English Language Teaching Methodology (Part
  1) 英语教学法
Anqin TV University
Produced by Xuan Sheng-li
1
Objectives
You`re respected to have :
reflected up how and why you are teaching English; reflected up how and why your students are learning English; understood the main trends in the recent history of English language teaching; mastered some fundamental concepts and theories of language learning and teaching; understood the beliefs upon which the methodology you are using is based; reflected up your own development as a teacher. 2
Concepts of language and implications

  1) Language is a system of structures: structural learning, formal instruction of grammatical structures
  2) Language is a means of communication: instruction focused on the functions and notions of language; learning through using
  3) Language is the reflection of cultures: instruction on cultures and focus on appropriateness of speech
  4) Language is the reflection of human thought process: learning is the thought-provoking process; to improve cognition of learners
  5) Language is performance: application of authentic materials ; learning language as it is used
  6) Language is full of varieties: instruction of dialects, register, gender, discourse to improve the 3 appropriateness of language use.
Characteristics of learning

  1) learning is goal-oriented
  2) learning is needs-motivated
  3) learning is strategic
  4) learning is both explicit and implicit
  5) learning is contextualized
  6) learning is rule-governed
  7) learning is directed
  8) learning is interactive
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Objectives of teaching and learning

  1) develop linguistic competence
  2) develop communicative competence
  3) develop discourse competence
  4) develop learning competence to promote learner`s autonomy
  5) develop test-tackling competence
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Unit 1 Introduction
Activity 1 Learning and Teaching English in China Activity 2 Developments in English Language
Teaching Methodology
Activity 3 About Language Activity 4 Course Design Activity 5 Your Own Development as a
Teacher
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Activity 1 Learning and Teaching English in China
Part 1: Why are our children Learning English? Language is a means of communication with other people. Chinese schoolchildren English because…
7

  1. The Ministry of Education insists, so they have to pass exams in it.
  2. It’s necessary if they want to enter university.
  3. One can’t succeed in China these days without proficiency in English.
  4. It gives them greater access to scholarships abroad.
  5. Once they are professionals, they need English to keep in touch with what is going on in their profession world- wide.
  6. If they eventually get a better job in trade, in tourism or education, English will be very important to them.
  7. So that they can help foreign visitors in their district.
  8. Learning a language is an intellectual challenge, so English is learnt in order to train certain intellectual 8 skills.

