   第一个月复习计划 一、 先是背单词, 因为基础不好, 对英语的理解力差, 单词量就很重要。 我当时用的书是 《淘 金式分频词汇 4 级分册》,这本书的好处是,频率出现最高的单词会排在最前面,按照四 级考试中出现的频率高低依次往后排,这样你就能从最重要的单词背起。我每天背几个 LESSON,第二天再把前一天背的复习一遍,再背新的 LESSON,第三天把前两天的复习 一遍,然后再背第三天要背的,单词能尽快背完最好,每天背几个 LESSON 的单词根据你 自己的情况安排。总体来讲,一个月之内最好背 ...

英语自我介绍

   Mature, dynamic and honest.思想成熟、精明能干、为人诚实。 Excellent ability of systematical management.有极强的系统管理能力。 Ability to work independent1y, mature and resourceful. 能够独立工作、 思想成熟、应变能力强。 A person with ability plus flexibility should apply. 需要有能力及适应 力强的人。 A sta ...

大学英语听力教学中的语音学研究

   解 放 军外 语 学院 学 报 年第 期 总第 期 大 学 英 语 听 力 教 学 中 的语 音 学 研 究 林祖安 “ 听的 能 力 是 衡 量 一 个 人英 语素 质的最 基本 条件 之一 。 。 ” , 这 个 观 点 已 为越 来 越 多 的 英 , 语 工 作 者所 接 受 提 高 听 的 能 力 以 全 面 提高 学 生 的 英 语 水 平 众所 周知 即 , 亦 已 成 为 当代 英 语 教 学 工 “ 作 者努 力 探求 的方 向 从 语 言 学 的基 本 理 论 来说 双渠 ...

小学四年级英语教案科普版

   杨季光 吴 盈 祝剑国 聂奕凡 吴龙文 曾海通 丁文杰 祝思琪 周 莉 吴 兰 章智超 汤海 戈洁杰 吴文潇 祝佳卫 刘燕红 邓 阳 杨罗兰 戴家旺 周 维 邹鸿辉 祝文聪 吴 忌 许 卿 戴勇旺 洪 阳 祝志龙 祝佳平 戈宋琴 马 婷 姜燕 章 闽 吕志兵 程 妍 华丽莎 ...

英语句型2

   1 Do I have to make a reconfirmation? 我还要再确认吗? 2 Is there any earlier one? 还有更早一点的吗? 3 Could you tell me my reservation number, please? 请你告诉我我的预订号码好吗? 4 Can I get a seat for todays 7:00 a.m. train? 我可以买到今天上午 7 点的火车座位吗? 5 Could you change my flight ...