English Teaching Methodology
Week 1 Language and language learning
Learning objectives
Know three views of language Understand four theories about language learning and their differences Identify the qualities of a good language teacher Comprehend three stages of becoming a good language teacher
Outline
Views on language Views on language learning What makes a good language teacher How can one become a good language teacher
Discussion:
What is language?
Views on language
Structural view Functional view Interactional view
The structural view
Language is a linguistic system made up of various subsystems. It is a system of structures, which involves structural learning, formal instruction of grammatical structures.
The structural view
System of Language
Sounds (Phonology)
Words (morphology)
Grammar (syntax)
3 sub-systems
The functional view
It sees language as a linguistic system but also a means for doing things (i.e. communication) Instruction focuses on the functions and notions of language; learning through using.
Functions
Suggestion Advising Offering Apologizing Complaining Threatening
Notions
Time Space …
The interactional view
Language is the reflection of cultures, a communicative tool to build up and maintain social relations between people Instruction on cultures and focus on appropriateness of speech.
Questions:
How is language learned? What are the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning?
Views on learning
Behaviorist theory Cognitive theory Constructivist theory Socio-constructivist theory
Views on language learning(
  1)
Behaviorist theory: Learning is a process of habit formation and conditioning.
Positive Stimulus Response Reinforcement Negative
Skinner Language teaching in USA: The AudioLingual Method (the “listen-and-repeat” drilling activities). Mistakes were immediately corrected.
Views on language learning(
  1)
The importance of environment
Environment Organism
Views on language learning(
  2)
Cognitive (Mentalist) theory: Language is not a form of behaviour. It is rule-based system and learning is a creative process in which Ss are asked to think rather than simply repeat. Emphasizes mind consciousness. Chomsky (1928-, American linguist)
Views on language learning(
  2)
The importance of organism
Environment Organism
The impact of Chomsky’s theory on language teaching
Cognitive code approach: based on the belief that language learning is a process which involves active mental processes and not simply the forming of habits. It gives importance to the learner’s active part in the process of using and learning rules. Although it has not led to any particular method of language teaching, the Communicative Approach makes some use of cognitive code principles. (Richards, et al. 2000:
  74)
Views on language learning(
  3)
Constructivist theory: Learning is a process in which the learner constructs meaning based oh his/her own experiences and what he/she already knows. John Dewey (1859-1952, America) Teaching should be built based on what learners already knew and engage learners in learning activities.
Views on language learning(
  4)
Socio-constructivist theory ? Emphasizes interaction & engagement with the TL in a social context based on Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
?
教学必须要考虑学习者已达到的水平并要走在学习者发展的前面, 为此就要确定学习者的发展水平。学习者发展有两种水平:一是 现有的发展水平,二是在有指导的情况下借助外界的帮助可以达 到的解决问题的水平,或是借助于他人的启发帮助可以达到的较 高水平。这两者之间的差距,即学习者现有水平与经过他人帮助 可以达到的较高水平之间的差距,就是“最近发展区”或称为 “邻近发展区”,而有效的学习应该是在学习过程中,让学习者 始终保持在“最近发展区”中活动。
? Learning is best achieved through the
dynamic interaction btwn the T & the learner & btwn learners. Vygostsky (Soviet, 1896?19
  34)
Views Behaviorist theory Skinner Cognitive theory Chomsky Constructivi st theory Dewey Learning : process of habit formation & conditioning.
How Ss learn language Language is learned by repetition and the reinforcement of the T
Learning : creative process , Ss: allow to create their Ss are asked to think own sentences based on their understanding of certain rules. Learning : process in which the learner constructs meaning based oh his/her own experiences and what he/she already knows Emphasizes interaction & engagement with the TL in a social context based on Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Teaching should be built based on what learners already knew and engage learners in learning activities. Learning is best achieved through the dynamic interaction between the T & the learner & between learners.
Socioconstructivis t theory Vygotsky
Discussion:
What is a teacher? What is teaching? What is learning ? What makes a good language teacher? How can one become a good language teacher?
What is a teacher?
Three people in a group, one must be my teacher. My teacher for a day is a partner for a lifetime. A teacher is the one who teaches the students morally, intellectually and dispels their doubts. Freaks, stinking number nines Engineers of soul, candles, sculptors The learned make teachers, the upright set standards.
A teacher is a guide, a facilitator.
What is teaching?
A strict teacher produces talented students. Ten years to grow a tree, a hundred years to educate a man. Professors, professors, the more they profess the thinner they get.
Teaching is to facilitate learning.
What is learning?
The master leads the learner to the door, but attainment depends on the learner’s own efforts. Live and learn. Learning without reflecting is like eating without digesting. Learning without reflecting gains nothing, thought without learning is dangerous.(学而不思则
罔,思而不学则殆) 思而不学则殆)
Learning is to construct meaning.
What makes a good language teacher?
kind, dynamic, authoritative, speaking clearly, creative, patient, well-informed, hardworking, resourceful, attentive, warm-hearted wellprepared, flexible, intuitive, accurate, enthusiastic, humourous, caring, disciplined, professionally-trained (p.
  8) Ethic devotion Professional quality Personal style
Parrot 1993
What makes a good language teacher?
A. Ethic devotion & personal styles (做人) 做人) 做人 B. Professional qualities(做学问) (做学问)
--English knowledge: language, culture
--Knowledge about linguistics, methodology pedagogy, psychology --Knowledge about technology --Ability for researching & reflection C. Physical fitness (?)
The importance of teacher quality
联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)曾对 曾对 联合国教科文组织 外语教学质量提出了“ 外语教学质量提出了“5个因素和 个公式” 1个公式”:
教学质量(? )=[学生 学生( )+教 教学质量 ?分)=[学生(1分)+教 )+环境 环境( )+教法 教法( 材(2分)+环境(4分)+教法(3 )]×教师素质(?) 分)]×教师素质(?)
How can one become a good language teacher?

  5. Expert teacher = master teacher
  4. Proficient teacher
  3. Competent teacher
  2. Beginning teacher
  1. Student teacher
How can one become a good language teacher?
Summary of Unit 1
? Views on language ? The structural view, the functional view, and the interactional view ? Views on language learning ? The Behaviourist theory, the Cognitive theory, the Constructivist theory, and the socio-constructivist theory ? Qualities of a good language teacher ? Ethic devotion, professional quality, and personal style ? The three stages of becoming a good language teacher
Assignment

  1. Read Unit 1, 5, 14 & 16
  2. Preview Unit 3
  3. 上课须知 条 上课须知24条
 

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