  9. Computers are used more commonly these days, and
if you have English you can more easily extend your use of computers.
  10. In a few years nearly all Chinese people will be able to travel abroad, so English will be useful for that purpose.
  11. Master of English gives them access to more information and can improve their knowledge of the world.
  12. They might even have the opportunity to study abroad.
  13. They might see learning English as a means to progress educationally and move out of their local community, or bring trade into it.
  14.They might learn English for enjoyment: for reading books, newspapers, and magazines in their local library; for listening to English-medium radio or pop 9 songs; or for watching films or TV program in English.
Activity 2 Developments in English Language Teaching Methodology
Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Part 5: Part 6: Part 7: The Grammar Translation Method A Functional-Notional Approach Total Physical Response (TPR) Community Language Learning Suggestopedia the Audio ?lingual Method the Natural Order
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Part 1 The Grammar Translation Method
A: How did it come about: Language teaching was first formalized in the west for the teaching of Ancient Greek and Latin. It was considered important for well-educated students to learn these classical languages in order to understand the bases upon which western democratic society was founded; In order to truly understand the writings of the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers it was considered that they had to be read in the original. They would lose something essential if read in translations.
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B: The general method used in the classroom:
  1. The text would be the basis of the lesson.
  2. The syllabus was designed around grammatical structures. Its vocabulary were drawn out and explained in the mother tongue.
  3. Some practice was done with translation sentences containing these structures and words.
  4. The text would be read aloud sentence by sentence and each one would be translated.
  5. The students would normally be tested by having to perform translations. It’s a language teaching method based on the study of texts in the target language, which have to be explained and analyzed in the mother tongue and then translated.
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Part 2 A Functional-Notional Approach
A: How did it come about?
The formation of the European Union, as it is now called, had a great effect on encouraging. The citizens of Europe study each other’s language in a very practical way so that they would be able to live and work in each other’s countries. The main aim would be on communication, which would include all four language skills, and there was a common language syllabus drawn up for all European language, described in notions and functions.
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B:
What is the functional?notional syllabus?(p
  11) The language taught would be described in only grammatical forms but also topics, situations, functions (things you do with the language)
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Example one: The same expression has different forms and is addressed people differently. In English they might be:
  1. Tom , open the door for me .(your child )
  2. Sir ,do you think we could have the door open please ? (your teacher)
  3. Excuse me, would you mind opening the door? (a strange on a train or some place)
  4. Betty ,could you open the door please ? (your 15 friend)
Example two: Similarly one form can have many functions. The expression “Is there any more coffee?” has the following functions:
  1. “May I have some more, please.” (you’re the guest )
  2. “Shall I make some more?” (you’re the host )
  3. “Do I need to buy more (you ask your husband /wife if you need buy more tea )
  4. “I want to buy some more” (you‘re in the shop and ask the shopkeeper if there any more.)
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The Humanist Approach /School
(Total Physical Response; Community Language Learning)
The humanistic methods arose in the 70s in particular in North America and in Europe, which were concerned with treating not just as a student in the classrooms, but a human being with feelings and emotions . They aimed to lower the inhibitions of the language learner. They gave the students the situation, in which they feel completely at ease, relaxed, happy and not worried by any errors they might produce .The emphasis is on acceptance and encouragement . 17
Part 3 Total Physical Response (TPR) (by James Asher)
In the method, you only have to listen and act on commands in the foreign language until you feel comfortable enough to give the commands to sb.. Advantages to others : This combinations of language use and action responses is meant to combine both hemispheres of the brain and so help the learner to memorize the language better . Disadvantages: The teacher cannot teach the complexities of a language only by a means of giving and responding to instructions. It seems to be more 18 suited to young learner than adults.
Part 4 Community Language Learning (by Charles A. Curran)
In this method, students sit around a table with in comfortable chairs and with a tape-recorder in the middle. When a students wants to say something, he whispers it in his mother tongue to the teacher who is standing behind him, who then translates it into the target language and the students repeats that while it is being recorded on a tape. With the help of teacher , students can convey more information in English . At the end of this students created discussion, the tape is replaced and the tape script is worked on in the lesson. The text is totally controlled and created by the 19 students.
Advantage: Students learn to say exactly what they want to say. They choose the topic and talk about what interests them . This keeps them motivated and interested in the lesson . Disadvantage: Students may want to say things way above level of proficiency in the language, so the teacher sometime has to simplify what they say. It is not suitable to use with a very big class but with small groups who want to learn the language for their own interest.
20
Part 5 Suggestopedia: (Georgi Lozanov)
Comfort of the classroom, the learning environment: The lights are soft, the chairs are comfortable, there is soothing music playing in the background, texts are read to the students gently by the teacher, while they have their eyes closed and use their imagination to bring the text to life. Finally the texts are given to the students with a parallel translation in their mother tongue and they work through it asking the teacher questions about things they don’t understand in 21 it.
Advantage: It’s the attention paid to the comfort of the students and the pleasant of the classroom. The translations of the texts help the learners make sure he has gained the full meaning of the text. It means to develop the students conversational competence in double quick time. Principally speaking, the aim of teaching is not memorized but solve the problems understandingly and creatively. Disadvantage: It is not practicable in normal 22 state-run schools.
Part 6 the Audio?lingual Method :
The Audio?lingual Method involved giving the learner stimuli in the form of prompts, and praising the correct response or punishing an incorrect response, until the right one was given. Behaviorist psychology was the basis of it.
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Part 7 the Natural Order
The Natural Order, as defined by Krashen, consists of Listening to a great deal of meaning language input, then Speaking, then Reading to a great deal of meaningful input, which is formally taught, and finally Writing. It’s based on first language all question. It was based on first language acquisition, as having a silent period while the learner listened to the language in meaningful situations, followed by a period when the learner uttered words and phrases in the language. The learner` listening skills developed first, and so eventually his speaking skills would follow.
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An Eclectic Approach
It means there is not really one method that is used, but teachers take what they think is useful and important from different methods. Or: Teachers often tend to adopt parts of certain approaches, methods, or techniques that they feel would suit the interests and needs of their classes. Eclectic means “a bit of everything” or methods choosing, accepting freely from various sources.
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Activity 3 About Language
Part 1: Social Aspects of Language Part 2: Parallels Between First And Second Language Learning A. Language acquisition B. Language learning C. the generative?transformational grammar D. Differences between language system
26
Part 1 Social Aspects of Language
A: Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society , including the social functions language fulfils in a society. The teaching language would be the application of Sociolinguistics to foreign language teaching. It covers the social situations in which language is used and the effect it might have .
27
B: Applied Linguistics: Research done in Applied Linguistics in the 1950s?1970s made it clear that it was not enough to know only the grammatical forms of the language, and that the user of a language also needed to know whom to use them with and in which situations. These are matters of politeness and familiarity. (using the expressions appropriate to the situation) Dell Hymes added the terms “communicative competence” to the language of it, to show that “linguistics competence (knowledge of the language systems and forms) was not enough if we wanted to be able to use a language appropriately, He also stressed that appropriacy was as important as accuracy in language use . 28
Part 2 Parallels Between First and Second Language Learning
A . Language acquisition is defined as gaining use of language without consciously and formally learning, such as the way babies acquire their mother tongue. B . Language learning involves putting conscious effort into it, rather than just absorbing it / It requires some formal training and conscious effort.
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Comparison of features of acquisition and learning
Items Process Learning Conscious Acquisition unconscious/subconsciou s meaning natural fluency
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Focus Input Emphasis Setting
Forms Selected Accuracy
formal/controlled informal/natural
C. Advantages and disadvantages between learning the first and second language
Advantages: One already has a knowledge system when one learns the second language and so can draw similarities and differences between the two. The second language learner has the advantage of knowing one language thinking in th
 

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